Android Anatomy and Physiology

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1 Android Anatomy and Physiology

2 Agenda Android Anatomy Linux Kernel Native Libraries Android Runtime Layer Interaction Application Framework Android Physiology Start-up Walkthrough

3 Android Anatomy Applications Home Dialer SMS/MMS IM Browser Camera Alarm Calculator Contacts Activity Voice Dial Window Calendar Media Player Albums Application Framework Content Providers View System Clock Notification Package Telephony Libraries Resource Location Android Runtime Surface Media Framework SQLite Core Libraries OpenGL ES FreeType WebKit Dalvik Virtual Machine SGL SSL Libc Linux Kernel Display Driver Camera Driver Bluetooth Driver Shared Memory Driver Binder (IPC) Driver USB Driver Keypad Driver WiFi Driver Audio Drivers Power Management

4 Agenda Android Anatomy Linux Kernel Native Libraries Android Runtime Layer Interaction Application Framework Android Physiology Start-up Walkthrough

5 Linux Kernel Android is built on the Linux kernel, but Android is not Linux No native windowing system No glibc support Does not include the full set of standard Linux utilities Linux Kernel Display Driver Camera Driver Bluetooth Driver Shared Memory Driver Binder (IPC) Driver USB Driver Keypad Driver WiFi Driver Audio Drivers Power Management

6 Linux Kernel Standard Linux Kernel Patch of kernel enhancements to support Android Linux Kernel Display Driver Camera Driver Bluetooth Driver Shared Memory Driver Binder (IPC) Driver USB Driver Keypad Driver WiFi Driver Audio Drivers Power Management

7 Why Linux Kernel? Great memory and process management Permissions-based security model Proven driver model Support for shared libraries Itʼs already open source! Linux Kernel Display Driver Camera Driver Bluetooth Driver Shared Memory Driver Binder (IPC) Driver USB Driver Keypad Driver WiFi Driver Audio Drivers Power Management

8 Kernel Enhancements Alarm Ashmem Binder Power Management Low Memory Killer Kernel Debugger Logger Linux Kernel Display Driver Camera Driver Bluetooth Driver Shared Memory Driver Binder (IPC) Driver USB Driver Keypad Driver WiFi Driver Audio Drivers Power Management

9 Binder: Problem Applications and Services may run in separate processes but must communicate and share data IPC can introduce significant processing overhead and security holes Linux Kernel Display Driver Camera Driver Bluetooth Driver Shared Memory Driver Binder (IPC) Driver USB Driver Keypad Driver WiFi Driver Audio Drivers Power Management

10 Binder: Solution Driver to facilitate inter-process communication (IPC) High performance through shared memory Per-process thread pool for processing requests Reference counting, and mapping of object references across processes Synchronous calls between processes Linux Kernel Display Driver Camera Driver Bluetooth Driver Shared Memory Driver Binder (IPC) Driver USB Driver Keypad Driver WiFi Driver Audio Drivers Power Management

11 Binder in Action Process A Process B App A Service B

12 Binder in Action Process A Process B App A Context Service B

13 Binder in Action Process A Process B App A Context Service B get service

14 Binder in Action Process A Process B App A Context Binder Driver Service B get service service

15 Binder in Action Process A Process B App A Context Binder Driver Service B get service service

16 Binder in Action Process A Process B App A Context Binder Driver Service B get service service call foo(object)

17 Binder in Action Process A Process B App A Context Binder Driver Service B get service service call foo(object) marshal proxy object

18 Binder in Action Process A Process B App A Context Binder Driver Service B get service service call foo(object) marshal proxy object relay to IPC threads

19 Binder in Action Process A Process B App A Context Binder Driver Service B get service service call foo(object) marshal proxy object relay to IPC threads call return

20 Binder Android Interface Definition Language (AIDL) Linux Kernel Display Driver Camera Driver Bluetooth Driver Shared Memory Driver Binder (IPC) Driver USB Driver Keypad Driver WiFi Driver Audio Drivers Power Management

21 PM Problem Mobile devices run on battery power Batteries have limited capacity Linux Kernel Display Driver Camera Driver Bluetooth Driver Shared Memory Driver Binder (IPC) Driver USB Driver Keypad Driver WiFi Driver Audio Drivers Power Management

