1 Blanking of Stainless Steel Sheets for Mass-Production Cold Pressing 304 Stainless.23 mm Thk. D2 (HRC 59/60) 500 C HRC 62/ C 50mm x 300mm x 420mm Evaluation 110,000 shots 240,000 shots 127% Increase Durability: D2 dies required regrinding after each 20,000 shots in service because of edge chipping. Effect of : The use of decreased frequency of regrinding to once every 60,000 shots, resulting in improved overall durability.
2 Blanking and forming of cold-worked bearing races. Cold Pressing Cold Rolled Steel 1.2 mm Thk. Not Coated D2 (HRC 58/60) 510 C HRC 62/ C 80mm Dia. x 100mm Long Evaluation 220,000 shots 380,000 shots 72% Increase Durability: Wear (Galling) of inner die surface and edge chipping affected durability. Effect of : High Hardness and High Toughness of when tempered at High Temperature greatly improved durability.
3 Blanking dies for Ni based alloy materials used for medium-scale production of television components. Cold Pressing Ni-Based Alloy 0.2 mm Thk. D2 (HRC 58/59) 510 C HRC 62/ C 35mm x 100mm x 250mm Evaluation 5,000 shots 25,000 shots 500% Increase Durability: The worked material is tough and chipping and seizing of die edge were problematic. Effect of : High Temperature tempering and High Hardness are important in preventing seizing and extending life of die edges.
4 De-burring dies for warm forging of bearing races. Warm Pressing 200 C C 52100, ASTM A485 Ring Shaped D2 (HRC 61/62) 200 C HRC 62/ C 50mm 100mm Dia. Evaluation 15,000 shots 22,000 shots 46% Increase Durability: Warm de-burring caused a rise of temperature in the die edge, inviting durability problems due to dulling of edge. Effect of : Dulling and edge chipping were improved by replacing D2 tempered at low temperature with tempered at high temperature.
5 Press-forming of stepped parts, in which the die incurs high surface pressure and great wear. Cold forging HR 1030 (32mm Dia.) D2 (HRC 52/53) 200 C HRC 56/ C 120mm Dia. x 70mm Long Evaluation 60,000 shots 125,000 shots 108% Increase Durability: Life of the die was ended by scraping of die corners due to abrasion. Effect of : Wear resistance was improved by raising hardness; high toughness of enabled the die to meet high design hardness.
6 Application Cold forging of stainless steel for watch castings. Since forming stainless steel places a heavy load on the die, special measures were required. Cold Forging 304 Stainless 3.5 mm Thk. D2 (HRC 59/60) 200 C HRC C 75mm Dia. x 60mm Long Evaluation 7,500 shots 20,000 shots 166% Increase Durability: Life of die was ended by cracking at the bottom corner of die impression. Effect of : With its high strength, toughness, and fatigue strength, use of prolonged die life.
7 Cold forming of powdered ferrite for electronic parts; surface hardening treatment is applied to these dies. Powder Forming Ferrite Powder D2 (HRC 61) 200 C CVD-Treated HRC C CVD-Treated 150mm Dia. x 60mm Long Evaluation 15,000 shots 24,000 shots 60% Increase Durability: Lateral surface of die showed local wear; stable life could not be obtained. Effect of : By changing to, high base hardness was obtained, wear was uniform and average life was greatly improved.
8 Cold forging of pinions; the high forming pressure resulted in cracking of the die. Cold Forging 5120 Semi-high speed Steel HRC 58/60 HRC 61/ C 155mm Dia. x 60mm Long Evaluation 9,300 shots 14,000 shots 50% Increase Durability: Cracking began and spread from the bottom corner of the die impression, terminating life. Effect of : Compared to forming pressure, die strength is insufficient; hardness of exceeding that of high-speed steel gave good results.
9 FB punches for cams of carbon steel plate; chipping of punch teeth was problematic. Fine Blanking HR 1055 HRB mm Thk. D2 (HRC 59) 510 C HRC 62/ C 160mm Dia. x 100mm Long Evaluation 7,300 shots 13,200 shots 82% Increase Durability: Micro-chipping of FB punch tooth tips terminated life. Effect of : To increase preciseness of worked products, clearance between punches and dies is small and the working load is high. The high hardness and toughness of, which can be tempered at HRC62, proved effective.
