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1 Welcome to the site that will help you prepare for the Name the Tissue and its Function game. Questions to remember while you are practicing: a. What is the tissue type? b. What is its function? c. How does its structure relate to its function? Bonus points will be given to those who can guess the tissue type and the location without using any clues- so use these images and the information in your textbook to study!!

2 The four basic tissue types and their particular functions: Muscle: used for contraction, to cause movement Epithelial: used for interior or exterior linings of organs Connective: used for support, storage or transport Nerve: used to pick up and transmit impulses Practice Quiz: Go here to see if you ve mastered the information!

3 Muscle tissue: has the ability to contract. It is used for movement, or support. There are two classes of muscle, based on their appearance: a. Striated muscle- appears to be striped, or striated. There are two types within this group: Skeletal: multinucleate, under voluntary control used to move bones Cardiac: involuntary control, branched, multinucleate, found in the heart, used to pump blood. b. Smooth, lacks the striations, tends to be tapered or spindle-shaped. This type of cell is used for involuntary muscle contractions and can be found in the digestive, circulatory, respiratory systems

4 1 Muscle cells have the ability to contract, or get shorter and relax or go back to their resting length. 2 They do this by having fibers that can slide past each other to shorten their length. 3 To go back to their original position to relax the muscle, the fibers slide back.

5 Actual images of human muscle cells: Skeletal Muscle: very straight,long, even rows of cells, more than one nucleus, regular striping (striations) Cardiac Muscle, branched cells, more than one nucleus, striations are not as easy to see as on skeletal.

6 Smooth Muscle: spindle-shaped cells, no striations. Used to control the dilation or constriction of tubes in the respiratory, circulatory, reproductive and digestive systems. ***Be careful not to confuse squamous epithelial with smooth muscle tissues. **** Squamous epithelial has irregular cell shape, and when in a tissue is usually in very thin layers

7 Epithelial: Structure and function Epithelial cells function to line and/or protect parts of the body. They can be in one layer- called simple, or multiple or modified layers termed stratified Squamous: when in one layer they allow some material to leak pastthey are found lining areas that need to be thin and leaky like the walls of capillaries. In multiple layers they are found in places that need protection from abrasion. The top layer can be rubbed away without damaging the lower layers. Cuboidal: cells specialized for lining tubes used for secretion found in many glands and the linings of the kidney tubules. They can be in one layer to line small areas, and can be tightly joined to keep material in or out.

8 Columnar: Columnar epithelial is found lining areas where secretion or active absorption is an important function. This type of tissue can be found in the linings of the lungs and digestive track. They can be tightly joined to only allow selective materials to pass through the structures they line. They can also have modifications like cilia to help move materials in the structures they line.

9 These are pictures from actual human tissue samples, Magnification 400x Images of the three examples of simple epithelia: Columnar: found lining the respiratory track Squamous: found lining the capillaries Cuboidal: found lining ducts in a salivary gland

10 Columnar epithelial: Columnar epithelial is found where secretion or active absorption is an important function, so it is found in the linings of the lungs and digestive track. Note the rectangular shape of these cells, match the illustration to the correct cells in the tissue.

11 Cuboidal epithelial cells specialized for secretion are found in many glands and the linings in the kidney tubules. Note the row of cells with the cube-like shape, match the sketch with the row of cells in the tissue.

12 Simple squamous cells line areas that need to be thin and leaky, this is where exchange of materials needs to occurin the linings of blood vessels and air sacs in the lungs. Stratified squamous occurs in the skin, and the lining of the stomach where layers are continuously shed.

13 Connective tissue: This is a diverse group of tissues whose functions vary from binding together, support, and protect the other types of tissues found in your body. Some of these tissues store or transport materials necessary for your body to function Each one of these tissues are composed of living cells and a non-living matrix that helps it perform its job. Bone Loose Cartilage, tendons Adipose (fat) Blood

14 Living cells Bone: used for support and storage of minerals Living cells Non -living matrix Living cells Cartilage, tendons and ligaments: used for support and protection Non -living matrix Adipose (fat): used for energy storage, protection and insulation Non -living matrix Blood: used for transport and protection Living cells Non -living matrix (plasma)

15 Actual slides of human connective tissues: Non -living matrix Bone: notice dense matrix which gives strength and stores minerals Living cells Living cells Adipose (fat): notice large open areas where fat can be stored Non -living matrix- where fat is stored

16 Cartilage, tendons and ligaments: used for support and protection Living cells Dense connective: helps reduce friction at joints, strong to help protect the ends of bones Non -living matrix: dense to give support or help protect Non -living matrix Loose connective tissue: used for support and holding tissues together while keeping some flexibility, attaches skin to muscle. Living cells