22 PM Solution Built on top of standard Linux Power Management (PM) More aggressive power management policy Components make requests to keep the power on through wake locks Supports different types of wake locks Linux Kernel Display Driver Camera Driver Bluetooth Driver Shared Memory Driver Binder (IPC) Driver USB Driver Keypad Driver WiFi Driver Audio Drivers Power Management

23 Android PM in Action App A Power PM Driver

24 Android PM in Action App A Power PM Driver new wake lock PARTIAL

25 Android PM in Action App A Power PM Driver new wake lock PARTIAL create wake lock

26 Android PM in Action App A Power PM Driver new wake lock PARTIAL create wake lock Turn off LCD

27 Android PM in Action App A Power PM Driver new wake lock PARTIAL create wake lock Turn off LCD release release

28 Android PM in Action App A Power PM Driver new wake lock PARTIAL create wake lock Turn off LCD release release Turn off CPU

29 Android PM android.os.power Use wake locks carefully! useractivity(long when, ); Linux Kernel Display Driver Camera Driver Bluetooth Driver Shared Memory Driver Binder (IPC) Driver USB Driver Keypad Driver WiFi Driver Audio Drivers Power Management

30 Kernel The Android kernel source is available today at: Linux Kernel Display Driver Camera Driver Bluetooth Driver Shared Memory Driver Binder (IPC) Driver USB Driver Keypad Driver WiFi Driver Audio Drivers Power Management

31 Agenda Android Anatomy Linux Kernel Native Libraries Android Runtime Layer Interaction Application Framework Android Physiology Start-up Walkthrough

32 Android Anatomy Libraries Surface Media Framework SQLite OpenGL ES FreeType WebKit SGL SSL Libc Linux Kernel Display Driver Camera Driver Bluetooth Driver Shared Memory Driver Binder (IPC) Driver USB Driver Keypad Driver WiFi Driver Audio Drivers Power Management

33 Native Libraries Bionic Libc Function Libraries Native Servers Hardware Abstraction Libraries Libraries Surface Media Framework SQLite WebKit Libc OpenGL ES Audio FreeType SSL

34 Native Libraries Bionic Libc Function Libraries Native Servers Hardware Abstraction Libraries Libraries Surface Media Framework SQLite WebKit Libc OpenGL ES Audio FreeType SSL

35 What is Bionic? What is bionic? Custom libc implementation, optimized for embedded use. Libraries Surface Media Framework SQLite WebKit Libc OpenGL ES Audio FreeType SSL

36 Why Bionic? Why build a custom libc library? License: we want to keep GPL out of user-space Size: will load in each process, so it needs to be small Fast: limited CPU power means we need to be fast Libraries Surface Media Framework SQLite WebKit Libc OpenGL ES Audio FreeType SSL

37 Bionic libc BSD License Small size and fast code paths Very fast and small custom pthread implementation Libraries Surface Media Framework SQLite WebKit Libc OpenGL ES Audio FreeType SSL

38 Bionic libc Built-in support for important Android-specific services system properties getprop( my.system.property, buff, default); log capabilities LOGI( Logging a message with priority Info ); Libraries Surface Media Framework SQLite WebKit Libc OpenGL ES Audio FreeType SSL

39 Bionic libc Doesn't support certain POSIX features Not compatible with Gnu Libc (glibc) All native code must be compiled against bionic Libraries Surface Media Framework SQLite WebKit Libc OpenGL ES Audio FreeType SSL

40 Native Libraries Bionic Libc Function Libraries Native Servers Hardware Abstraction Libraries Libraries Surface Media Framework SQLite WebKit Libc OpenGL ES Audio FreeType SSL

41 WebKit Based on open source WebKit browser: Renders pages in full (desktop) view Full CSS, Javascript, DOM, AJAX support Support for single-column and adaptive view rendering Libraries Surface Media Framework SQLite WebKit Libc OpenGL ES Audio FreeType SSL

42 Media Framework Based on PacketVideo OpenCORE platform Supports standard video, audio, still-frame formats Support for hardware / software codec plug-ins Libraries Surface Media Framework SQLite WebKit Libc OpenGL ES Audio FreeType SSL

