Genetic Variability, Correlation and Path Co-Efficient Analysis in Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria L.)

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1 Advances in Biological Research 5 (6): 33-37, 011 ISSN IDOSI Publications, 011 Genetic Variability, Correlation and Pa Co-Efficient Analysis in Bottle Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria L.) A. Husna, F. Mahmud, M.R. Islam, M.A.A. Mahmud and M. Ratna 1 Horticulture Development Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation, Bangladesh Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh 3 Department of Agricultural Extension, Bagatipara, Natore, Bangladesh 4 Spices Research Sub-Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Faridpur, Bangladesh Abstract: Variability, correlation and pa analysis among different characters of irty one bottle gourd genotypes were studied. There was a great deal of significant variation for all e characters among e genotypes. High genotypic co-efficient of variation (GCV) was observed for yield per plant, fruit weight whereas low genotypic co-efficient of variation was observed fruit bread. In all cases, phenotypic variances were higher an e genotypic variance. Differences between genotypic and phenotypic co-efficient revealed at e major portion of e phenotypic variance was genetic in nature. High heritability wi low genetic advance in percent of mean was observed in leaf petiole leng which indicated at non-additive gene effects were involved for e expression of is character and selection for such trait might not be rewarding. High heritability wi high genetic advance in percent of mean was observed for yield per plant and days of first male flowering indicated at is trait was under additive gene control and selection for genetic improvement for is trait would be effective. Correlation studies revealed at highest significant association of yield per plant wi reproductive characters no. of fruit per plant followed by fruit weight at genotypic and phenotypic level. Pa co-efficient analysis revealed maximum direct contribution towards yield per plant wi of no. of fruit per plant followed by fruit weight. Considering all e characters e G 4(BD-4580), G 31 (BD-8948), G 6(BD-4560) and G 8 (BD-4569) were selected for future breeding programme. Key words: Variability Heritability Genetic advance Correlation Pa co-efficient and Bottle gourd INTRODUCTION system. From nutritional point of view, bottle gourd can be considered as nutrition rich fruit vegetable. It contains Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria L.), locally known considerable amount of water (96.1g), carbohydrates as lau is an important home garden vegetable. It is a fast (.5g), protein (0.g), fat (0.1g), minerals (0.5g), fiber (0.6g) growing winter seasonal climbing annual, native to Africa. and energy (1kcal) per 100g of edible fruit []. Bottle Bottle gourd is a tropical and subtropical vine of e gourd is a rich source of minerals and vitamins. Cucurbitaceae family. It is widely grown for edible fruit. In Bangladesh, no comprehensive systematic The original home of e species is not known, oer an research has been done in is crop. The yield potentiality at it is a native of e tropics. It is widely grown in of is crop needs to be improved rough an effective Sou and Soueast Asia, China and Africa. The breeding program. Studies on e variations of yield and herbaceous tendril-bearing vine grows to 5 m. It bears yield contributing characters are of great importance simple; alternate leaves 4-1 cm across, wi 3-7 separated before planning a breeding program. As e yield and its lobes and velvety texture because of e fine hairs. Each components are quantitative characters, careful plant bears separate white male and female flowers [1]. assessments of e amount of variation and eir Bottle gourd has relatively high nutritional value. association must be analyzed to gain insight into e Bottle gourd is usually grown under kitchen garden complexity of e mechanism. The present study was, as a winter vegetable. But at present it is also being grown erefore, undertaken in estimating e amount of as commercial crop near e urban areas. Moreover, it can variation, e correlation coefficients and pa-coefficient also be grown in any type of soil having good drainage in e irty one genotypes of bottle gourd. Corresponding Auor: A. Husna, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. 33

