# Stacks & Queues. Data structures and Algorithms

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Stacks & Queues Data structures and Algorithms Acknowledgement: These slides are adapted from slides provided with Data Structures and Algorithms in C++ Goodrich, Tamassia and Mount (Wiley, 2004)

2 Outline and Reading The Stack ADT ( 5.1.1) Applications of Stacks ( 5.1.5) Array-based implementation ( 5.1.2) List-based stack ( 5.1.3) Applications ( 5.1.5) The Queue ADT ( 5.2.1) Implementation with a circular array ( 5.2.2) List-based queue ( 5.2.3) Round Robin schedulers ( 5.2.4) Stacks & Queues 2

3 Stacks Stacks & Queues 3

4 The Stack ADT Stack ADT stores arbitrary objects Insertions and deletions follow last-in first-out (LIFO) scheme Main stack operations: push(object): inserts an element pop(): removes and returns the last inserted element Auxiliary stack operations: top(): returns the last inserted element without removing it size(): returns the number of elements stored isempty(): returns a Boolean value indicating whether no elements are stored Stacks & Queues 4

5 Stack Example Operation output stack push(8) - (8) push(3) - (3, 8) pop() 3 (8) push(2) - (2, 8) push(5) - (5, 2, 8) top() 5 (5, 2, 8) pop() 5 (2, 8) pop() 2 (8) pop() 8 () pop() "error" () push(9) - (9) push(1) - (1, 9) Stacks & Queues 5

6 Stack Interface in C++ Interface corresponding to our Stack ADT Requires the definition of class EmptyStackException Corresponding STL construct: stack template <typename Object> class Stack { public: int size() const; bool isempty() const; Object& top() throw(emptystackexception); void push(const Object& o); Object pop() throw(emptystackexception); }; Stacks & Queues 6

7 Exceptions Attempting the execution of an operation of ADT may sometimes cause an error condition, called an exception Exceptions are said to be thrown by an operation that cannot be executed In the Stack ADT, operations pop and top cannot be performed if the stack is empty Attempting the execution of pop or top on an empty stack throws an EmptyStackException Stacks & Queues 7

8 Applications of Stacks Direct applications Page-visited history in a Web browser Undo sequence in a text editor Saving local variables when one function calls another, and this one calls another, and so on. Indirect applications Auxiliary data structure for algorithms Component of other data structures Stacks & Queues 8

9 C++ Run-time Stack The C++ run-time system keeps track of the chain of active functions with a stack When a function is called, the runtime system pushes on the stack a frame containing: Local variables and return value Program counter, keeping track of the statement being executed When a function returns, its frame is popped from the stack and control is passed to the method on top of the stack main() { int i; } i = 5; foo(i); foo(int j) { int k; k = j+1; bar(k); } bar(int m) { } bar PC = 1 m = 6 foo PC = 3 j = 5 k = 6 main PC = 2 i = 5 Stacks & Queues 9

10 Array-based Stack A simple way of implementing the Stack ADT uses an array We add elements from left to right A variable keeps track of the index of the top element Algorithm size() return t + 1 Algorithm pop() if isempty() then throw EmptyStackException else t t - 1 return S[t + 1] S t Stacks & Queues 10

11 Array-based Stack (cont.) The array storing the stack elements may become full A push operation will then throw a FullStackException Limitation of the array-based implementation Not intrinsic to the Stack ADT Algorithm push(o) if t = S.length - 1 then throw FullStackException else t t+ 1 S[t] o S t Stacks & Queues 11

12 Performance and Limitations - array-based implementation of stack ADT Performance Let n be the number of elements in the stack The space used is O(n) Each operation runs in time O(1) Limitations The maximum size of the stack must be defined a priori and cannot be changed Trying to push a new element into a full stack causes an implementation-specific exception Stacks & Queues 12

13 Array-based Stack in C++ template <typename Object> class ArrayStack { private: int capacity; // stack capacity Object *S; // stack array int t; // top of stack public: ArrayStack(int c) { capacity = c; S = new Object[capacity]; t = 1; } bool isempty() { return (t < 0); } Object pop() throw(emptystackexception) { if(isempty()) throw EmptyStackException ( Access to empty stack ); return S[t--]; } // (other functions omitted) Stacks & Queues 13

14 Stack with a Singly Linked List top We can implement a stack with a singly linked list The front element is stored at the first node of the list The space used is O(n) and each operation of the Stack ADT takes O(1) time nodes bottom t elements Stacks & Queues 14

15 Parentheses Matching Each (, {, or [ must be paired with a matching ), }, or [ correct: ( )(( )){([( )])} incorrect: ((( )(( )){([( )])} incorrect: )(( )){([( )])} incorrect: ({[ ])} incorrect: ( Stacks & Queues 15

