The American Revolution

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1 Main Idea The American Revolution Enlightenment ideas led to revolution, independence, and a new government for the United States. Content Statement 6/Learning Goal Describe how Enlightenment thinkers applied reason to discover natural laws guiding human nature in social, political and economic institutions Content Statement 7/Learning Goal Analyze how Enlightenment ideas challenged practices related to religious authority, absolute rule and mercantilism Content Statement 8/Learning Goal: Describe how Enlightenment ideas influenced the American Revolution, French Revolution and Latin American wars for independence.

2 Change and Crisis Enlightenment and Revolution By the mid-1700s dramatic new Enlightenment ideas had spread to North America, inspiring the British colonists to forge a new nation. Forming a New Identity Mid-1770s British colonies had expanded rapidly along east coast since early 1600s Offered opportunities not available in Great Britain Land plentiful, cheap Class system absent Good chance for advancement through intelligence, hard work Population over 2.1 million Colonies had been established nearly 150 years Allowed large measure of independence, though still British subjects Each had own government, made own laws Began to identify less with Britain

3 1) Opposing British Policies Britain began to assert its right to impose laws on colonies Colonies made to pay war costs in taxes of French and Indian War since it benefited them Colonial leaders outraged Parliament taxed them without representatives there to plead case. No taxation without representation. 1)Stamp Act/Townshend Acts: Both taxes on Colonists

4 2)Stamp Enlightenment Act/Townshend and Revolution Acts: Both taxes Colonists Stamp Act, 1765, required colonists to pay tax for official stamp on all newspapers, legal documents, other public papers First direct attempt to tax colonists Called for boycott of English goods, act repealed )Townshend Acts 1767, British imposed taxes on glass, paper, paints, tea Boston merchants called for another boycott British sent troops to keep order, Bostonians harassed troops

5 Boston Massacre 3)Opposing British Policies 1770, British discipline snapped British troops shot, killed five men Most of Townshend Acts partially repealed, tax on tea remained Boston Tea Party 1773, Sons of Liberty boarded ships in Boston Harbor, dumped crates of tea overboard, British closed port Parliament passed Intolerable Acts, regulations limiting freedom of colonists

6 Opposing British Policies First Continental Congress Called in Philadelphia, 1774 Colonists listed grievances against British Plan to reconcile differences with British presented Plan voted down

7 Shot Heard round the World Revolution Begins Common Sense Sons of Liberty expected war, hid weapons in countryside and towns west of Boston April 1775, British troops marched out of Boston to find weapons British troops confronted colonial militiamen in Lexington Not all colonists wanted independence from Britain Thomas Paine argued in 1776 pamphlet, Common Sense, that colonies no longer needed British rule Paine s pamphlet helped gain popular support for cause

8 The American Revolution was the first war in which old ideas about government were challenged by the ideas of the Enlightenment. The Patriots created a nation based on these ideas. Declaring Independence Second Continental Congress, 1776 Committee formed to write document declaring colonies independence 4)Struggle for Independence Committee Members familiar with Enlightenment concepts Adams, Jefferson, Franklin Jefferson wrote draft incorporating ideas from Locke, Rousseau Declaration Elegant expression of Enlightenment political philosophy Drew ideas from English Bill of Rights, 1689 Individual, society rights, freedoms

9 5)The Revolutionary War-Defensive War Enlightenment and Revolution Commanding General Beginning of Revolution Second Continental Congress assigned George Washington as army s commanding general Courageous, resourceful leader Early Battles British defeated Washington in Battle of Long Island Washington crossed Delaware, engineered surprising victory at Trenton Evacuated Boston, June 1775 Began poorly for British Americans positioned cannons overlooking city Valley Forge British defeated Washington in New Jersey Washington moved into Pennsylvania, spent bitter winter at Valley Forge

10 5)The Revolutionary War-Defensive War The British won battles in upstate New York during the summer of 1777, but in October the Americans won the Battle of Saratoga. The victory was crucial as Benjamin Franklin was in Paris seeking aid from the French. This alliance became a turning point in the war. Strategies in the South American forces strengthened over next two years British tried to divide colonies in two but defensive war strategy helped colonists Captured Savannah, 1778, Charleston, 1780 Americans made numerous attacks on British in South Carolina Victories in the North French and American armies surrounded British, Yorktown, September 1781 Lord Cornwallis surrendered after siege of several weeks American colonists won independence, October 1781 *Guerilla warfare British government formally recognized the independence of the United States with the Treaty of Paris, in September of 1783.

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12 The Revolutionary War The Treaty of Paris Set the geographic boundaries for the new United States Gave Americans much greater territory than original 13 colonies Americans gained all land east of Mississippi River and north of 31 st parallel End of war just the beginning Americans faced task of building new nation

13 Forming a New Government Enlightenment and Revolution 6)The Articles of Confederation Colonists had to learn to work together, form new government First government established by Articles of Confederation, approved 1781 National government made deliberately weak to avoid abuses of power Government had no power to tax, could not negotiate with foreign nations Articles produced government too weak to govern effectively: Strong legislature, weak executive, no federal judiciary. Shays s Rebellion proved government was too weak The Constitution Delegates met at Constitutional Convention, 1787, to revise Articles Instead wrote Constitution George Washington presided over convention James Madison negotiated main points 7)Federal System Constitution created federal system of government Certain powers reserved to federal government, others for states Three branches of government: executive, judicial, legislative System of checks and balances *Whiskey Rebellion: Proof government was stronger

14 Forming a New Government Influence of Enlightenment thought on Constitution very powerful Founding principle, government exists for the people Reflected Locke s and Rousseau s idea of government by consent of people Division of government into three branches reflected Montesquieu s idea of separation of powers

15 7)The Bill of Rights Enlightenment and Revolution 8)Impact of American Government Opponents to Constitution said it failed to protect citizen s rights Wanted protection of individual s rights added to Constitution Congress added Bill of Rights, first 10 amendments to Constitution Protected natural rights advocated by Voltaire, Locke, Rousseau News of successful American revolution impacted other governments French Revolution begins due to inspiration of American Revolution Although French King Louis XVI supported Americans, France experienced own revolution, 1789 America had shown it was possible to oppose tyranny Soldiers courage, Constitution framers wisdom, shining examples Both were revolts against monarchs seen as out of touch with desires of their citizens. FOUNDATION WAS ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS.

16 Enlightenment and 9)French Revolution King Louis XVI Supports the American revolution even though he rules his country like the English ruled the colonies. He supported the colonists in order to regain land in North America, and as pay back for defeat in French and Indian War. American Revolution helps to spark the French Revolution.

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