2 Advan. Biol. Res., 5 (6): 33-37, 011 MATERIALS AND METHODS caused severe damage to e fruit. For protection from fruit fly, MSGT (Mashed Sweet Gourd Trap) and The genetically pure and physically healy seeds of Pheromone bait was used along wi ripcord, sevin ese genotypes were collected from Plant Genetic powder. Fruits were picked on e basis of horticultural Resources Centre (PGRC) of Bangladesh Agricultural maturity, size, color and age being determined for e Research Institute (BARI). The crop was grown at e purpose of consumption as e fruit. Fruits were picked experimental field of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural wi sharp knife and care was taken to avoid injury of e University, Dhaka-107 during October 008 to March vine. Data were recorded on e parameters from e 009. The experimental area was situated at 3 77'N studied plants during e experiment such as number of latitude and 90 33'E longitude at an altitude of 8.6 meter male flowers, number of female flowers, ratio of male and above e sea level [3]. The experimental field belongs to female flowers, fruit leng (inch), fruit bread (inch), e Agro-ecological zone of "The Modhupur Tract", number of fruit per plant, Weight per fruit (kg) and yield AEZ-8 [4]. Soil ph ranged from and had organic per plant (kg). The data were analyzed to estimate matter 0.84%. Thirty one genotypes of bottle gourd were genotypic and phenotypic co-efficient of variation using used for e research work. The experiment was laid out e formula of Burton [6], heritability in broad sense and RCBD design wi ree replications. The genotypes were genetic advance was estimated [7] by e following distributed into e pit of each block of e prepared formula, suggested by Johnson et al. [8] and correlation layout of e experiment. The irty one genotypes of e co-efficient by Miller et al. [9]. Mean data of e experiment were assigned at random into pits of each characters were subjected to multivariate analysis. replication. The distance maintained spacing pit to pit 3 m. Univariate analysis of e individual character was done The distance maintained between two blocks was 1 m. for all characters under study using e mean values [10] Due to uncertain rainfall during e period of e study, and was estimated using MSTAT-C computer programme. e seeds were dibbled in poly bag for higher germination Mean, range and co-efficient of variation (CV %) were percentage and to get healy seedlings and when e also estimated using MSTAT-C. seedlings e seedlings become 0 days old, ose were transplanted in e main field in e pit. Seeds were sown RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 15 October, 008. The experiment plot was prepared by several ploughing and cross ploughing followed by The analysis of variance indicated e existence of laddering and harrowing wi tractor and power tiller to highly significant variability for all e characters studied bring about good til in e first week of October 008. (Table 1). The mean sum of squares due to genotypes After final land preparation, pits of 55 cm 55 cm 45 cm were high for most of e characters. The highest mean were prepared in each plot wi a spacing of a spacing of was observed for number of male flower. In order to 3 m 1 m. To control field cricket 5 mg Furadan was also obtain a clear understanding of e pattern of variations, mixed wi e soils of each pit before making it ready for e phenotypic variance has been partitioned into dibbling. The doses of manure and fertilizers such as genotypic and environmental variance. Considerable Cowdung, Urea, TSP and MOP 10 ton/ha, 15 genotypic, environmental and phenotypic variances were Kg/ha, 15 Kg/ha and 150 Kg/ha respectively to e plots found in yield per plant (kg) followed by fruit weight (kg). for bottle gourd cultivation [5]. Total cowdung, half of The differences between GCV and PCV were high no. of TSP and one ird MOP were applied in e field during fruit per plant indicating vulnerability of traits to final land preparation. Remaining TSP and one ird MOP environmental influences. High GCV and PCV was and whole gypsum and zinc oxide and one ird of urea observed yield per plant (kg), weight per fruit (kg), no. of were applied in pit one week prior to transplantation. female flowers and no. of fruit per plant. The highest Remaining urea and MOP were applied as top dressing in Environmental co-efficient of variation was observed in four installments at 0, 40, 60 and 75 days after no. of fruit per plant. High heritability estimates associates transplanting. Germination of seeds was completed wiin wi fairly high estimates of Genetic Advance in percent 1 days and e seedlings of different accessions were of mean (GAPM) for yield per plant and fruit weight (kg) planted in e pit on 5 November, 008. The standard which in fact demonstrate e presence of additive genes agronomic intercultural operations were done from time to effect and selection for genetic improvement for is trait time roughout e cropping season for proper grow would be effective. Such high GA may be due to e and development of e plants. In mature stage fruit fly action of additive genes [11]. 34

3 Advan. Biol. Res., 5 (6): 33-37, 011 Table 1: Estimates of genetic parameters of nine characters in irty one bottle gourd genotypes Number of Number of Ratio of male Number of Fruit Fruit Fruit Fruit peduncle Yield/ Characters male flowers female flowers & female flowers fruit /plant weight (kg) leng (inch) bread (inch) leng (inch) plant (kg) MSG ** 11.93** 1.07** 4.56** 0.65** 14.56** 4.47** 3.85** 388.8** %CV Mean SE ó g ó e ó p h b GCV PCV ECV GA GAPM Here, ** indicates significant at 1% level of significance, MSG = Mean sum of squares due to genotypes, CV = Co-efficient of Variation, SE = Standard Error, e = Environmental variance, g = Genotypic variance, p = Phenotypic variance, GCV = Genotypic coefficient of variation, PCV = Phenotypic coefficient of variation, ECV= Environmental coefficient of variation, h b = Heritability, GA = Genetic advance, GAPM= Genetic advance in percent of mean Table : Genotypic and phenotypic correlation of eight yield contributing characters on yield of irty one bottle gourd genotypes No. of No of Ratio of male No. of Fruit Fruit Fruit Fruit male female and female fruit/ weight leng bread peduncle Character flowers flowers flowers plant (kg) (inch) (inch) leng (inch) No. of female flowers G 0.741** - P 0.693** - Ratio of male & female flowers G * P -0.36* No. of fruit /plant G P Fruit weight (kg) G ** - P * - Fruit leng (inch) G ** P -0.47** Fruit bread (inch) G * * - P * * - Fruit peduncle leng (inch) G * P * Yield per plant (kg) G ** 0.781** * P ** 0.737** * * indicates significant at 5% level of significance, ** indicates significant at 1% level of significance, G = Genotypic correlation, P = Phenotypic correlation Phenotypic and genotypic correlation co-efficient correlation wi ratio of male & female flower and fruit among different pairs of characters of bottle gourd are leng at bo genotypic and phenotypic level indicated presented in Table. Correlation studies showed at at if e number of male flower are increased, en ratio genotypic correlation appeared to be higher an e of male and female flower and fruit leng are decreased. corresponding phenotypic correlation (Table ). These Fruit bread was positively significant correlations wi observations indicated at in majority of e cases, e fruit weight and negatively significant correlations wi environment had not appreciable influenced e fruit leng bo at phenotypic and genotypic level. expressions of characters associations. In e present Fig. 1 showing pa diagram of eight yield and yield finding, no. of fruit per plant and fruit weight (kg) has contributing characters of irty one genotypes of bottle positively and highly significant influence on yield per gourd. plant. No. of male flowers were highly significant and Weight (-0.030) which were contributed to result positively correlated wi e no. of female flowers. But insignificant insignificant positive genotypic correlation no. of male flowers produced significant and negative wi yield per plant (0.167). 35

