Geotechnical Engineering in the Urban Environment Engineering Consulting Services, LTD

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1 Geotechnical Engineering in the Urban Environment Engineering Consulting Services, LTD Karl A. Higgins, III, P.E., Senior Principal Engineer 2014 Annual Meeting

2 Introduction Geotechnical Engineering Challenges in Urban construction. Greatest challenge is adjacent structures and deep excavations, followed by Evaluating SOE system designs and Monitoring movement These are today s learning objectives

3 Topics for Presentation 1. Deep Support of Excavation (SOE) Systems (several types discussed) 2. Lateral Earth Pressures 3. Monitoring Movements 4. Adjacent Structures

4 Support of Excavation (SOE) Systems What is it, why is it needed? Topic 1

5 SOE Systems Needed to provide maximum use of site Many buildings adjoin on property line or extend outward toward the right-of-way limits Existing Mather Building A A New Building Property Line Project: 900 G St NW, Wash, DC

6 Support of Excavation Systems Property Line Mather 900 G St. Section A A Historic Mather Building Adjacent to 900 G St NW Note Building Elevation Differences

7 Support of Excavation Systems The are several types: Cross Lot or Corner Bracing Traditional Soldier Pile and Wood Lagging Tangent/Secant Piles Slurry Walls Deep Soil Mix Walls

8 Support of Excavation Systems Cross Lot Steel Bracing Type When Tiebacks are not feasible Mather Building Cross Lot Steel Bracing Used for SOE Project: 900 G St NW, Wash, DC

9 Support of Excavation Systems GWU Sq. 55 Project in Washington, DC Examples of Cross Lot SOE Bracing

10 Support of Excavation Systems Underpinned Adjacent Structure on Bracket Piles Traditional Soldier Pile and Wood Lagging

11 Support of Excavation Systems Soil Anchor (Tieback) Not Absence of Raker or Cross Lot Bracing Makes working in Excavation less difficult Traditional Soldier Pile and Wood Lagging

12 Support of Excavation Systems Secant/Tangent Pile Walls

13 Support of Excavation Systems Secondary Pile Reinforcement (H piles are also often used) Supported with Earth Anchors Secant/Tangent Pile Walls

14 Support of Excavation Systems Capitol Visitors Center Completed in early 2000 s Permanent Slurry Walls

15 Support of Excavation Systems Sequence of Construction Guide Wall Forms Panel Wall Reinforcing Permanent Slurry Walls

16 Support of Excavation Systems Sequence of Construction Cross Lot Bracing Tiebacks Permanent Slurry Walls

17 Deep Soil Mix (DSM) Walls Support of Excavation Systems Similar to Slurry Walls but not a permanent exterior wall, rather a temporary support one Used for the African American History Museum Currently under construction Sequence of Construction

18 Support of Excavation Systems Deep Soil Mix (DSM) Walls - Equipment

19 Earth Anchor Support Used to Support a Variety of SOE wall Types Tieback Drill Rig

20 Support of Excavation Systems Example of Earth Anchor SOE Bracing, aka Tiebacks Most Desirable Type Number of Arrows indicates number of tieback levels/tiers

21 Support of Excavation Systems Tieback Excavated Side Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Example of Earth Anchor SOE Bracing, aka Tiebacks Look for Utility Impacts and Conflicts Adjacent Structures, Utilities, and Easements may affect their use

22 Tieback Stressing Hydraulic Jack Stresses/ Elongates Tendon

23 Mechanics of Tiebacks

24 Mechanics of Tiebacks Unbonded Anchor Portion Bonded Anchor Portion ** note location of Failure Surface

25 Mechanics of Tiebacks

26 Lateral Earth Pressures Topic 2

27 Lateral Earth Pressures LEP for Multiple Tiers of SOE support LEP for Permanent Basement Wall Lateral Earth Pressure (LEP) Diagrams

28 Lateral Earth Pressures Global Stability SOE Stability Failure Modes (4 types)

29 Evaluation of Lateral Earth Pressures Factors of Safety as Low as 1.2 are often acceptable as every anchor is tested SOE Stability Calculations

30 Lateral Earth Pressures Density, soil strength (phi and c), and layer thickness are all important parameters May need multiple LEP values for one site avoid oversimplification LEP Soil Design Parameters

31 Lateral Earth Pressures Must consider adjacent Structures when choosing design parameters: Active Soil Conditions when movement of SOE wall is acceptable At-Rest Soil Conditions when little to no movement is desired Adjacent Building supported on Bracket piles attached to SOE. Active or At-Rest Condition?