16 Parentheses Matching Algorithm Algorithm ParenMatch(X,n): Input: An array X of n tokens, each of which is either a grouping symbol, a variable, an arithmetic operator, or a number Output: true if and only if all the grouping symbols in X match Let S be an empty stack for i=0 to n-1 do if X[i] is an opening grouping symbol then S.push(X[i]) else if X[i] is a closing grouping symbol then if S.isEmpty() then return false {nothing to match with} if S.pop() does not match the type of X[i] then return false {wrong type} if S.isEmpty() then return true {every symbol matched} else return false {some symbols were never matched} Stacks & Queues 16

17 HTML Tag Matching For fully-correct HTML, each <name> should pair with a matching </name> <body> <center> <h1> The Little Boat </h1> </center> <p> The storm tossed the little boat like a cheap sneaker in an old washing machine. The three drunken fishermen were used to such treatment, of course, but not the tree salesman, who even as a stowaway now felt that he had overpaid for the voyage. </p> <ol> <li> Will the salesman die? </li> <li> What color is the boat? </li> <li> And what about Naomi? </li> </ol> </body> The Little Boat The storm tossed the little boat like a cheap sneaker in an old washing machine. The three drunken fishermen were used to such treatment, of course, but not the tree salesman, who even as a stowaway now felt that he had overpaid for the voyage. 1. Will the salesman die? 2. What color is the boat? 3. And what about Naomi? Stacks & Queues 17

18 Queues Stacks & Queues 18

19 The Queue ADT The Queue ADT stores arbitrary objects Insertions and deletions follow the first-in first-out (FIFO) scheme Insertions are at the rear of the queue and removals are at the front of the queue Stacks & Queues 19

20 The Queue ADT (cont.) Main queue operations: enqueue(o): inserts element o at the end of the queue dequeue(): removes and returns the element at the front of the queue Auxiliary queue operations: front(): returns the element at the front without removing it size(): returns the number of elements stored isempty(): returns a Boolean value indicating whether no elements are stored Exceptions Attempting the execution of dequeue or front on an empty queue throws an EmptyQueueException Stacks & Queues 20

21 Queue Example Operation output queue enqueue(5) - (5) enqueue(3) - (5, 3) dequeue() 5 (3) enqueue(7) - (3, 7) dequeue() 3 (7) front() 7 (7) dequeue() 7 () dequeue() "error" () isempty() true () enqueue(9) - (9) size() 1 (9) Stacks & Queues 21

22 Informal C++ Queue Interface Informal C++ interface for our Queue ADT Requires the definition of class EmptyQueueException Corresponding built-in STL class: queue template <typename Object> class Queue { public: int size(); bool isempty(); Object& front() throw(emptyqueueexception); void enqueue(object o); Object dequeue() throw(emptyqueueexception); }; Stacks & Queues 22

23 Applications of Queues Direct applications Waiting lists Access to shared resources (e.g., printer) Multiprogramming Indirect applications Auxiliary data structure for algorithms Component of other data structures Stacks & Queues 23

24 Array-based Queue Use an array of size N in a circular fashion Two variables keep track of the front and rear f index of the front element r index immediately past the rear element Array location r is kept empty Q Q normal configuration f r wrapped-around configuration r f Stacks & Queues 24

25 Queue Operations We use the modulo operator (remainder of division) Algorithm size() return (N - f + r) mod N Algorithm isempty() return (f = r) Q Q f r r f Stacks & Queues 25

26 Queue Operations (cont.) Operation enqueue throws an exception if the array is full This exception is implementationdependent Algorithm enqueue(o) if size() = N - 1 then throw FullQueueException else Q[r] o r (r + 1) mod N Q Q f r r f Stacks & Queues 26

27 Queue Operations (cont.) Operation dequeue throws an exception if the queue is empty This exception is specified in the queue ADT Q f r Algorithm dequeue() if isempty() then throw EmptyQueueException else o Q[f] f (f + 1) mod N return o Q r f Stacks & Queues 27

28 Performance and Limitations - array-based implementation of queue ADT Performance Let n be the number of elements in the queue The space used is O(n) Each operation runs in time O(1) Limitations The maximum size of the queue must be defined a priori, and cannot be changed Trying to push a new element into a full queue causes an implementation-specific exception Stacks & Queues 28

29 front Queue with a Singly Linked List We can implement a queue with a singly linked list The front element is stored at the first node The rear element is stored at the last node The space used is O(n) and each operation of the Queue ADT takes O(1) time NOTE: we do not have the size-limitation of the array based f implementation, i.e., the queue is NEVER full. nodes r rear elements Stacks & Queues 29