43 SQLite Light-weight transactional data store Back end for most platform data storage Libraries Surface Media Framework SQLite WebKit Libc OpenGL ES Audio FreeType SSL

44 Native Libraries Bionic Libc Function Libraries Native Servers Hardware Abstraction Libraries Libraries Surface Media Framework SQLite WebKit Libc OpenGL ES Audio FreeType SSL

45 Surface Flinger Surface App App Surface Surface Flinger Frame Buffer Surface Provides system-wide surface composer, handling all surface rendering to frame buffer device Can combine 2D and 3D surfaces and surfaces from multiple applications Libraries Surface Media Framework SQLite WebKit Libc OpenGL ES Audio FreeType SSL

46 Surface Flinger Surfaces passed as buffers via Binder IPC calls Can use OpenGL ES and 2D hardware accelerator for its compositions Double-buffering using page-flip Libraries Surface Media Framework SQLite WebKit Libc OpenGL ES Audio FreeType SSL

47 Audio Flinger App App Tone Audio Media Player Game Audio Audio Flinger Earpeace Speaker Bluetooth Manages all audio output devices Processes multiple audio streams into PCM audio out paths Handles audio routing to various outputs Libraries Surface Media Framework SQLite WebKit Libc OpenGL ES Audio FreeType SSL

48 Native Libraries Bionic Libc Function Libraries Native Servers Hardware Abstraction Libraries Libraries Surface Media Framework SQLite LibWebCore Libc OpenGL ES Audio FreeType SSL

49 Hardware Abstraction Layer Applications Home Dialer SMS/MMS IM Browser Camera Alarm Calculator Contacts Activity Voice Dial Window Calendar Media Player Photo Album Application Framework Content Providers View System Clock Notification Package Surface OpenGL ES Media Framework Audio Telephony Libraries Resource SQLite WebKit Libc FreeType SSL Linux Kernel Display Driver Camera Driver Bluetooth Driver Location Hardware Abstraction Layer Android Runtime Shared Memory Driver Core Libraries Dalvik Virtual Machine Graphics Audio Camera Bluetooth GPS Radio (RIL) WiFi Binder (IPC) Driver USB Driver Keypad Driver WiFi Driver Audio Drivers Power Management

50 Hardware Abstraction Libraries User space C/C++ library layer Defines the interface that Android requires hardware drivers to implement Separates the Android platform logic from the hardware interface Hardware Abstraction Layer Graphics Audio Camera Bluetooth GPS Radio (RIL) WiFi

51 Hardware Abstraction Libraries Why do we need a user-space HAL? Not all components have standardized kernel driver interfaces Kernel drivers are GPL which exposes any proprietary IP Android has specific requirements for hardware drivers Hardware Abstraction Layer Graphics Audio Camera Bluetooth GPS Radio (RIL) WiFi

52 HAL Header Example // must be provided by each Acme hardware implementation typedef struct { int (*foo)( void ); char (*bar)( void ); } AcmeFunctions; const AcmeFunctions *Acme_Init(const struct Env *env, int argc, char **argv); Hardware Abstraction Layer Graphics Audio Camera Bluetooth GPS Radio (RIL) WiFi

53 Hardware Abstraction Libraries Libraries are loaded dynamically at runtime as needed dlhandle = dlopen( /system/lib/libacme.so, RTLD_NOW);... acmeinit = (const AcmeFunctions *(*)(const struct Env *, int, char **))dlsym(dlhandle, Acme_Init");... acmefuncs = acmeinit(&env, argc, argv); Hardware Abstraction Layer Graphics Audio Camera Bluetooth GPS Radio (RIL) WiFi

54 Agenda Android Anatomy Linux Kernel Native Libraries Android Runtime Layer Interaction Application Framework Android Physiology Start-up Walkthrough

55 Android Anatomy Libraries Android Runtime Surface Media Framework SQLite Core Libraries OpenGL ES FreeType WebKit Dalvik Virtual Machine SGL SSL Libc Linux Kernel Display Driver Camera Driver Bluetooth Driver Shared Memory Driver Binder (IPC) Driver USB Driver Keypad Driver WiFi Driver Audio Drivers Power Management