32 SOE Movements D = 0.005H D H Typical Active Soil Allowable Movement Typical expected or allowable movement of SOE walls design to Active soil pressures. Ex. 40 foot excavation, D = * 40 ft = 0.2 ft = 2.4 inches. This movement would be too much for bracket piles or underpinning pits but probably OK for streets. Topic 3

33 SOE Movements Lateral Displacement (in) - Toward Excavation (E) + Away from Excavation (W) At-Rest Soil Design /28/2013 3/14/2013 3/28/2013 4/11/2013 4/25/2013 5/9/2013 5/23/2013 6/6/2013 6/20/2013 7/4/ G Street, NW Mather Building Monitoring Points Lateral Movement - South Face Previous Mather Building Example 7/18/2013 8/1/2013 8/15/2013 8/29/2013 9/12/2013 9/26/ /10/ /24/ /7/ /21/ /5/ /19/2013 1/10/2014 1/13/2014 1/15/2014 3/25/2014 M M NA NA NA M M NA M M Vertical Movement was near zero Lateral Movement Threshold set at 3/8 inch For Building 1/2/2014 1/16/2014 1/30/2014 2/13/2014 2/27/2014 3/13/2014 3/27/2014 4/10/2014 4/24/2014 M-1 M-2 M-3 M-4 M-5 M-6 Limiting Value

34 SOE Movements At-Rest Soil Design Lateral Displacement (in) - Toward Excavation (E) + Away from Excavation (W) /19/2013 8/2/2013 8/16/2013 8/30/ G Street, NW West Pile Line Lateral Movement 9/13/2013 9/27/ /11/ /25/ /8/2013 NA NA NA Pile 60 PB PB PB Pile 64 PB PB PB Pile 68 PB PB PB Pile 72 PB PB PB Pile 76 PB PB PB Pile 80 PB PB PB Lateral Movement Threshold set at 3/8 inch For SOE 11/22/ /6/ /20/2013 SECANT PILES USED Project was success, no excessive movement of historic building Previous Mather Building Example

35 Example of Excessive SOE Pile Movement Active Design Next to Road Damage to Utilities and Roads Occurred

36 Example of Excessive SOE Pile Movement Active Design Next to Road, Pepco Vault and WMATA Tunnel Vertical movements were similar Supplemental Rakers were ultimately used due to excessive movement

37 Example of Excessive SOE Pile Movement Supplemental Rakers Installed impacted slab pours but not columns

38 Movement Monitoring Plans Monitoring Points on Adjacent Structures (measuring both Lateral And Vertical Movement) Monitoring Points on streetscape to evaluate vertical movement (settlement)

39 Movement Monitoring Plans Monitoring Points on SOE piles (measuring both Lateral And Vertical Movement)

40 Monitoring Devices How we monitor movement: 1. Traditional Survey Equipment 2. Vertical Inclinometers 3. Tiltmeters 4. Crack Monitors 5. Groundwater Piezometers

41 Traditional Survey Equipment Highly precise total stations measuring angle and distance Capable of Robotic Monitoring and realtime data acquisition

42 Example of Inclinometer Plot

43 Example of Tiltmeter Alarm Levels

44 Example of Crack Monitors Epoxy Installed for Manual Reading Automatic Electronic Data recording for Real Time Measurements

45 Example of Ground Water Monitoring Devices Typical Monitoring Well Can be measured manually or automatically

46 SOE Movements Summary Conclusions for SOE Designs /Movements: 1. Peer review design and soil pressure assumptions, 2. Develop a Movement Monitoring Plan Architect of the Capitol Building in DC Slab Cracking (12 in. vert and horiz.) 3. Report movement data and react to adverse trends if they exceed thresholds Topic 3 - End

47 Adjacent Structures Metro Tunnel Lies Beneath Planned Building Development Topic 4 The Wharf Project at Southwest Waterfront, DC

48 Adjacent Structures Strategy support new loads on piles below tunnel New transfer girder supported by piles ZOI The Wharf Project at Southwest Waterfront, DC

49 Adjacent Structures Strategy support new loads on piles below tunnel. Metro asked ECS to evaluate influence of piles on adjacent tunnel Edge of Tunnel Augercast Pile Locations Stress Point Driven Pile Locations The Wharf Project at Southwest Waterfront, DC

50 Adjacent Structures Strategy support new loads on piles below tunnel. Metro asked ECS to evaluate influence of piles on adjacent tunnel. Stress Induced (PSF) Elevation (Feet) The Wharf Project at Southwest Waterfront, DC

51 Adjacent Structures Strategy determine if new loads can be accommodated by tunnel 20,000 psf on footing 9 ft Metro s ZOI George Washington University Sq. 55

52 Adjacent Structures Sometimes you can utilize Hand Calculations to evaluate stress impacts George Washington University Sq. 55

53 Adjacent Structures Planned Building Development Directly Adjacent to Metro Tunnel/Station 900 G Street Washington, DC

54 Adjacent Structures Strategy - Building loads impacted Metro Tunnel so new building supported on deep foundation No stress analysis needed 900 G Street Washington, DC

55 Engineering Consulting Services, Ltd Thunderbolt Place, Suite 100 Chantilly, Virginia Karl Higgins, P.E., Vice President/Sr. Principal BS Civil Va. Tech, M.Eng. Geotechnical Univ. of Missouri

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