30 Application: Round Robin Schedulers We can implement a round robin scheduler using a queue, Q, by repeatedly performing the following steps: 1. e = Q.dequeue() 2. Service element e 3. Q.enqueue(e) The Queue 1. Deque the next element 2. Service the next element 3. Enqueue the serviced element Shared Service Stacks & Queues 30

### This lecture. Abstract data types Stacks Queues. ADTs, Stacks, Queues 1. 2004 Goodrich, Tamassia

This lecture Abstract data types Stacks Queues ADTs, Stacks, Queues 1 Abstract Data Types (ADTs) An abstract data type (ADT) is an abstraction of a data structure An ADT specifies: Data stored Operations

### Stacks. Stacks (and Queues) Stacks. q Stack: what is it? q ADT. q Applications. q Implementation(s) CSCU9A3 1

Stacks (and Queues) 1 Stacks Stack: what is it? ADT Applications Implementation(s) 2 CSCU9A3 1 Stacks and ueues A stack is a very important data structure in computing science. A stack is a seuence of

### Outline. The Stack ADT Applications of Stacks Array-based implementation Growable array-based stack. Stacks 2

Stacks Outline The Stack ADT Applications of Stacks Array-based implementation Growable array-based stack Stacks 2 Abstract Data Types (ADTs) An abstract data type (ADT) is an abstraction of a data structure

### csci 210: Data Structures Stacks and Queues

csci 210: Data Structures Stacks and Queues Summary Topics stacks and queues as abstract data types implementations arrays linked lists analysis and comparison application: searching with stacks and queues

### What is a Stack? Stacks and Queues. Stack Abstract Data Type. Java Interface for Stack ADT. Array-based Implementation

Stacks and Queues What is a Stack? Stores a set of elements in a particular order Accessed in Last-In In-First-Out (LIFO) fashion Real life examples: Pile of books PEZ dispenser Cup trays in cafeteria

STACKS,QUEUES, AND LINKED LISTS Stacks Queues Linked Lists Double-Ended Queues Case Study: A Stock Analysis Applet 1 Stacks Astack is a container of objects that are inserted and removed according to the

### Algorithms and Data Structures

Basic Data Structures Page 1 BFH-TI: Softwareschule Schweiz Basic Data Structures Dr. CAS SD01 Basic Data Structures Page 2 Outline Data Structures and Abstract Data Types Linear Data Structures Implementing

Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Algorithms and Data Structures (ADS) Bachelor in Informatics Engineering Computer Science Department Lists, Stacks and Queues. Authors: Isabel Segura Bedmar April 2011

### Queues Outline and Required Reading: Queues ( 4.2 except 4.2.4) COSC 2011, Fall 2003, Section A Instructor: N. Vlajic

Queues Outline and Required Reading: Queues ( 4. except 4..4) COSC, Fall 3, Section A Instructor: N. Vlajic Queue ADT Queue linear data structure organized according to first-in/first-out (FIFO) principle!

### Outline. Computer Science 331. Stack ADT. Definition of a Stack ADT. Stacks. Parenthesis Matching. Mike Jacobson

Outline Computer Science 1 Stacks Mike Jacobson Department of Computer Science University of Calgary Lecture #12 1 2 Applications Array-Based Linked List-Based 4 Additional Information Mike Jacobson (University

### Data Structures and Algorithms

Data Structures and Algorithms CS245-2016S-04 Stacks and Queues David Galles Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco 04-0: Abstract Data Types An Abstract Data Type is a definition of

### 1.00 Lecture 35. Data Structures: Introduction Stacks, Queues. Reading for next time: Big Java: 15.1-15.3. Data Structures

1.00 Lecture 35 Data Structures: Introduction Stacks, Queues Reading for next time: Big Java: 15.1-15.3 Data Structures Set of reusable classes used in algorithms, simulations, operating systems, applications

### Queues and Stacks. Atul Prakash Downey: Chapter 15 and 16

Queues and Stacks Atul Prakash Downey: Chapter 15 and 16 Queues Queues occur in real life a lot. Queues at checkout Queues in banks In software systems: Queue of requests at a web servers Properties of

### Introduction to Stacks

Introduction to Stacks What is a Stack Stack implementation using array. Stack implementation using linked list. Applications of Stack. What is a Stack? Stack is a data structure in which data is added

### Last not not Last Last Next! Next! Line Line Forms Forms Here Here Last In, First Out Last In, First Out not Last Next! Call stack: Worst line ever!

