Vehicular Emissions Reduction Programme in Ghana

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1 Vehicular Emissions Reduction Programme in Ghana Presented by ESI NERQUAYE-TETTEH Deputy Director EPA

2 Introduction Presentation Outline Environment Impacts of Road Transport Programmes implemented to assess the impacts of vehicular emissions Programmes implemented to control the impacts of vehicular emissions Way Forward

3 Introduction (1) The demand for road transport is closely linked with economic development. Road transport is a very valuable and necessary part of modern society. Its widespread and growing use is recognized as a major contributor to a wide-range of undesirable effects. One detrimental environmental effect of road transport is its contribution to atmospheric pollution.

4 Introduction (2) In Ghana, road traffic has continuously increased during the last decade. The key reasons for this trend lies mainly: Increase in fleet population (diesel and petrol fuelled) High demand for on-road transport.

5 National Fleet Statistics, Ghana Years Registered Vehicles (cumulative) Years Registered Vehicles , , , , , , , ,033, , ,128,138 Source: Driver Vehicle and Licensing Authourity, 2010

6 Environment Impacts of Road Transport Environmental Impacts of Road Transport include Emissions of PM10, CO, Combustion Emissions CO2, HC, NOx, SO2, Pb etc Lead Hydrocarbons Carbon Monoxide Oxides of Nitrogen Carbon Dioxide Particulates Other toxic pollutants Water Vapor Ambient Air Engine/Emission Technology Fuel

7 Programmes implemented to assess the impacts of vehicular emissions

8 Programmes Implemented to assess the impacts of road transport on the environment Assessment of Lead in the environment (air, soil) and blood Urban air quality monitoring programme including roadside monitoring Vehicular exhaust emissions testing programme Vehicular emissions inventory programme

9 Environmental and Biological Lead Monitoring Programme The specific objectives of the Agency s s Lead monitoring programme were to: assess baseline levels of Lead in soil and ambient air Assess Lead levels in the blood of high risk groups (School children, traffic wardens, toll booth operators, fuel dispensers, fuel tanker drivers, TOR staff, drivers, and controls to march each category of subjects) Assessment carried out in 2003 with a follow up assessment in 2006

10 Environmental and Biological Lead Monitoring Programme Significant reduction in the roadside lead levels from a range of ug/m3 in ( ) 2003) before the phase out of leaded gasoline to a range of ug/m3 in 2008 (below the Annual EPA-Ghana guideline of 2.5 ug/m3) Mean blood lead level for subjects decrease from 26 ug/l in 2003 to 5.33 µg/dl in 2006 Mean blood lead level for controls decrease from 27 ug/l in 2003 to 4.87 below the WHO recommended limit of 20 ug/dl

11 Urban Air Quality Monitoring in Accra Air quality monitoring at 12 sites in Accra Monitoring at six roadside sites Pollutants monitored include PM10, Lead and manganese

12 For the period the six roadside sites recorded higher PM10 levels compared with that recorded at residential, commercial and industrial areas

13 Vehicle Exhaust Emissions Testing Programme The vehicular emissions testing sub-programme forms part of the overall DANIDA Transport Sector Programme Support Phase II Specific objectives: Collect baseline data for the development of vehicle emissions control standards and regulations Demonstrate to vehicle owners that maintenance pays Create awareness on the health impacts of vehicular exhaust emissions

14 Vehicle Exhaust Emissions Testing Programme The programme was implemented in Accra and Kumasi (two major cities in Ghana) Total number of vehicles tested Gasoline fuelled vehicles 1660 Diesel fuelled vehicles

15 VEHICLE EMISSION TESTS Loaded Test Vehicle is placed on a dynamometer (rolling treadmill) and run at various speeds and weights to simulate real driving conditions. Probe inserted into tailpipe measures emissions CO, HC, and NOx. Test takes up to 10 minutes. No-Load Test With vehicle stopped and idling, a probe is inserted into the tailpipe to measure emissions CO and HC (not accurate for NOx). An additional measurement can be taken at a high idle speed. Test takes less than 1 minute. Snap Idle Opacity Test for Diesel Engines A no-load test for diesel engines in which the engine is revved several times An average value of smoke opacity (or density) in the exhaust stream is derived.

