ENOUGH IS ENOUGH: FOOD IS ENERGY

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1 ENOUGH IS ENOUGH: FOOD IS ENERGY TEACHER HANDBOOK Alabama Course of Study: Science Biology: 13 Trace the flow of energy as it decreases through the trophic levels from producers to the quaternary level in food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids. Bullet 4: Using the ten percent law to explain the decreasing availability of energy through trophic levels. Chemistry: 8- Distinguish among endothermic and exothermic physical and chemical changes. Bullet 1: Calculating temperature change by using specific heat. PURPOSE To determine the energy released (in Cal/g) as various foods, such as cashews, marshmallows, peanuts, and popcorn, burn and look for patterns in the amounts of energy released during burning of the different foods. A calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 o C. It takes 1,000 calories to equal 1 food Calorie. The average number of Calories per gram for the macronutrients are as follows; Protein 4 Cal/g; Fat 9 Cal/g; Carbohydrates 4 Cal/g. Many foods may contain more than one type of macronutrient. TIME One 50 minute class period GROUP SIZE 2-4 students PREPARATION Materials: thermometers can Calorimeter food samples Aluminum foil Ring stand Large clamp Ring Lighter or matches 100 ml graduated cylinder small can balance calculator Hot mitt ENGAGE (PRE-LAB) Option 1- Energy Pyramid Activity- Ter may give the Energy Pyramid handout to students prior to lab or ters may choose to differentiate instruction by assigning only parts of the worksheet. Option 2- SEE Pre-LAB for Food Analysis Page 1 of 8

2 EXPLORE (LAB) Safety Considerations- Be careful when lighting and burning food samples. The ter may wish to light samples for students. Be sure samples are completely finished burning before discarding. If using cheese curls students should only use 1 small cheese curl or ½ of a regular cheese curl as the cheese curls release a large amount of energy when burned. The ter may wish to do a demonstration food first and work through the calculations with students. Troubleshooting- Beginning with water cooled to C gives good results. You can use cashews, marshmallows, peanuts, and ½ cheese curls for this experiment. There are other good choices. Because peanuts and cashew nuts release very large amounts of heat as they burn, you may want to have your students use 100-mL portions of cold water when doing these foods. The ters may provide students with the Sample Data and Calculations from the ter notes as an example. SAMPLE RESULTS DATA TABLE Food type Cashew Mass of empty can g g Mass of can and water g g Initial mass of food and foil g g Final mass of food and foil g g Initial temperature, t C C Final temperature, t C C Page 2 of 8

3 CALCULATIONS TABLE 1. Mass of water heated= g g Mass of can and water Mass of can 2. Temperature change, Δt = t 2 t C g 3. Mass of food burned= 1.25 g g Initial mass of food and foil Final mass of food and foil 4. Heat, q = Cp m Δt (1 cal/g C)(49.38 g)(37.5 C) calories 5. Heat in food Calories = calories 1, Energy content in Cal/g = heat in food Calories mass of food burned 7740 calories 7.74 Cal Calories Calories 7.74 Cal/1.25g = 6.19 Cal/g Cal/g CLASS AVERAGES Marshmallows Cashews ½ Cheese Curl Other: Popcorn 4.2 Cal/g 6.5 Cal/g 5.7 Cal/g 5.0 Cal/g EXPLAIN PROCESSING THE DATA CALCULATIONS: Students may need some explanation concerning the conservation of energy. The heat gained by the water should equal the heat lost by the food sample. 1. Find the mass of water heated for sample. Record this answer in Calculation Table. Mass of water heated = Mass of can and water Mass of can Example Calculation: Mass of water heated = 90.69g 41.31g = 49.38g Page 3 of 8