ECE 551 C++ Programming, Data structures, and Algorithms Abstract Data Type: Stack Last In First Out (LIFO) 1 2 2 1 4 3 1 3 4 Stacks in Programming Worst line ever! 5 3 1 5 Stacks are not useful for waiting

### Data Structures. Topic #4

Topic #4 Today s Agenda Stack and Queue ADTs What are they Like Ordered Lists, are position oriented Use of Data Structures for Stacks and Queues arrays (statically & dynamically allocated) linear linked

Linked Lists Linked Lists, Queues, and Stacks CSE 10: Introduction to C Programming Fall 200 Dynamic data structure Size is not fixed at compile time Each element of a linked list: holds a value points

### Chapter 7: Queues and Deques

Chapter 7: Queues and Deques After the stack, the next simplest data abstraction is the queue. As with the stack, the queue can be visualized with many examples you are already familiar with from everyday

### QUEUES. Primitive Queue operations. enqueue (q, x): inserts item x at the rear of the queue q

QUEUES A queue is simply a waiting line that grows by adding elements to its end and shrinks by removing elements from the. Compared to stack, it reflects the more commonly used maxim in real-world, namely,

### Course: Programming II - Abstract Data Types. The ADT Queue. (Bobby, Joe, Sue, Ellen) Add(Ellen) Delete( ) The ADT Queues Slide Number 1

Definition Course: Programming II - Abstract Data Types The ADT Queue The ADT Queue is a linear sequence of an arbitrary number of items, together with access procedures. The access procedures permit addition

### UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK KOTA SAMARAHAN SARAWAK PSD2023 ALGORITHM & DATA STRUCTURE

STUDENT IDENTIFICATION NO UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK 94300 KOTA SAMARAHAN SARAWAK FAKULTI SAINS KOMPUTER & TEKNOLOGI MAKLUMAT (Faculty of Computer Science & Information Technology) Diploma in Multimedia

### Cpt S 223. School of EECS, WSU

Abstract Data Types 1 Topics Abstract Data Types (ADTs) Some basic ADTs: Lists Stacks Queues 2 Primitive Data Type vs. Abstract Data Types Primitive DT: ADT: programmer progra ammer Interface (API) e.g.,

### 12 Abstract Data Types

12 Abstract Data Types 12.1 Source: Foundations of Computer Science Cengage Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, the student should be able to: Define the concept of an abstract data type (ADT).

### Course: Programming II - Abstract Data Types. The ADT Stack. A stack. The ADT Stack and Recursion Slide Number 1

Definition Course: Programming II - Abstract Data Types The ADT Stack The ADT Stack is a linear sequence of an arbitrary number of items, together with access procedures. The access procedures permit insertions

### Announcements. FINAL EXAM Monday May 21, 1:30pm Review Session. Wednesday May 16, 7-9pm

Announcements FINAL EXAM Monday May 21, 1:30pm Review Session Wednesday May 16, 7-9pm 1 Recitation 12 Root Finding, Sorting, Stacks, Queues 2 Outline Linked Lists Sorting Queues 3 Object References Let

### St S a t ck a ck nd Qu Q eue 1

Stack and Queue 1 Stack Data structure with Last-In First-Out (LIFO) behavior In Out C B A B C 2 Typical Operations Pop on Stack Push isempty: determines if the stack has no elements isfull: determines

### Quiz 4 Solutions EECS 211: FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER PROGRAMMING II. 1 Q u i z 4 S o l u t i o n s

Quiz 4 Solutions Q1: What value does function mystery return when called with a value of 4? int mystery ( int number ) { if ( number

### Chapter 3: Restricted Structures Page 1

Chapter 3: Restricted Structures Page 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Restricted Structures Chapter 3 Overview Of Restricted Structures The two most commonly used restricted structures are Stack and Queue Both

### 2.6 Stacks and Queues

Stacks and Queues 2.6 Stacks and Queues Fundamental data types.! Set of operations (add, remove, test if empty) on generic data.! Intent is clear when we insert.! Which item do we remove? Stack.! Remove

### Analysis of a Search Algorithm

CSE 326 Lecture 4: Lists and Stacks 1. Agfgd 2. Dgsdsfd 3. Hdffdsf 4. Sdfgsfdg 5. Tefsdgass We will review: Analysis: Searching a sorted array (from last time) List ADT: Insert, Delete, Find, First, Kth,

### DATA STRUCTURE - QUEUE

DATA STRUCTURE - QUEUE http://www.tutorialspoint.com/data_structures_algorithms/dsa_queue.htm Copyright tutorialspoint.com Queue is an abstract data structure, somewhat similar to stack. In contrast to

