# The diagram shows how this artificial heart is fitted inside the body.

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1 Q. The photograph shows one type of artificial heart. The diagram shows how this artificial heart is fitted inside the body. Photo: Diagram: Read the information about this artificial heart. The first patient to receive the heart lived for 5 days before dying from a stroke. The second patient was given less than a 20 % change of surviving 30 days at the time of his surgery. He lived for 52 days after receiving the heart. He died because an internal membrane in the device wore out. Suggest advantages and disadvantages of treating patients with this artificial heart. (Total 5 marks) Page of 3

2 Q2. Sometimes your doctor needs to know how much blood there is in your body. To find this out he first injects a special solution into your blood. Some time later he takes a sample of your blood. He can then see how much the solution has been watered down. (a) Put the letters A, B and C on to the diagram to show in order what the doctor does. (3) Page 2 of 3

3 (2) (Total 5 marks) Q3. As they go higher up a mountain, mountaineers take less oxygen into their bodies with each breath. This is shown in the table below. MILLIGRAMS OF OXYGEN TAKEN INTO LUNGS WITH EACH NORMAL BREATH MILLIGRAMS OF OXYGEN TAKEN INTO BLOOD WITH EACH NORMAL BREATH At bottom of mountain At top of mountain Page 3 of 3

4 (a) At the top of the mountain, they only take half as much oxygen into their lungs with each breath as they did at the bottom. How does this affect the amount of oxygen that gets into their blood with each breath?.. (2) (b) Why do the cells in the mountaineers bodies need oxygen?.. () (Total 3 marks) Q4. Blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. (a) Give the function of platelets.... () The photograph shows a red blood cell. Page 4 of 3

5 (b) The average diameter of a real red blood cell is millimetres. On the photograph, the diameter of the red blood cell is 00 millimetres. Use the formula to calculate the magnification of the photograph. diameter on photograph = real diameter magnification Magnification =... (2) (c) Some blood capillaries have an internal diameter of approximately 0.0 millimetres. Use information given in part (b) to explain why only one red blood cell at a time can pass through a capillary.... () (d) (i) Red blood cells transport oxygen. Explain how oxygen is moved from the lungs to the tissues. (3) (ii) Red blood cells have no nucleus. Explain how this feature is an adaptation to the function of red blood cells. () Page 5 of 3

6 (e) Oxygen is exchanged between the blood capillaries and the tissue. Give two ways in which capillaries are adapted for exchanging oxygen with the tissues (2) (Total 0 marks) Q5. The diagram shows part of the circulatory system. (a) Name the types of blood vessel labelled A, B and C on the diagram. A... B... C... (3) (b) What is the job of the circulatory system? () Page 6 of 3

7 (c) Give two ways in which the composition of blood changes as it flows through the vessels labelled X on the diagram. 2 (2) (Total 6 marks) Q6. The diagram shows four parts of blood. (a) Complete the table to give the name and function of the parts labelled A, B and C. Letter Name Function A B C (6) Page 7 of 3

8 (b) Red blood cells contain haemoglobin. Explain how this enables red blood cells to pick up oxygen from the alveoli and release it to cells in other parts of the body. (4) (Total 0 marks) Q7. Capillaries are blood vessels in the body which join the arteries to the veins. They have walls which are one cell thick and so are able to exchange substances with the body cells. (i) Name two substances that travel from the muscle cells to the blood in the capillaries.. 2. (2) (ii) Glucose is one substance that travels from the blood in the capillaries to the body cells. Explain how this happens.... (2) (Total 4 marks) Page 8 of 3

9 M. advantages useful where no other treatment available / patients near to death or extends lifespan disadvantages low success rate device has limited lifespan or battery will need changing discomfort from heart / battery / controller risk of infection [5] M2. (a) B Inject 0cm 3 of the solution into the blood C A Wait a while for the solution to mix with the blood Measure the strength of the special solution in the blood sample for mark each 3 (b) some of the solution gets into cells/organs/kidney some of the solution gets into urine for mark each either way round 2 [5] Page 9 of 3

10 M3. (a) less / low gains mark but (also) half as much or still one fifth of what s breathed in gains 2 marks 2 (b) for energy / respiration [credit for movement / to keep warm] [Do not allow "to live"] for mark [3] M4. (a) forming clot at site of wound (b) correct answer gains 2 marks if answer incorrect, gains mark ignore any units 2 (c) size of RBC approximately same size as capillary or no room for more than one cell or only one can fit or RBC is too big allow use of numbers do not accept capillaries are narrow (d) (i) in lungs oxygen diffuses (from the alveoli) into the blood in the red blood cell, oxygen combines with haemoglobin, forming oxyhaemoglobin in tissues oxyhaemoglobin splits up, releasing oxygen, which diffuses into the cells (ii) allows cell to have more haemoglobin for oxygen transport Page 0 of 3

11 (e) thin walls for short diffusion path narrow, so have a large surface area to volume ratio [0] M5. (a) A artery B capillary C vein 3 (b) transport OWTTE (c) increased oxygen decreased carbon dioxide 2 [6] M6. (a) A white blood cell/leucocytes / phagocytes / lymphocytes SEPARATE MARKING POINTS make/contain antibodies/antitoxins or destroy/engulf/kill bacteria do not accept fight infection do not accept fight disease B platelets help clot the blood do not accept stick together do not accept from scabs C plasma carries/transports all the cells/digested food/waste products/hormones/carbon dioxide/platelets/dissolved minerals/antibodies/antitoxins/water allows blood to flow Page of 3

12 (b) any four from: (oxygen) diffuses has affinity for/combines with oxygen / forms oxy-haemoglobin do not accept absorbed in areas of high oxygen concentration n.b. pick up oxygen is stem of question in conditions of low oxygen concentration it breaks down and releases the oxygen low oxygen concentration can be implied e.g. active muscles [0] M7. (i) any two from: urea carbon dioxide water lactic acid 2 (ii) higher concentration of glucose or more glucose in blood than cells diffuses across [4] Page 2 of 3

13 Page 3 of 3

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