16 Emissions test for petrol fuelled vehicles Opus 40 gas analyser (No Load test) Measures CO, CO2, HC, Oxygen and lambda Lambda indicates how much air is present in the fuel mixture being burnt

17 FLEET DATA CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION (EU) YEAR OF PRODUCTION CONVENTIONAL 1992 EURO I >1992 or 1996 EURO II >1996 or 2000 EURO II >2000 or 2005

18 Emissions Test Limits for UK Year of M anufacture H C (p p m ) C O (% ) lim i lim it After 1993 more stringent, most vehicles made since the early 1990 s s have 3-way 3 catalytic converters fitted on them

19

20 Diesel fuelled Vehicles Emissions tests for diesel engines involve the measurement of exhaust smoke density using a smoke analyser The smoke analyser measures the amount of light that can be transmitted through an exhaust plume The Opus 50 smoke analyser was used for measuring the smoke density

21 Smoke density test for diesel fuelled vehicles Emissions Test Limits for UK Average of three acceleration readings Non turbocharged engines 2.5 m-1m Turbocharged engines m-1m

22

23 Vehicular Emissions Inventory Programme - Project Scope and Overall Goal The vehicular emissions inventory sub-programme forms part of the overall DANIDA Transport Sector Programme Support Phase II to Ghana. The main goal of the sub-programme was to carry out vehicular emissions (including greenhouse gas emissions) inventory by gathering relevant activity data and on-the the-field emission estimates in the Accra and Kumasi metropolitan areas. Up-scale these to the national level

24 Methodology to Estimate Emissions The methodology to estimate vehicular emissions requires collection of more detailed information on vehicular activity data, fuel consumption and emission factors. COPERT III Model was recommended for the study because it has a user-friendly interface, include the most important pollutants, and not least, can most easily be linked to the technology of the imported cars.

25 COPERT III Model Data Requirement Copert III generates emission factors and emissions based on the ff data input National Fleet Stock vehicle type (passenger car, light-duty truck, bus etc) National Fuel Consumption Data (petrol, diesel, LPG, etc), Fuel consumption levels fuel type Climatic Data temperature changes Activity Data (Driving Pattern) road type or vehicle speed

26 Emission Factors (CO 2, Total Emissions Hot Emissions Cold Start Emissions Evaporative Emissions Copert III Outputs 2, CH 4, 4, N 2 O, NO X, VOC, CO, PM)

27 Particulate Matter Emissions ( ) Total Direct GHGs (CO 2,CH 4,N 2 0) (Gigagramme) PM Concentration (Gg) Total GHGs Carbon Monoxide ( ) Emissions Distribution by Road Class Urban Road Rural Highway CO in Gg CO Emissions(Tonnes)

28 Programmes being implemented to reduce the impacts of vehicular emissions

29 Programmes being implemented to control the impacts of road transport Phase out of leaded gasoline Deregulation of fuel importation - oil marketing companies can import high quality fuel Procurement of crude oil with low sulphur content Restriction on Age limit of vehicles imported into the country Mainstreaming of environmental issues by ensuring that SEA s s are undertaken for all Transport Sector Policies, Plans and Programmes

30 Programmes being implemented to control the impacts of road transport Implementation of a Bus Rapid Transport System use high occupancy vehicles Enactment of the Centre for Urban Transportation Bill

31 Next Steps - Develop a Roadmap to Emissions and Fuel Economy Standards The EPA with the assistance of the World Bank, GEF and AFD funded Urban Transport Project is procuring a consultant to develop a road-map and associated terms of reference to promulgate a nationwide vehicular emissions control system, which would also include fuel economy requirements The consultant will assist the EPA map out a program of action for development of a nationwide vehicular emission control system

32 Next Steps - Develop a Roadmap to Emissions and Fuel Economy Standards Activities will include: Preliminary analysis of existing data to identify reasonable vehicular emissions reductions targets; Identify various studies to be carried out and policy issues to be addressed in the development of a vehicle emissions control system and fuel economy targets. These might include: Legal and institutional frameworks and mechanisms required for such a system

33 Next Steps - Develop a Roadmap to Emissions and Fuel Economy Standards Design of a compliance system compatibility with governance and accountability best practice Point of regulation and implementation mechanisms Fuel supply and quality constraints Border issues and leakage Development of model Terms of Reference for the development of vehicular emissions control and fuel-economy economy-improvement system

34 Way Forward Use the Terms of Reference prepared by the consultant to develop guidelines, standards and regulations for vehicular emissions control and fuel-economy economy-improvement system in Ghana Ensure enforcement of vehicular emissions standards and regulations that will be developed Continue air quality monitoring along road routes

35 Thank you

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