### Linked Lists, Stacks, Queues, Deques. It s time for a chainge!

Linked Lists, Stacks, Queues, Deques It s time for a chainge! Learning Goals After this unit, you should be able to... Differentiate an abstraction from an implementation. Define and give examples of problems

### Sequential Data Structures

Sequential Data Structures In this lecture we introduce the basic data structures for storing sequences of objects. These data structures are based on arrays and linked lists, which you met in first year

### Lecture 4. The Java Collections Framework

Lecture 4. The Java s Framework Chapters 6.3-6.4-1 - The Java s Framework We will consider the Java s Framework as a good example of how apply the principles of objectoriented software engineering (see

### Class Overview. CSE 326: Data Structures. Goals. Goals. Data Structures. Goals. Introduction

Class Overview CSE 326: Data Structures Introduction Introduction to many of the basic data structures used in computer software Understand the data structures Analyze the algorithms that use them Know

### University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Department of Computer Science. First Examination

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Department of Computer Science First Examination CS 225 Data Structures and Software Principles Fall 2007 7p-9p, Thursday, October 4 Name: NetID: Lab Section

### Stacks. The stack ADT Stack Implementation. Stack Examples. using arrays using generic linked lists using List ADT. EECS 268 Programming II 1

Stacks The stack ADT Stack Implementation using arrays using generic linked lists using List ADT Stack Examples 1 Stacks and Queues Linear data structures each item has specific first, next, and previous

### Data Structures and Algorithms Stacks and Queues

Data Structures and Algorithms Stacks and Queues Chris Brooks Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco Department of Computer Science University of San Francisco p.1/23 6-0: Stacks and

### Big O and Limits Abstract Data Types Data Structure Grand Tour. http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/libstdc++/images/pbds_different_underlying_dss_1.

Big O and Limits Abstract Data Types Data Structure Grand Tour http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/libstdc++/images/pbds_different_underlying_dss_1.png Consider the limit lim n f ( n) g ( n ) What does it

### Programming with Data Structures

Programming with Data Structures CMPSCI 187 Spring 2016 Please find a seat Try to sit close to the center (the room will be pretty full!) Turn off or silence your mobile phone Turn off your other internet-enabled

### Lecture 4. The Java Collections Framework

Lecture 4. The Java s Framework Chapters 6.3-6.4-1 - Outline Introduction to the Java s Framework Iterators Interfaces, Classes and Classes of the Java s Framework - 2 - Outline Introduction to the Java

### Vector ADT. A Vector stores a list of elements: Access via rank/index.

Vector ADT A Vector stores a list of elements: Access via rank/index. Accessor methods: elementatrank(r), Update methods: replaceatrank(r, o), insertatrank(r, o), removeatrank(r) Generic methods: size(),

### Lecture 4. The Java Collections Framework

Lecture 4. The Java s Framework Chapters 6.3-6.4-1 - Outline Introduction to the Java s Framework Iterators Interfaces Classes Classes - 2 - The Java s Framework We will consider the Java s Framework as

### Lecture 3. Reading: Weiss Ch 4, sections 1-4 CSE 100, UCSD: LEC 3. Page 1 of 22

Lecture 3 Binary search trees Toward a binary search tree implementation using C++ templates C++ iterators and the binary search tree successor function Reading: Weiss Ch 4, sections 1-4 Page 1 of 22 Binary

### Linear ADTs. Restricted Lists. Stacks, Queues. ES 103: Data Structures and Algorithms 2012 Instructor Dr Atul Gupta

Linear DT-1: Restricted Lists Stacks, Queues tul Gupta Restricted Lists Stack Queue Circular queue Priority queue General Lists rrays Linked list Circular list Doubly linked list Linear DTs 1 Stacks Using

### Comp 245 Data Structures. Stacks

Comp 245 Data Structures Stacks What is a Stack? A LIFO (last in, first out) structure Access (storage or retrieval) may only take place at the TOP NO random access to other elements within the stack An

### DATA STRUCTURE - STACK

DATA STRUCTURE - STACK http://www.tutorialspoint.com/data_structures_algorithms/stack_algorithm.htm Copyright tutorialspoint.com A stack is an abstract data type ADT, commonly used in most programming

### Data Structures and Algorithms(3)

Ming Zhang Data Structures and Algorithms Data Structures and Algorithms(3) Instructor: Ming Zhang Textbook Authors: Ming Zhang, Tengjiao Wang and Haiyan Zhao Higher Education Press, 2008.6 (the "Eleventh

### Collections & Data Structures. CS 3: Computer Programming in Java

Collections & Data Structures CS 3: Computer Programming in Java Objectives The concept of a collection Separating the interface from the implementation Dynamic data structures Linked lists Queues and