4 Advan. Biol. Res., 5 (6): 33-37, 011 R Y Fig. 1: Pa diagram of eight yield and yield contributing characters of irty one bottle gourd genotypes 1= No. of male flower, = No. of female flower, 3 = Ratio of male & female flower, 4 = No. of fruit /plant, 5 = Fruit weight, 6 = Fruit leng, 7 = Fruit bread, 8 = Fruit Peduncle leng, Y = Yield and R=Residual effect Table 3: Pa analysis of eight yield contributing characters on yield of irty one bottle gourd genotypes No. of No. of Ratio of male No. of Fruit Fruit Fruit Fruit Genetic male female and female fruit weight leng bread peduncle correlation Character flowers flowers flowers per plant (kg) (inch) (inch) leng (inch) wi yield No. of male flowers No. of female flowers Ratio of male & female flowers No. of fruit /plant ** Fruit weight (kg) ** Fruit leng (inch) Fruit bread (inch) * Fruit Peduncle leng (inch) Residual effect * indicates significant at 5% level of significance, ** indicates significant at 1% level of significance, Residual effect, R = The results of e pa analysis revealed at no. of were higher in e present study. Positive direct effect fruit per plant had e maximum direct effect (0.680) was exhibited by yield per plant in building up e followed by weight per fruit (kg) (0.453), fruit leng correlation wi yield. No. of fruit per plant, fruit weight (0.087) and ratio of male and female flower (0.04) and fruit bread had e positive highly significant (Table 3). No. of male flowers (0.009), no. of female flowers genotypic correlation on yield. No. of male flowers, no. of (0.004) and fruit peduncle leng (0.083) represented female flowers, ratio of male and female flowers, fruit negative direct effects. The contributions of yield leng and fruit peduncle leng had e positive components like no. of fruit per plant and fruit weight (kg) insignificant genotypic correlation on yield. The 36

5 Advan. Biol. Res., 5 (6): 33-37, 011 contributions of negative and positive indirect effects via 5. Anonymous, Basat Barite Sabji Utpadan different parameters were responsible for exhibiting e (in Bengali). BARI, Gazipur, Bangladesh, pp: 39. positive total genotypic correlation wi yield. The 6. Burton, G.W., 195. Quantitative inheritance in grass estimated residual effect was indicating at 90% of pea. Proc. 6 Grassl. Cong., 1: e variability in Bottle gourd yield was contributed by 7. Lush, J.L., Animal Breeding Plans. Iowa State e characters studied in e pa analysis. Press, Ames, Iowa, pp: 437. REFERENCES 8. Johnson, H.W., H.F. Robinson and R.I. Comstock, Estimates of genetic and environmental variabilaity in soybean. Agron J., 47(): Rashid, M., 004. Sabji Biggan. University press, 9. Miller, P.J., J.C. Williams, H.F. Robinson and Dhaka, pp: 99. R.E. Comstock, Estimation of genotypic and. Gopalan, C., B.V. Rama and S.C. Balasubramanian, environmental variance and co-variance in upland 198. Nutritive value of Indian food. Indian Council cotton and eir implications in selection. Agron. J., of Medical Research, National Institute of Nutrition, 50: Hyderabad. 10. Singh, R.K. and B.D. Chaudhury, Biometrical 3. Anonymous, 004. FAO Irrigation and Drainage meods of quantitative genetic analysis. Haryana Paper. Food and Agriculture Organization of e J. Hort. Sci., 1(): United Nations, Rome, Italy, 3: Panse, V.G., Genetics of Quantitatives 4. Anonymous, 1988a. Review of vegetable crop characters in relation plant breeding. Indian J. Genet. programme Mennonite Central Committee (MCC), Pl. Breed., 17: Bangladesh, pp:

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