Thermal Imaging at the Data Center

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1 Thermal Imaging at the Data Center Presented by: Eric Stockton and Greg Stockton

2 Today s Presentation Thermal Imaging at the Data Center Thanks, Part 1 Electrical/Mechanical P/PM Part 2 Thermal Mapping

3 Abstract Thermal Imaging at the Data Center Ensuring that data center infrastructure stays up and running is mission critical. Hard failures can cost a large business millions of dollars in lost productivity and opportunity costs. If this were not a big enough challenge, data centers consume a lot of energy, and in times of rising worldwide demand, high operating expenses can put a serious dent in the information technology (IT) organization s budget. Because of the need for high uptime rates, the everincreasing cost of electricity, higher server densities and limits on electrical grid capacity - data center operators are now looking for ways to optimize performance and increase their kw per square foot rating all while reducing costs. Two areas where Thermal Imaging can help DC Operators are: Electrical/Mechanical Predictive Maintenance Cooling Systems and Heat-Generating Equipment Condition Monitoring Thanks, Because temperature is directly linked to energy consumption and equipment operation, infrared thermography (thermal imaging and thermal mapping) can be used to monitor power consumption, cooling, and IT operations. Monitoring the electrical equipment, cooling equipment and computing equipment which is at the heart of the of the data center. This is precisely where thermal infrared thermography (IRt) can help the most!

4 Abstract Thermal Imaging at the Data Center Data Center infrared inspections of electrical switchgear has been standard practice since the first data center was built. But DCs have specific requirements and precautions that make these types of inspections unique, requiring a higher level infrared thermographer, teamwork and 100% attention to detail to inspect the equipment when it is energized and at different loads. These issues will be discussed in the first half of the presentation. In the second half of the presentation, Infrared Thermal Mapping will be discussed. Thermal Mapping is the newest infrared application for data centers that captures the data center cooling system in 2D and 3D imagery. Combined with analysis and with emphasis on CRAC unit efficiency and proper cooling distribution, a data center s heat image can be very useful as a conditioned-based monitoring practice and to validate the models used to design the data center. The technology allows the data center operator to fine tune the HVAC system to achieve the specified temperature specifications throughout the entire data center and focus on areas of the cabinets that may have elevated equipment temperatures due to design problems, CPU utilization, load capacity or HVAC issues. Thanks,

5 Part 1 - Electrical/Mechanical P/PM Electrical/Mechanical P/PM

6 Typical Data Center Switchgear Inspected Main Breakers Generators Automatic Transfer Switch UPS Modules DC Battery Banks UPS Output Breakers Power Distribution Units (PDUs) PDU Circuit Panels Preferred and Alternate circuits Power Strips in server cabinets Electrical/Mechanical P/PM

7 Resistive Load Testing Suggested Protocols Be Onsite and Ready before the test is started. Physically check all the Connections and Phases before the test. Testing is done by increasing the power (load) gradually making sure no problems exist. The test depends on your approval of each level of load, do not take chances or see how hot a connection will get. A problem has to be solved before the test may continue. Check the Resistive Load Cables, they are sometimes rental units with problems on the test equipment themselves. Caution Note: A fire or smoke on the testing setup could shut down the Data Center equipment that is operating Electrical/Mechanical P/PM

8 Electrical/Mechanical P/PM Resistive Load Testing

9 Electrical/Mechanical P/PM Resistive Load Testing

10 Electrical/Mechanical P/PM Resistive Load Testing

11 Electrical/Mechanical P/PM Battery Bank Testing

12 Battery Bank Testing Check charging system and batteries prior to load testing to: check the charging system under - normal - load function find critical issues and that could cause a catastrophic failure Look at all the battery connections before starting the test. Wear your PPE Arc Flash Protection. Electrical/Mechanical P/PM