### Data Structures Using C++ 2E. Chapter 5 Linked Lists

Data Structures Using C++ 2E Chapter 5 Linked Lists Doubly Linked Lists Traversed in either direction Typical operations Initialize the list Destroy the list Determine if list empty Search list for a given

### Data Structures and Algorithms

Data Structures and Algorithms Lecture 4 2016 Stacks and... 1/28 1 2 Circular Linked 3 Queue Syntax and Functions in C++ 4 Stacks and... 2/28 FIFO and LIFO Outline Data structures can be specialized versions

### Data Structures Using Java

Data Structures Using Java D. S. Malik P. S. Nair THOMSON COURSE TECHNOLOGY Australia Canada Mexico Singapore Spain United Kingdom United States TABLE OF Contents PREFACE XXV 1.Software Engineering Principles

### Chapter 8: I/O Organization and Interrupts

Chapter 8: I/O Organization and Interrupts I. CUSP has 5 I/O Devices A. Keyboard B. Display screen, CRT C. Printer D. Tape drive E. Timer II. I/O Ports A. CUSP has 4096 8-bit ports. Many are unused-this

### Algorithms and Data S tructures Structures Stack, Queues, and Applications Applications Ulf Leser

Algorithms and Data Structures Stack, Queues, and Applications Ulf Leser Content of this Lecture Stacks and Queues Tree Traversal Towers of Hanoi Ulf Leser: Alg&DS, Summer semester 2011 2 Stacks and Queues

### Introduction to Data Structures and Algorithms

Introduction to Data Structures and Algorithms Chapter: Elementary Data Structures(1) Lehrstuhl Informatik 7 (Prof. Dr.-Ing. Reinhard German) Martensstraße 3, 91058 Erlangen Overview on simple data structures

### CmpSci 187: Programming with Data Structures Spring 2015

CmpSci 187: Programming with Data Structures Spring 2015 Lecture #12 John Ridgway March 10, 2015 1 Implementations of Queues 1.1 Linked Queues A Linked Queue Implementing a queue with a linked list is

### A TOOL FOR DATA STRUCTURE VISUALIZATION AND USER-DEFINED ALGORITHM ANIMATION

A TOOL FOR DATA STRUCTURE VISUALIZATION AND USER-DEFINED ALGORITHM ANIMATION Tao Chen 1, Tarek Sobh 2 Abstract -- In this paper, a software application that features the visualization of commonly used

### Data Structures and Algorithms in C++

Data Structures and Algorithms in C++ Second Edition Michael T. Goodrich Department of Computer Science University of California, Irvine Roberto Tamassia Department of Computer Science Brown University

### Data Structures and Algorithms(3)

Ming Zhang Data Structures and Algorithms Data Structures and Algorithms(3) Instructor: Ming Zhang Textbook Authors: Ming Zhang, Tengjiao Wang and Haiyan Zhao Higher Education Press, 2008.6 (the "Eleventh

### Using Stacks: Parentheses Matching. Consider the following expression. ES 103: Data Structures and Algorithms 2012 Instructor Dr Atul Gupta

Stacks: Applications Atul Gupta Using Stacks: Parentheses Matching Consider the following expression [a + b *({c/d(1-n) + e/f (1+n))/(g sqrt[(b**2) 4*a*c]/2)] 1 Parentheses Matching Each (, {, or [ must

### ADTs and Modules in Java and C

CMPS 101 Algorithms and Abstract Data Types ADTs and Modules in Java and C Introduction This document introduces the concepts of Modules and ADTs, and describes how to implement them in both Java and C.

### CHAPTER 4 ESSENTIAL DATA STRUCTRURES

CHAPTER 4 ESSENTIAL DATA STRUCTURES 72 CHAPTER 4 ESSENTIAL DATA STRUCTRURES In every algorithm, there is a need to store data. Ranging from storing a single value in a single variable, to more complex

### Stacks, Queues & Trees. The Stack Interface. The Stack Interface. Prof. Dr. Harald Gall. Institut für Informatik Universität Zürich

Stacks, Queues & Trees Prof. Dr. Harald Gall Institut für Informatik Universität Zürich http://seal.ifi.uzh.ch The Stack Interface!! Stack!! Data structure holding several items.!! New items added to the

### CSE373: Data Structures and Algorithms Lecture 1: Introduction; ADTs; Stacks/Queues. Linda Shapiro Spring 2016

CSE373: Data Structures and Algorithms Lecture 1: Introduction; ADTs; Stacks/Queues Linda Shapiro Registration We have 180 students registered and others who want to get in. If you re thinking of dropping