10 Application FB punches for gears, precise shape of teeth, in particular, was important. Fine Blanking HR 1045 HRB mm Thk. D2 (HRC 60/61) 200 C HRC 60/ C 160mm Dia. x 8.0mm Long Evaluation 11,000 shots 21,000 shots 91% Increase Durability: Chipping of punch tooth-tip occurred and regrinding was no longer possible. Effect of : The high toughness (double that of D2) of reduced chipping of tooth tip remarkably.
11 FB punches for thick plate; the sheared surface must be smooth and free from burrs. Fine Blanking HR High Tension Steel 6.0mm Thk. D2 (HRC 58/60) 510 C HRC 61/ C 130mm x 140mm x 170mm Evaluation 22,000 shots 39,000 shots 77% Increase Durability: When working thick high tensile plate, the punch is under high load conditions; chipping of the punch tip promoted burring. Effect of : High-temperature tempering of provides high hardness to match the high load conditions; formation of burrs was minimized.
12 Application FB punches hook-shaped electric appliance components; its long, thin shape provides severe conditions. Fine Blanking HR 1045 HRB mm Thk. D2 (HRC 56) 530 C HRC C 70mm Dia. x 110mm Long Evaluation 1,600 shots 3,900 shots 143% Increase Durability: Cracking and fracturing occurred at the tip of the long, thin shape, resulting in shortened life. Effect of : Because of s excellent toughness, hardness could be increased, resulting in more than double the life.
13 Application Bending of V-shaped automotive components; galling of punches and dies is problematic. Pressing HR mm Thk. D2 (HRC 61) 200 C HRC 62/ C 50mm x 60mm x 150mm Evaluation Punch: 18,000 Die: 25,000 Punch: 32,000 Die: 31,000 77% Increase 24% Increase Durability: Wear of punch tip and galling of lateral surface of die ended life. Effect of : Making use of the high hardness of. Wear, particularly of the punch tip, was greatly reduced.
14 Bending of frame; as the material worked is stainless steel, galling of punch is problematic. Pressing 304 Stainless 1.8 mm Thk. D2 (HRC 61) 200 C CVD-Treated HRC C CVD-Treated 60mm x 80mm x 280mm Evaluation 50,000 shots 80,000 shots 60% Increase Durability: In order to work thick stainless steel plate, CVD treatment was applied to the punch, but galling terminated life. Effect of : The base hardness of punches receiving CVD treatment affects durability; in this case, the high hardness of proved effective.
15 Progressing dies for piercing and bending of switch parts. Pressing HR 1050 HRB mm Thk. D2 (HRC 58) 510 C HRC C 35mm x 60mm x 410mm Evaluation 80,000 shots 145,000 shots 81% Increase Durability: Chipping of cutting edge and cracking from corner were problematic. Effect of : The high toughness of prevented chipping of the cutting edge, minimized burr of products and, at the time, improved durability by delaying cracking.
16 Precision punching of high hardness materials where increased compressive strength of stripper plate is required. Pressing 301 Stainless HV mm Thk. Evaluation SKS (HRC 58) Sub-zero Treated Products rejected due to poor preciseness HRC 61/ C Products same as previous 20mm x 100mm x 400mm NONE Durability: When SKS was used, dents were formed in the plate; poor flatness of the punched products was a major problem. Effect of : Preciseness of products was improved by the use of which shows superior compressive strength; sub-zero treatment can be abbreviated.
17 Deep drawing dies for stainless steel sheet; deep drawing places a high load on the die; suitable surface treatment is applied. Drawing 304 Stainless 1.4 mm Thk. D2 (HRC 58/60) CVD-Treated HRC 62/63 CVD-Treated 100mm x 155mm x 280mm Evaluation 50,000 70,000 shots 80, ,000 shots 42 % Increase Durability: CVD-Treated dies suffered galling and flaking of the CVD layer. Effect of : The higher the work load on the die, the higher the base hardness of the die required to make the CVD treatment more effective.