56 Dalvik Virtual Machine Androidʼs custom clean-room implementation virtual machine Provides application portability and runtime consistency Runs optimized file format (.dex) and Dalvik bytecode Java.class /.jar files converted to.dex at build time Android Runtime Core Libraries Dalvik Virtual Machine

57 Dalvik Virtual Machine Designed for embedded environment Uses runtime memory very efficiently Supports multiple virtual machine processes per device Highly CPU-optimized bytecode interpreter Android Runtime Core Libraries Dalvik Virtual Machine

58 Core Libraries Core APIs for Java language provide a powerful, yet simple and familiar development platform Data structures Utilities File access Graphics Network Access Android Runtime Core Libraries Dalvik Virtual Machine

59 Agenda Android Anatomy Linux Kernel Native Libraries Android Runtime Application Framework Android Physiology Start-up Walkthrough Layer Interaction

60 Android Anatomy Activity Window Application Framework Content Providers View System Notification Package Telephony Libraries Resource Location Android Runtime Surface Media Framework SQLite Core Libraries OpenGL ES FreeType WebKit Dalvik Virtual Machine SGL SSL Libc Linux Kernel Display Driver Camera Driver Bluetooth Driver Shared Memory Driver Binder (IPC) Driver USB Driver Keypad Driver WiFi Driver Audio Drivers Power Management

61 Core Platform Services Services that are essential to the Android platform Behind the scenes - applications typically donʼt access them directly Activity Window Application Framework Content Providers View System Notification Package Telephony Resource Location

62 Core Platform Services Activity Activity Window Application Framework Content Providers View System Notification Package Telephony Resource Location

63 Core Platform Services Activity Package Activity Window Application Framework Content Providers View System Notification Package Telephony Resource Location

64 Core Platform Services Activity Package Window Activity Window Application Framework Content Providers View System Notification Package Telephony Resource Location

65 Core Platform Services Activity Package Window Resource Activity Window Application Framework Content Providers View System Notification Package Telephony Resource Location

66 Core Platform Services Activity Package Window Resource Content Providers Activity Window Application Framework Content Providers View System Notification Package Telephony Resource Location

67 Core Platform Services Activity View System Package Window Resource Content Providers Activity Window Application Framework Content Providers View System Notification Package Telephony Resource Location

68 Hardware Services Provide access to lower-level hardware APIs Activity Window Application Framework Content Providers View System Notification Package Telephony Resource Location

69 Hardware Services Provide access to lower-level hardware APIs Typically accessed through local object Location lm = (Location) Context.getSystemService(Context.LOCATION_SERVICE); Activity Window Application Framework Content Providers View System Notification Package Telephony Resource Location

70 Hardware Services Telephony Service Activity Window Application Framework Content Providers View System Notification Package Telephony Resource Location

71 Hardware Services Telephony Service Location Service Activity Window Application Framework Content Providers View System Notification Package Telephony Resource Location

72 Hardware Services Telephony Service Location Service Bluetooth Service Activity Window Application Framework Content Providers View System Notification Package Telephony Resource Location

73 Hardware Services Telephony Service Location Service Bluetooth Service WiFi Service Activity Window Application Framework Content Providers View System Notification Package Telephony Resource Location

74 Hardware Services Telephony Service Location Service Bluetooth Service WiFi Service USB Service Activity Window Application Framework Content Providers View System Notification Package Telephony Resource Location

75 Hardware Services Telephony Service Location Service Bluetooth Service WiFi Service USB Service Sensor Service Activity Window Application Framework Content Providers View System Notification Package Telephony Resource Location

76 Application Framework More Information At Google I/O Online Inside the Android Application Framework Activity Window Application Framework Content Providers View System Notification Package Telephony Resource Location

77 Android Anatomy Applications Home Dialer SMS/MMS IM Browser Camera Alarm Calculator Contacts Activity Voice Dial Window Calendar Media Player Albums Application Framework Content Providers View System Clock Notification Package Telephony Libraries Resource Location Android Runtime Surface Media Framework SQLite Core Libraries OpenGL ES FreeType WebKit Dalvik Virtual Machine SGL SSL Libc Linux Kernel Display Driver Camera Driver Bluetooth Driver Shared Memory Driver Binder (IPC) Driver USB Driver Keypad Driver WiFi Driver Audio Drivers Power Management