### Data Structures grand tour continues Diagnostic Quiz Review Comparable, Comparator, and Function Objects. Check out from SVN: DiagQuizReview

Data Structures grand tour continues Diagnostic Quiz Review Comparable, Comparator, and Function Objects Check out from SVN: DiagQuizReview Written Assignment 2 Pascal Christmas Tree Some review Some new

### Stacks and Queues as Collections

An abstract data type (ADT) is a set of data and the particular operations that are allowed on that data Abstract because the operations you can perform on it are separated from the underlying implementation

### V.S.B. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KARUR. Academic Year: (ODD Semester) Department of Computer Science and Engineering

V.S.B. ENGINEERING COLLEGE, KARUR Academic Year: 2016-2017 (ODD Semester) Department of Computer Science and Engineering Question Bank (2013 Regulations) S.No. Name of the Subject / Lab Semester Page No.

### Lists, Stacks, and Queues

Lists, Stacks, and Queues Computer Science E-119 Harvard Extension School Fall 2011 David G. Sullivan, Ph.D. Representing a Sequence: Arrays vs. Linked Lists Sequence an ordered collection of items (position

### CS104: Data Structures and Object-Oriented Design (Fall 2013) October 24, 2013: Priority Queues Scribes: CS 104 Teaching Team

CS104: Data Structures and Object-Oriented Design (Fall 2013) October 24, 2013: Priority Queues Scribes: CS 104 Teaching Team Lecture Summary In this lecture, we learned about the ADT Priority Queue. A

### Module 2 Stacks and Queues: Abstract Data Types

Module 2 Stacks and Queues: Abstract Data Types A stack is one of the most important and useful non-primitive linear data structure in computer science. It is an ordered collection of items into which

### Questions 1 through 25 are worth 2 points each. Choose one best answer for each.

Questions 1 through 25 are worth 2 points each. Choose one best answer for each. 1. For the singly linked list implementation of the queue, where are the enqueues and dequeues performed? c a. Enqueue in

### CSE373: Data Structures and Algorithms Lecture 1: Introduction; ADTs; Stacks/Queues. Nicki Dell Spring 2014

CSE373: Data Structures and Algorithms Lecture 1: Introduction; ADTs; Stacks/Queues Nicki Dell Spring 2014 Registration We have 140 students registered and 140+ on the wait list! If you re thinking of

### import java.util.*; public class BinarySearch { public static final int NOT_FOUND = -1;

import java.util.*; public class BinarySearch public static final int NOT_FOUND = -1; * Performs the standard binary search * using two comparisons per level. * @return index where item is found, or NOT_FOUND.

### C++ Introduction to class and data abstraction

C++ Introduction to class and data abstraction 1 Data abstraction A data abstraction is a simplified view of an object by specifying what can be done with the object while hiding unnecessary details In

### Algorithms and Data Structures

Algorithms and Data Structures Part 2: Data Structures PD Dr. rer. nat. habil. Ralf-Peter Mundani Computation in Engineering (CiE) Summer Term 2016 Overview general linked lists stacks queues trees 2 2

### DATA STRUCTURES USING C

DATA STRUCTURES USING C QUESTION BANK UNIT I 1. Define data. 2. Define Entity. 3. Define information. 4. Define Array. 5. Define data structure. 6. Give any two applications of data structures. 7. Give

Arrays, Singly-Linked Lists, Stacks, Queues, Doubly-Linked Lists, Deques Slide Set 5: Learning Goals Differentiate an abstraction from an implementation. Define and give examples of problems that can be

### ! stack, queue, priority queue, dictionary, sequence, set e.g., a Stack is a list implements a LIFO policy on additions/deletions.

Abstract Data Types and Data Structures Often, these terms are used as synonyms. But it s better to think of them this way: ADTs and Data Structures An Abstract Data Type (ADT) represents a particular

### 7.1 Our Current Model

Chapter 7 The Stack In this chapter we examine what is arguably the most important abstract data type in computer science, the stack. We will see that the stack ADT and its implementation are very simple.