18 Application Drawing punches for forming of aluminum cans by backward extrusion from sheet. Extrusion Aluminum sheet D2 (HRC 59) 510 C HRC 62/ C 100mm Dia. x 180mm Long Evaluation 14,000 shots 26,000 shots 85% Increase Durability: Galling and seizing of punch lateral surface occurred. Effect of : Galling was reduced by increasing hardness through the introduction of ; further, greater resistance to temper softening prevented seizing.
19 For punching of thin slits, where punch strength and resistance to fracture are important. Punching HR 1045 HRB mm Thk. D2 (HRC 60) 200 C HRC C 75mm Dia. x 60mm Long Evaluation 12,000 shots 21,000 29,000 shots 100% Increase Durability: Since punch shape is thin, chipping of the tip occurred and longitudinal cracks developed and spread from that point. Effect of : Punches for thin or fine shapes must be made of tool materials having high hardness and toughness; the properties of proved adequate for the job.
20 Punching of thick carbon steel sheet; worked shape is simple but the thickness caused severe wear of tools. Pressing HR mm Thk. D2 (HRC 58/60) 510 C HRC 61/63 Quenched at 1010 C Temp At 520 C 19mm Dia. x 72mm Long Evaluation 3,000 shots 4,600 shots 53% Increase Durability: Punch life depends on wear of lateral portion of punch tip; micro chipping and flaking occurred in certain areas. Effect of : To increase toughness, quenching temperature was lowered and high temperature tempering applied to obtain a design hardness of HRC 62.
21 of bushings by backward extrusion. Cold Forming HR mm Thk. D2 (HRC 59) 510 C HRC 62/ C 17mm Dia. x 80mm Long Evaluation 20,000 shots 65,000 shots 225% Increase Durability: Wear of punch edge and galling of lateral face of punch shortened durability. Effect of : To prevent wear and galling, hardness of was designed at a high level, resulting in expected extension of life.
22 Punches for motor cores worked by W-EDM; working strain and chipping of punch edge were problematic. Punching Magnet 0.5 mm Thk. D2 (HRC 58) 500 C HRC 62/ C 50mm Dia. x 80mm Long Evaluation 15,000 shots 28,000 shots 86% Increase Durability: Chipping of punch edge promoted shear drop; punch life was short. Effect of : High temperature tempering of resulted in minimized stain after W-EDM working and prevention of chipping, leading to improved durability.
23 Flat thread rolling dies for working stainless steel bolts where there is particularly high working load. Thread Rolling 304 Stainless 5 mm Dia. D2 (HRC 60) 500 C HRC 62/ C 40mm x 80mm x 190 mm Evaluation 3,800 shots 21,000 shots 552% Increase Durability: Due to chipping and local seizing of thread, early regrinding was required. Effect of : In working with stainless steels, high toughness, high hardness, and high resistance to temper softening are necessary; these characteristics of proved effective
24 Thread rolling of heat treated bolts where chipping of thread crest is problematic. Thread Rolling HR 1045 HRC mm Dia. D2 (HRC 61) 200 C HRC C 32mm x 65mm x 120mm Evaluation 22,000 shots 56,000 shots 154% Increase Durability: Progressive chipping of the thread crest of the die occurred leading to failure of the die. Effect of : The high toughness of permitted longer use of die before chipping occurred, greatly increasing durability before regrinding.
25 Thread rolling of high-tensile or stainless steel bolts, where damage of thread crests is problematic. Thread Rolling 4140 HRC 37/43 8 mm Dia. D2 (HRC 63) 180 C HRC C 138mm Dia. x 40 mm Long Evaluation 18,000 shots 28,000 shots 55% Increase Durability: Damage of thread crests began early in service and spread gradually to all areas of the die, shortening durability. Effect of : The high toughness of prevented early cracking; high temperature tempering treatment raised fatigue strength and was effective in preventing crest damage.
26 Forming of V-grooves by rolling is most common; roll teeth are tall and falling and chipping of teeth occurs easily. Thread Rolling HR 1020 D2 (HRC 58/60) CVD-Treated HRC 62/63 CVD-Treated 220mm Dia. x 40 mm Long Evaluation 15,000 shots 23,000 shots 53% Increase Durability: Cracking was generated from the bottom of the flute between the teeth causing deformation of tooth shape and damaging the roll, shortening durability. Effect of : s high strength delayed the occurrence of cracks due to lateral load on teeth, thus improving durability.