17 Blood: used for transport of nutrients and wastes to and from body organs as well as protection from infecting pathogens Non -living matrix (plasma) is fluid to help transport material Living cells: Red blood cells: Carry respiratory gassesoxygen and carbon dioxide White blood cells: fight infection

18 Nervous tissue: transmits messages by carrying electrical impulses over neurons or nerve cells Nerve cells are made up of: Synaptic ends: transmits impulse to next cell in line. Axon: long thin, carries impulse over distances Cell body: contains nucleus Dendrites: branched to pick-up impulses

19 The next part of this site is to test your knowledge by naming the tissue in the picture and explaining how its structure helps its function. Next to the image of the tissue sample are the two questions you will need to answer in the Cells and Tissue game. The first one is the name of the tissue: Tissue Name: The second one is How does the structure help with the function of the tissue type?.

20 Tissue Name: How does the structure help with the function of the tissue type?.

21 Connective How does the structure help with the function of the tissue type?.

22 This is blood, it has a non-living matrix of plasma that helps transport materials through the body. The living cells can carry respiratory gasses, or trap foreign materials

23 Tissue Name: How does the structure help with the function of the tissue type?.

24 Columnar epithelial How does the structure help with the function of the tissue type?.

25 The rectangular cells help line structures. They can be tightly bound to each other to help control the movement of materials into the structures they line.

26 Tissue Name: How does the structure help with the function of the tissue type?.

27 Muscle How does the structure help with the function of the tissue type?.

28 These cells have fibers that allow them to contract or get shorter. They are used to move materials and body parts.

29 Tissue Name: How does the structure help with the function of the tissue type?.

30 Epithelial How does the structure help with the function of the tissue type?.

31 These cells line surfaces. This is stratified squamous- it forms in layers to protect surfaces that are exposed to abrasion. This way the top layers can be worn away without harming the layers beneath.

32 Tissue Name: How does the structure help with the function of the tissue type?.

33 Connective Tissue How does the structure help with the function of the tissue type?.

34 This tissue is made up a non-living matrix that has large storage space to hold fat produced by the body. The living cells are dispersed throughout the matrix.

35 Tissue Name: How does the structure help with the function of the tissue type?.

36 Muscle How does the structure help with the function of the tissue type?.

37 This is smooth muscle tissue, these cells have fibers that allow the cell to contract, or get shorter, and relax back to their original size. In this way they help move materials in the body.

38 Tissue Name: How does the structure help with the function of the tissue type?.

39 Nervous How does the structure help with the function of the tissue type?.

40 These cells help carry messages throughout the body. They have branching ends that help pick up and send out impulses (or messages) as well as long strands that carry the impulse over distances through the body.

41 Tissue Name: How does the structure help with the function of the tissue type?.

42 Connective How does the structure help with the function of the tissue type?.

43 This is bone tissue which needs to be strong so it can protect and support different parts of the body. Its non-living matrix contains minerals that help give it strength. The living cells are imbedded in this matrix.

44 Tissue Name: How does the structure help with the function of the tissue type?.

45 Epithelial How does the structure help with the function of the tissue type?.

46 This is cuboidal epithelial. It lines ducts, or tubes, in the body. The cells in this tissue are tightly bound together to help keep materials moving along the surface.

47 Tissue Name: How does the structure help with the function of the tissue type?.

48 How does the structure help with the function of the tissue type?. Muscle

49 This is cardiac muscle. These fibers need to move blood through the heart. These cells have fibers that can contract, or get shorter, as well as slide back to their original position. This helps pump the blood.

50 Tissue Name: How does the structure help with the function of the tissue type?.

51 Connective How does the structure help with the function of the tissue type?.

52 This dense connective tissue is tough to protect the ends of bones and reduce friction. It has a tough, semi flexible, non-living matrix that helps to do this. The living cells are with in this matrix.

53 Tissue Name: How does the structure help with the function of the tissue type?.

54 Connective How does the structure help with the function of the tissue type?.

55 This loose connective tissue that helps hold your skin onto your body. It has a tough, semi flexible, non-living matrix that helps to do this. The living cells are with in this matrix.

56 Tissue Name: How does the structure help with the function of the tissue type?.

57 Epithelial How does the structure help with the function of the tissue type?.

58 This is columnar epithelial and its function is to line surfaces over which materials move. The cells are joined tightly together to control what can move past them. Some contain cilia to help move materials along the surface.

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