### Algorithms and Data Structures Written Exam Proposed SOLUTION

Algorithms and Data Structures Written Exam Proposed SOLUTION 2005-01-07 from 09:00 to 13:00 Allowed tools: A standard calculator. Grading criteria: You can get at most 30 points. For an E, 15 points are

### Krishna Institute of Engineering & Technology, Ghaziabad Department of Computer Application MCA-213 : DATA STRUCTURES USING C

Tutorial#1 Q 1:- Explain the terms data, elementary item, entity, primary key, domain, attribute and information? Also give examples in support of your answer? Q 2:- What is a Data Type? Differentiate

### 14 Stacks, Queues, And Linked Lists

14-1 Java Au Naturel by William C. Jones 14-1 14 Stacks, Queues, And Linked Lists Overview This chapter requires that you have a solid understanding of arrays (Chapter Seven) and have studied Exceptions

### Hash Tables. Dr. Aiman Hanna Department of Computer Science & Software Engineering Concordia University, Montreal, Canada

Hash Tables Dr. Aiman Hanna Department of Computer Science & Software Engineering Concordia University, Montreal, Canada These slides has been extracted, modified and updated from original slides of :

### 1.204 Lecture 6. Data structures: stacks, queues, trees, dictionaries. Data structures

1.204 Lecture 6 Data structures: stacks, queues, trees, dictionaries Data structures Correct and efficient representation of data and applicable rules Stack: last in, first out discipline Queue: first

### 22c:31 Algorithms. Ch3: Data Structures. Hantao Zhang Computer Science Department http://www.cs.uiowa.edu/~hzhang/c31/

22c:31 Algorithms Ch3: Data Structures Hantao Zhang Computer Science Department http://www.cs.uiowa.edu/~hzhang/c31/ Linear Data Structures Now we can now explore some convenient techniques for organizing

### 4.3 Stacks and Queues. Pushdown Stacks. Data Structures and Data Types. Collections

Data Structures and Data Types 4.3 Stacks and Queues Data types Set values. Set operations on those values. Some are built in to Java: int, double, char,... Most are not: Complex, Picture, Charge, Stack,

### Student Number: Lab day:

CSC 148H1 Summer 2009 Midterm Test Duration 80 minutes Aids allowed: none Last Name: Student Number: Lab day: First Name: Lecture Section: L0101 Instructor: R. Danek Do not turn this page until you have

### Dictionaries and Hash Tables

Dictionaries and Hash Tables 0 1 2 3 025-612-0001 981-101-0002 4 451-229-0004 Dictionaries and Hash Tables 1 Dictionary ADT ( 8.1.1) The dictionary ADT models a searchable collection of keyelement items

### Stacks, Queues and Linked Lists

Stacks, Queues and Linked Lists Adnan Aziz 1 Dynamic sets CLRS Part III, page 197 In mathematics, a set is a well-defined collection of elements (elements could be numbers, functions, geometric shapes);

### Stacks and queues. Algorithms and Data Structures, Fall 2011. Rasmus Pagh. Based on slides by Kevin Wayne, Princeton

Algorithms and Data Structures, Fall 2011 Stacks and queues Rasmus Pagh Based on slides by Kevin Wayne, Princeton Algorithms, 4 th Edition Robert Sedgewick and Kevin Wayne Copyright 2002 2011 Stacks and

### Common Data Structures

Data Structures 1 Common Data Structures Arrays (single and multiple dimensional) Linked Lists Stacks Queues Trees Graphs You should already be familiar with arrays, so they will not be discussed. Trees

### 1) The postfix expression for the infix expression A+B*(C+D)/F+D*E is ABCD+*F/DE*++

Answer the following 1) The postfix expression for the infix expression A+B*(C+D)/F+D*E is ABCD+*F/DE*++ 2) Which data structure is needed to convert infix notations to postfix notations? Stack 3) The

### Algorithms and Abstract Data Types

Algorithms and Abstract Data Types Informally, algorithm means is a well-defined computational procedure that takes some value, or set of values, as input and produces some other value, or set of values,

### COMP 356 Programming Language Structures Notes for Chapter 5 of Concepts of Programming Languages Names, Types and Scopes

Some definitions: COMP 356 Programming Language Structures Notes for Chapter 5 of Concepts of Programming Languages Names, Types and Scopes a name is a string of characters (a word) that represents a program

### Java Software Structures

INTERNATIONAL EDITION Java Software Structures Designing and Using Data Structures FOURTH EDITION John Lewis Joseph Chase This page is intentionally left blank. Java Software Structures,International Edition

### ! A particular way of storing and organizing data in. ! A data type having

Introduction to ADTs and C++ STL Abstract Data Types Standard Template Library CS 3358 Spring 2015 Jill Seaman Data Structure A particular way of storing and organizing data in a computer so that it can

C++ How to Program, 8/e 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. 1992-2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. We ve studied fixed-size data structures such as one-dimensional arrays

### Abstract Data Type. EECS 281: Data Structures and Algorithms. The Foundation: Data Structures and Abstract Data Types

EECS 281: Data Structures and Algorithms The Foundation: Data Structures and Abstract Data Types Computer science is the science of abstraction. Abstract Data Type Abstraction of a data structure on that