4 2. Find the change in temperature of the water, t, for sample. Record this answer in Calculation Table. Temperature change (Δt) = final temperature, t 2 initial temperature, t 1 Example Calculation: Temperature change (Δt) = 52.9 C 15.4 C 3. Find the mass (in g) of food sample burned. Mass of food burned = Initial mass of food and holder Final mass of food and holder Record this answer in Calculation Table. Example Calculation: Mass of food sample = g g = 1.25 g 4. Calculate the heat absorbed by the water, q, using the equation q = C p m t where q is heat, C p is the specific heat capacity, m is the mass of water, and t is the change in temperature. For water, C p is 1 cal/g C. Change your final answer to Cal. ** NOTE: 1000 cal = 1 kcal = 1 food Calorie Example Calculation: (1 cal/g C)(49.38 g)(37.5 C)= 7740 cal 5. This answer is your heat or energy in calories. Remember that it takes 1000 calories to equal 1 food Calorie. Change your heat answer to Calories by dividing your answer in #3 by 1,000. Record this answer in Calculation Table Example Calculation: 7740 cal 1,000 = 7.74 Cal 6. Use the results of Steps 4 and 5 to calculate the energy content (in Cal/g) of food sample. Record this answer in Calculation Table. Energy content = heat in Calories mass of food burned Example Calculation: q = 7.74 Cal/1.25g = 6.19 Cal/g ANALYSIS QUESTIONS 7. Record your results and the results of other groups in the Class Results Table. Which food had the highest energy content? The lowest energy content? Cashews and peanuts have the highest energy content. Marshmallows and popcorn have the lowest. 8. Food energy is often expressed in a unit called a Calorie. Based on the class average for marshmallows, calculate the number of Calories in a 50 g package of marshmallows. Example: Calories in a 50.0 g package of peanuts: (6.0Cal/g)(50.0 g)= 300Cal 9. Was this an efficient method of determining the number of calories in food? Why or why not? This was not a very efficient method of determining the number of calories in food since much of the energy from burning the food sample is lost into the room. However, the general Page 4 of 8

5 trend in terms of higher calorie foods containing more fats versus carbohydrates can still be determined. EXTEND Option 1- My Plate Activity : 1. Divide class into groups of 2-4 students. 2. Assign group to write down a typical meal: Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner, or Snacks. Be sure they include drinks with their meal. 3. Have students determine the number of calories and grams of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins consumed in their meal or snacks using the My Plate placemats and nutrition information provided. Limited choice sheets are given in baggies labeled for meal or snacks. Fast food menus are also included if students want a wider choice. 4. Students calculate the number of calories of nutrient by multiplying by the total grams of the nutrient by the number of Calories/g of that nutrient as follows: a. Grams of Protein x 4 Calories/g = Calories from Protein b. Grams of Carbohydrate x 4 Calories/g = Calories from Carbohydrates c. Grams of Fat x 9 Cal/g = Calories from Carbohydrate 5. Students calculate the number of servings of nutrient by dividing the number of Calories for nutrient by 50 since disk represents 50 Cal of that nutrient. They should round to the nearest 50. Students should then place the colored for nutrient on one of their plate. a. Green carbohydrates b. Blue- proteins c. Red- fats 6. Students may draw the colored for the meal. 7. Have students compare their plate with the healthy portioned plate for their age, gender, and activity level. It is recommended that a teenager s daily diet consist of 45-65% carbohydrates, 10-30% protein, and 25-35% fats. Each plate represents ¼ of the recommended daily Calories for that age, gender, and activity level. The number of for a meal was calculated by dividing the Calories by 50, then rounding to the nearest 50 Calories. 8. Students may share with other groups to complete daily totals. 9. The ter may have students design a healthier meal based on the recommended nutrients for their gender and level of activity. Below you will find an example of a meal which fits the number of grams of nutrient by gender and level of activity. These meals are based on ¼ of the daily intake for gender and level of activity. Page 5 of 8

6 SAMPLE HEALTHY MEALS: Person Food Item Calories Protein(g) Carbohydrate(g) Fats(g) Sedentary Female (14-18 years) Vineyard Salad Banana ½ cup Meal Totals XXXXXX Moderately Active Female(14-18 years) Vineyard Salad Apple cup white Tortilla Strips Meal Totals Active Female (14-18 years) French Dip & Swiss Sandwich XXXXXX cup grapes cup white Meal Totals XXXXXX Page 6 of 8

7 Person Food Item Calories Protein(g) Carbohydrate(g) Fats(g) Sedentary Male (14-18 years) Regular Roast Beef Sandwich cup grapes /2 cup white Meal Totals Moderately Active Male (14-18 years) Regular Roast Beef Sandwich XXXXXX Apple cup white Meal Totals Active Male (14-18 years) 2 Regular Roast Beef Sandwich XXXXXX Apple cup white Meal Totals XXXXXX Page 7 of 8

8 Option 2- Have students research related topics such as a balanced nutritional diet, diabetes, hypoglycemia, or hyperglycemia. EVALUATE Pre and Post Lab Questions Pre-Test 1. a. 2. d. 3. a. 4. a. 5. a. 6. c. 7. b. 8. d. 9. d. 10. b. Post-Test 1. a. 2. d. 3. d. 4. d. 5. b. 6. a. 7. a. 8. c. 9. b. 10. a. Summative assessment suggestions-include sample data from the exploration and have students analyze it on their quiz, test or exam. Formative assessment suggestions-questioning students as they conduct the observations; have students compare their findings with another lab group, their observations and explain their comparisons. Page 8 of 8

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