27 Multi-roll straightening of round structural steel bars; straightening of hot rolled steel where wear of rolls are problematic. Straightening Structural Steel 20mm-45m m Dia. D2 (HRC 61/62) 180 C HRC 62/ C 254mm Dia. x 250mm Long Evaluation 16,000 shots 42,000 shots 162% Increase Durability: Local pitting of roll surface and wear of overall working surface terminated life. Effect of : High temperature tempering was carried out to increase hardness and fatigue strength; improvement was seen in resistance to pitting and wear was reduced by half.
28 Straightening of heat-resistant steel and stainless steel where pitting of the roll is a major problem and high hardness and toughness is needed. Straightening Wear Resistance 8mm 10mm Dia. D2 (HRC 58) 510 C HRC 61/ C 200mm Dia. x 280mm Long Evaluation 12 Tons 50 Tons 416% Increase Durability: Pitting of roll surface and local seizing occurred, terminating life. Effect of : The basic characteristics of fully met the requirements for high toughness to prevent pitting and high hardness to prevent seizing..
29 Rolling to form caulking nails from hard steel wire. Roll Forming Steel Wire TS120 kgf / mm² 6 mm Dia. D2 (HRC 58) 500 C HRC 60/ C 100mm Dia. x 150mm Long Evaluation Early flaking on Groove bottom Improvement of flaking Durability: When working hard steel wire, the high load caused fatigue at the bottom of the roll groove, resulting in flaking. Effect of : High temperature tempering of raised fatigue strength and reduced flaking at the bottom of the roll groove.
30 Intermediate roll for cold rolling of high-carbon steel, where pitting of roll surface is problematic. Cold Forming High Carbon Steel 5.2 mm Thk. D2 (HRC 58/60) 510 C HRC 62/ C 70mm Dia. x 590mm Long Evaluation Tons Tons 100%Increase Durability: Local pitting of roll surface developed into flaking and terminated life. Effect of : Since pitting and flaking are due to insufficient fatigue strength, these defects were eliminated by using with high fatigue strength.
31 Since these bolts are worked in large lots, improvement of durability of trimming dies has been an important theme. Trimming 5140 HRC mm Dia. SKH51 HRC63 HRC 62/ C 65mm Dia. x 45mm Long Evaluation 23,500 shots 34,800 shots 48%Increase Durability: Micro-chipping of the cutting edge of the die spread from local occurrence to all areas, terminating life. Effect of : Maintaining a hardness of HRC62 or higher, higher temperature tempering of was carried out to provide greater toughness.
32 This type of die is commonly used; surface hardness treatment is applied depending on the material worked and finishing preciseness required. Trimming 5140 HRC mm Dia. M2 - High Speed Steel HRC 60 CVD-Treated HRC 62/ C CVD-Treated 48mm Dia. x 35mm Long Evaluation 11,000 shots 42,000 shots 281%Increase Durability: Chipping of the cutting-edge and insufficient base hardness of the die led to termination of life. Effect of : In order to increase the effectiveness of surface treatment, higher base hardness of the die should be considered; the high hardness of proved effective.
33 Shear blades to slit all types of steel sheet, particularly high-tensile steel sheet or thick plate where chipping of the blade edge is problematic. Shearing High-tensile Steel sheet 1.3 mm Thk. D2 (HRC 61) 200 C HRC C 30mm x 180mm x 2100mm Evaluation 11 days 27 days 145%Increase Durability: In the first stages of use, chipping of blade edge occurred and that Was the beginning of blade wear. Effect of : The high toughness of was effective in reducing chipping; at the same time, high-temperature tempering provided resistance to temper softening of the blade edge
34 Shear blades for round carbon steel bars; H-13 or D2 are the regularly used materials; D2 was used for this example. Shearing Carbon steel Cr-Mo steel >50mm Dia D2 (HRC 53/55) 550 C HRC 58/ C 50mm x 100mm x 150mm Evaluation 800 Bars 1400 Bars 75%Increase Durability: Chipping of the shear blade edge occurred; damage increased progressively, terminating life. Effect of : Prevention of chipping of the blade edge is the most important factor; the high toughness of prevented chipping and, as a result, damage was greatly reduced.