13 Electrical/Mechanical P/PM Battery Bank Testing

14 Electrical/Mechanical P/PM Battery Bank Testing

15 Electrical/Mechanical P/PM Battery Bank Testing

16 Electrical/Mechanical P/PM Battery Bank Testing

17 Full Discharge Battery Testing Predetermine the Delta-T (temp difference) that will shut down the test. This is a timed duration test to supply power to the system before the generators start and synchronize to supply critical loads. Check the equipment during the test, not at preset intervals. Battery loose connections are extremely dangerous and should be checked from a safe distance. Use Proper PPE and don t get to close to a known problem. Open and check the Battery Bank Isolation Breakers when they trip at End of Run to see problems from the discharge. Check the batteries during the test and for 30 minutes following a full discharge. Electrical/Mechanical P/PM

18 Electrical/Mechanical P/PM Full Discharge Battery Testing

19 Full Discharge Battery Testing F SP01: 79.6 SP02: SP04: 80.9 SP05: 70.6 SP03: F 60 Electrical/Mechanical P/PM

20 Utility Feeds and Substations Coordinate with the utility to verify the correct feed. (Feed locations can be 20 miles away from the DC.) Check Primary and Secondary Feeds. Check Pad-Mounted and Pole-Mounted Utility Equipment. The disconnects and other equipment must be checked under load. Notes: Check utility equipment because any failure could cause problems in the switchgear due to loosing one phase of a 3 phase system. Always recheck any repairs as soon as possible. Electrical/Mechanical P/PM

21 Electrical/Mechanical P/PM Utility Feeds and Substations

22 Electrical/Mechanical P/PM Utility Feeds and Substations

23 Main Breakers and Automatic Transfer Switches Electrical/Mechanical P/PM

24 Main Breakers and Automatic Transfer Switches Note any Temperature differences no matter how small. Do not touch any part of the switchgear stay clear! Check from all possible angles. Complete full load testing on the Normal Load Complete full load testing on the Generator Load Electrical/Mechanical P/PM

25 Main Breakers and Automatic Transfer Switches Electrical/Mechanical P/PM

26 Main Breakers and Automatic Transfer Switches Electrical/Mechanical P/PM

27 Generators A Generator Run Test is not a Load Test. Always wear proper hearing protection. Always check the Jacket Cooling Water Heater. Always have the electrician open the generator lead cover before the test begins and check it while under load at the beginning, during the test, and at 100%. Electrical/Mechanical P/PM

28 UPS Systems in General Dual-power technology requires two completely independent electrical systems tied together with switchgear. When the normal source of power fails, these dual-path power supply systems quickly switch to a back-up source. A UPS system keeps the power flowing until the normal source is restored or another source is brought online and synchronized. Usually, the UPS, through a PDU or power distribution unit takes AC power, converts it to DC where a bank of batteries is tied in and then inverts it back to AC to feed the computer hardware. Since the systems often cannot be tested on-line, they must be tested during maintenance windows, planned outages or times when the impact of testing is lower, so that simulations can be run. Electrical/Mechanical P/PM

29 Electrical/Mechanical P/PM UPS Systems in General

30 Electrical/Mechanical P/PM UPS Systems in General

31 Electrical/Mechanical P/PM UPS Modules

32 Electrical/Mechanical P/PM UPS Modules

33 Electrical/Mechanical P/PM UPS Modules

34 Electrical/Mechanical P/PM UPS Modules

35 Electrical/Mechanical P/PM UPS Modules

36 UPS Output Breakers This is the Critical piece of equipment and a critical load as each breaker is supplying a UPS feed. These breakers are usually only loaded to 40% breaker capacity. There are preferred and alternate feeds that are capable of doubling the load instantly if the preferred feed is lost. Electrical/Mechanical P/PM

37 Electrical/Mechanical P/PM UPS Output Breakers

38 Power Distribution Units (PDUs) Each PDU must be completely tested on each Feed (Transformer) and 0%,25%,50%,75%, and 100% before being Commissioned. This area is a high air flow area. Do not have any loose paper/clothing that could blow into the system. Take your time checking this equipment as each panel has a large number of components and connections. Sometimes you must look for what is not hot e.g., capacitors. Control equipment can shutdown the system as quick as a failure of the switchgear. Electrical/Mechanical P/PM

