Food waste as a useful source of compounds improving plant health

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1 Food waste as a useful source of compounds improving plant health Lenka Burketová Laboratory of Pathological Plant Physiology Prague, Czech Republic

2 Demand for food progressively increases Source: EPSO, 2013 Main threat for crop production diseases, pests and environmental stresses

3 Healthy crops healthy food Current measures in crop protection: resistant cultivars genetically modified plants GMOs pesticides regulated by EU directive on Sustainable pesticides utilization (2009/128/ES, October 21, 2009) Prospective strategies: green pesticides botanicals, essential oils, etc. biological control use of antagonistic organisms mycorhiza, beneficial rhizobacteria induced resistance activation of plant s immune system, advantage nonspecific biostimulators improving plant fitness

4 What is the connection between plant diseases and food wastes? Plants suffer from the same kinds of pathogens as animals or humans: viruses, bacteria, fungi, insects and nematodes. Plants evolutionally developed immune system strikingly reminiscent of innate immunity of animals. This immune system is stimulated by a number of molecules, which could also originate from food wastes.

5 Innate immunity How are the pathogens recognised? PAMPs pathogen associated molecular patterns Surface molecules LPS flagellin - flg22 lipopolysaccharides LPS flagelin Secondary elicitors Secreted elicitors

6 How is the resistance response activated? Recognition of an invader Early defence responses Signal transduction Defence genes expression

7 Defence responses are induced systemically within the plant Induced resistance: - Chester Ross 1961 LAR, SAR Systemic acquired resistance - SAR SAR LAR

8 Besides pathogens, defence responses are activated also by various molecules - signalling molecules (SA, JA, ET), SA analogs Defence inducers BTH- induced resistance to TMV in tobacco

9 Elicitors and inducers of resistance Elicitors and inducers pathogens origin cultivation media filtrates, mycelia components, chitin, glucans, oligosaccharides, harpin protein plant origin fragments of cell walls, signalling molecules (salicylic acid, jasmonic acid), phenolics plant extracts ( botanicals ), essential oils, seaweed extracts chemical compounds - BTH, acrylic acid, phosphates, silicon, β- amino butyric acid, probenazole, saccharin, biochar, oxalic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaneoic acid, butanoic acid, butanediol, isoparrafin, etc.

10 Animal protein hydrolysates - Waste from food and leather industry - mainly hydrolysed collagen and keratin - identified in our screening as a potent inducer of resistance Tomas Bata University in Zlin, prof. Karel Kolomazník

11 Testing of compounds eliciting defence response and resistance in oilseed rape against Leptosphaeria maculans blackleg disease

12 Inoculation test treatment with inducers inoculation 2 weeks cultivation scaning image analysis

13 Inoculation test 3 collagen hydrolysate samples: Cn, CH-4, CH-8 Mean lesion area [mm 2 ] Water BTH Cn 20x Cn 100x Cn 500x CH-4 20x CH-4 100x CH-4 500x CH-8 20x CH-8 100x CH-8 500x

14 Gene expression test treatment with inducers 24 hrs incubation Real Time PCR RNA isolation reverse transcription

15 Gene expression test Collagen hydrolysates activate expression of gene regulated by SA- and ethylene (ET)- signalling pathways, PR-1 and HEL, respectively, in oilseed rape cotyledons. CH-4 and CH-8 are strong inducers of salicylic acid and ethylene signalling pathways.

16 We are looking for partners We are looking for partners interested in green technologies. We are searching for new sources of efficient compounds improving plant health within biowastes with aim to design preparation which could serve as an alternative to traditional fungicides. Such biostimulators could be utilized in organic farming. Prospective materials: plant residues containing secondary metabolites, phenolics, saponins, flavonoids, algal extracts, biosufactans, emulsifiers, etc.

17 What can we offer? Our laboratory is well equipped for experimental plant biology to test the efficiency of compounds in a laboratory scale. We have also a good cooperation with two main institutes in Czech capable of pursuing field experiments necessary for registration procedure of preparations. We are looking for partners for European cooperation in frame of HORIZON 2020.

18 Aknowledgements Projects: Improvement of rapeseed resistance against blackleg by biotechnological methods (MZE) Biostimulators and resistance inducers of biological origin in cereals and oilseed crops (MZE) Role of antimicrobial peptides in plant defence against pathogens (GA ČR) Signalling pathways in defence response of rapeseed against important pathogens (GA ČR) Colleagues: Action TD 1203 Olga Valentová Kim Dinh Phuong Vladimír Šašek Myrta Pařízková Vendula Hemzalová Věra Kašpárková Karel Kolomazník Lubomír Šimek

19 Thank you for your attention!

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