78 Agenda Android Anatomy Linux Kernel Native Libraries Layer Interaction Application Framework Android Physiology Start-up Walkthrough

79 Agenda Android Anatomy Linux Kernel Native Libraries Layer Interaction Application Framework Android Physiology Start-up Walkthrough

80 Runtime Walkthrough It all starts with init Similar to most Linux-based systems at startup, the bootloader loads the Linux kernel and starts the init process. Init Linux Kernel

81 Runtime Walkthrough Init starts Linux daemons, including: USB Daemon (usbd) to manage USB connections Android Debug Bridge (adbd) to manage ADB connections Debugger Daemon (debuggerd) to manage debug processes requests (dump memory, etc.) Radio Interface Layer Daemon (rild) to manage communication with the radio usbd adbd debuggerd rild Init

82 Runtime Walkthrough Init process starts the zygote process: A nascent process which initializes a Dalvik VM instance Loads classes and listens on socket for requests to spawn VMs Forks on request to create VM instances for managed processes Copy-on-write to maximize re-use and minimize footprint usbd debuggerd adbd daemons Zygote Init

83 Runtime Walkthrough Init starts runtime process: Initializes Service the context manager for Binder that handles service registration and lookup Registers Service as default context manager for Binder services Service usbd debuggerd adbd daemons runtime Zygote Init

84 Runtime Walkthrough Runtime process sends request for Zygote to start System Service Service usbd debuggerd adbd daemons runtime Zygote Init

85 Runtime Walkthrough Runtime process sends request for Zygote to start System Server Zygote forks a new VM instance for the System Service process and starts the service Service System Server usbd debuggerd adbd daemons runtime Zygote Dalvik VM Init

86 Runtime Walkthrough System Service starts the native system servers, including: Surface Flinger Audio Flinger Audio Flinger Surface Flinger Service System Server usbd debuggerd adbd daemons runtime Zygote Dalvik VM Init

87 Runtime Walkthrough Native system servers register with Service as IPC service targets: Audio Flinger Surface Flinger Service System Server usbd debuggerd adbd daemons runtime Zygote Dalvik VM Init

88 Runtime Walkthrough System Service starts the Android managed services: Content Window Telephony Service Activity Bluetooth Service Package Connectivity Service Power Location Camera Surface Service Flinger Service System Server usbd debuggerd adbd daemons runtime Zygote Dalvik VM Init

89 Runtime Walkthrough Android managed Services register with Service : Content Window Telephony Service Activity Bluetooth Service Package Connectivity Service Power Location Service Camera Service Camera Surface Service Flinger Service System Server usbd debuggerd adbd daemons runtime Zygote Dalvik VM Init

90 Runtime Walkthrough Power Activity Camera Surface Service Flinger Service System Server usbd debuggerd adbd daemons runtime Zygote Dalvik VM Init

91 Runtime Walkthrough After system server loads all services, the system is ready Init Daemon Processes runtime Zygote System Server Activity Package Window Dalvik VM Init usbd debuggerd adbd daemons runtime Zygote Surface Flinger Audio Flinger

92 Runtime Walkthrough After system server loads all services, the system is ready Init Daemon Processes runtime Zygote System Server Home Activity Package Window Home Dalvik VM Dalvik VM Init usbd debuggerd adbd daemons runtime Zygote Surface Flinger Audio Flinger

93 Runtime Walkthrough After system server loads all services, the system is ready Init Daemon Processes runtime Zygote System Server Home Activity Package Window Home Dalvik VM Dalvik VM Init usbd debuggerd adbd daemons runtime Zygote Surface Flinger Audio Flinger libc libc libc libc libc libc

94 Runtime Walkthrough Each subsequent application is launched in itʼs own process Daemon Processes runtime Zygote System Server Home Contacts Activity Package Window Home Dalvik VM Contacts Dalvik VM Dalvik VM usbd debuggerd adbd daemons runtime Zygote Surface Flinger Audio Flinger libc libc libc libc libc libc

95 Agenda Android Anatomy Linux Kernel Native Libraries Layer Interaction Framework Services Android Physiology Start-up Walkthrough