39 Power Distribution Units (PDUs) Two Transformers with different UPS feeds must be checked. Static Breakers to transfer loads. 110 volt circuit panels that directly feed the data center equipment. Every PDU is tested with a resistive load and a Non-UPS Power supply before being incorporated into the Data Center operational equipment. WARNING: There is no backup if you trip one of these 110 volt breakers the load is then shared by the alternate feed breaker. Electrical/Mechanical P/PM

40 Electrical/Mechanical P/PM Power Distribution Units (PDUs)

41 Electrical/Mechanical P/PM CRAC Unit Main Breaker

42 Electrical/Mechanical P/PM Rooftop Chiller Equipment

43 Part 2 Thermal Mapping of Data Centers Thermal Mapping of Data Centers

44 Power Use at Data Centers DCs use around 3% of all electricity consumed Thermal Mapping of Data Centers

45 Power Use at Data Centers The US E.P.A. (August of 2007) estimated national energy consumption by computer servers and data centers would double from (100 billion kwhs) but the recession makes those estimates a little high. DCs are inherently inefficient with electricity Around 90% of their total energy usage is from failsafe, redundant systems and only 10% is actually used for server or network communications. Thermal Mapping of Data Centers

46 Power Use at Data Centers Given: Raising the temperature in the DC reduces electricity use and therefore money. Why don t facilities manager raise the temperatures? *Top 7 Reasons Why Data Centers Don t Raise Their Thermostats: 7 - Some HVAC Equipment Can t Handle Higher Return Air Temperatures 6 - Colocation Data Centers Have To Be All Things To All People 5 - Fear, Uncertainty, Doubt (FUD)/Ignorance 4 - Intolerable Work Environment 3 - Cultural Norms and Inertia 2 - Concern Over Higher Failure Rates and Performance Issues 1 - Thermal Ride-Through Time The reason is that pressure is not put on them to do it! *From a recent article by Ron Vokoun JE Dunn Construction Thermal Mapping of Data Centers

47 Power Use at Data Centers 2 minutes 57sec. Thermal Mapping of Data Centers

48 Typical Thermal Image of a Raised Floor DC in USA Thermal Mapping of Data Centers

49 Typical Thermal Image of a Raised Floor DC in USA Before After Thermal Mapping of Data Centers

50 Three different types of Thermal Imaging Possible Thermal Mapping of Data Centers

51 Thermal Mapping of Data Centers 2D Thermal Mapping The Construct

52 Thermal Mapping of Data Centers 2D Thermal Mapping Floor Mapping

53 2D Thermal Mapping Ceiling Mapping Thermal Mapping of Data Centers

54 2D Thermal Mapping Ceiling & Floor Compared Thermal Mapping of Data Centers

55 Thermal Mapping of Data Centers 2D Thermal Mapping Server Imaging

56 Thermal Mapping of Data Centers 2D Thermal Mapping Server Imaging

57 2D Thermal Mapping Server Imaging Comparisons Thermal Mapping of Data Centers

58 2D Thermal Mapping Oblique Down the Aisles Down the Aisles IR imaging has very limited use in diagnosis of problems, but is simple enough for any amateur to mess-up. Thermal Mapping of Data Centers

59 2D Thermal Mapping Oblique Down the Aisles Thermal Mapping of Data Centers

60 2D Thermal Mapping Oblique Down the Aisles Thermal Mapping of Data Centers

61 Thermal Mapping of Data Centers 3D Thermal Mapping Wall Imaging

62 Thermal Mapping of Data Centers 3D Thermal Mapping Wall Imaging

63 Thermal Mapping of Data Centers 3D Thermal Mapping 360 Mapping

64 Thermal Mapping of Data Centers 3D Thermal Mapping 360 Mapping

65 Thermal Mapping of Data Centers 3D Thermal Mapping 3D Modeling

66 Thermal Mapping of Data Centers 3D Thermal Mapping 3D Modeling

67 3D Thermal Mapping 3D Virtual Presentation Thermal Mapping of Data Centers

68 3D Thermal Mapping 3D Virtual Presentation Thermal Mapping of Data Centers

69 Thermal Mapping of Data Centers Thermal Mapping of Data Centers

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