96 Layer Interaction There are 3 main flavors of Android layer cake: App Runtime Service lib App Runtime Service Native Service lib App Runtime Service Native Daemon lib

97 Layer Interaction There are 3 main flavors of Android layer cake: App Runtime Service lib App Runtime Service Native Service lib App Runtime Service Native Daemon lib

98 Android Runtime Services Applications Application Application Framework Binder IPC Runtime Service Libraries Linux Kernel Kernel Driver

99 Android Runtime Services Applications Application Application Framework Binder IPC Runtime Service Libraries JNI Native Service Binding Linux Kernel Kernel Driver

100 Android Runtime Services Applications Application Application Framework Binder IPC Runtime Service Libraries JNI Native Service Binding Dynamic load HAL Library Linux Kernel Kernel Driver

101 Android Runtime Services Applications Application Application Framework Binder IPC Runtime Service Libraries JNI Native Service Binding Dynamic load HAL Library Linux Kernel Kernel Driver

102 Example: Location Applications Application Binder IPC Application Framework Location Service GpsLocationProvider Libraries JNI GpsLocationProvider libgps.so Dynamic load Linux Kernel Kernel Driver

103 Layer Interaction There are 3 main flavors of Android layer cake: App Runtime Service lib App Runtime Service Native Service lib App Runtime Service Native Daemon lib

104 Android Native Services Applications Application Application Framework Libraries Runtime Service JNI Native Service Binding Linux Kernel

105 Android Native Services Applications Application Application Framework Runtime Service Libraries JNI Native Service Binding Binder IPC Native Service Linux Kernel

106 Android Native Services Applications Application Application Framework Runtime Service Libraries JNI Native Service Binding Binder IPC Native Service Dynamic load HAL Library Linux Kernel

107 Android Native Services Applications Application Application Framework Runtime Service Libraries JNI Native Service Binding Binder IPC Native Service Dynamic load HAL Library Linux Kernel Kernel Driver

108 Android Native Services Applications Application Application Framework MediaPlayer Libraries JNI MediaPlayer Binder IPC AudioFlinger Dynamic load Media Framework libaudio.so Linux Kernel Kernel Driver

109 Android Native Services Applications Application Application Framework MediaPlayer Libraries JNI MediaPlayer Binder IPC AudioFlinger Dynamic load Media Framework libaudio.so ALSA Linux Kernel Kernel Driver

110 Android Native Services Applications Application Application Framework MediaPlayer Libraries JNI MediaPlayer Binder IPC AudioFlinger Dynamic load Media Framework libaudio.so Proprietary Audio Driver Linux Kernel

111 Layer Interaction There are 3 main flavors of Android layer cake: App Runtime Service lib App Runtime Service Native Service lib App Runtime Service Native Daemon lib

112 Daemon Connection Applications Application Application Framework Libraries Runtime Service JNI Native Service Binding Linux Kernel Kernel Driver

113 Daemon Connection Applications Application Application Framework Runtime Service Libraries JNI Native Service Binding sockets Daemon Linux Kernel Kernel Driver

114 Daemon Connection Applications Application Application Framework Runtime Service Libraries JNI Native Service Binding sockets Daemon Dynamic load HAL Library Linux Kernel Kernel Driver

115 Daemon Connection Applications Application Application Framework Telephony Libraries JNI Telephony sockets rild Dynamic load libril.so Linux Kernel Kernel Driver

116 Layer Interaction There are 3 main flavors of Android layer cake: App Runtime Service lib App Runtime Service Native Service lib App Runtime Service Native Daemon lib

117 Android Anatomy Applications Home Dialer SMS/MMS IM Browser Camera Alarm Calculator Contacts Activity Voice Dial Window Calendar Media Player Albums Application Framework Content Providers View System Clock Notification Package Telephony Libraries Resource Location Android Runtime Surface Media Framework SQLite Core Libraries OpenGL ES FreeType WebKit Dalvik Virtual Machine SGL SSL Libc Linux Kernel Display Driver Camera Driver Bluetooth Driver Shared Memory Driver Binder (IPC) Driver USB Driver Keypad Driver WiFi Driver Audio Drivers Power Management

118 The End code.google.com

119 Questions Q&A

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