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1 ebus project Lasse Tiikkaja, Veolia Transport Finland Oy (Transdev),

2 Veolia Transport Finland has a strong vision towards e-mobility and zero emissions Veolia Transport Finland has been actively testing technical innovations together with national research institute VTT and now it was time to go for e-mobility Picture: Aleshina Ekaterina and Kamyshev Vitaly (Biway) Veolia Transdev Finland: Turnover 74M Staff 800 people 350 buses Mainly operating in Capital Area (Helsinki) Strong history in R&D and PPP projects 2

3 Veolia Transport Finland ebus project targets in brief from 2011 to 2016 Field and laboratory testing and demonstration platform for up to 6 BEV buses in real traffic at Nordic climate Battery life time estimations Charging effects to the batteries Operational reliability Energy management Power demand Ultra-fast and fast charging comparisons Cold climate effect&demand to battery pack Designing of micro smart grid to the depot to control energy demand and usage of e- bus chargers energy cost variation New traffic planning methodologies to optimize the use of EV buses together with local PTA (HSL) and Aalto university Pic: Qualcomm 3

4 (Technical Research Center) (big electric company) Picture: Nils-Olof Nylund,VTT 4

5 ebus stakeholders and Steering Committee Ministry of Transport and Communication Ministry of Economics and Employment Espoo city (capital regional city) HSL (Helsinki Region Transport Authority) VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) TraFi (Traffic Safety Administration) TEKES (the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation) Veolia Transport Finland Vacon Universities (Aalto University and Metropolia Polytechnics) Fortum utility company 5

6 ebus project fleet Project funding is granted for 4-6 EV buses from Selected partners today: Caetano 2500 EL delivered on 9/2012 but again back in the factory for upgrade and repairs Ebusco delivered on 12/2013 BYD delivered 6/2014 VDL delivered 6/2014 Others tested: PVI Oreos 2X for one week 2012 Siemens-Rampini in summer 2013 for 4 weeks Prototype of Finnish ebus (emuuli) test in 5/2014 To be ordered (not confirmed) 1-2 opportunity charging (250kW) ebuses with LTO batteries 6 Pictures: Alex Hallberg, Pekka Paloranta

7 Test platform in capital area (Espoo) securing the future This the road map for the 2014 onwards for the ebus project. One of the big goals is to test now e-buses in Espoo line 11/13 that will simulate the possible new traffic after the new metro line and train line is opened. This project connects all the stakeholders of the future to launch e-mobility in Greater Helsinki region (where Espoo belongs) 7

8 Test line 11 (simulating the metro/train feeder traffic) All electric buses will run in the city of Espoo on Line 11. This relatively short line mimics future feeder-type bus service that could be provided by battery electric buses Line 11 has 24 bus stops in 9,1km or 26 bus stops in 10,1km depending on the direction First bus starts at 5:42 and last departure is 23:47.Travel time is about 25 minutes, so the commercial speed is around 20-25km/h depending on traffic Fleet mileage per day (due to internal planning): - BYD ~180km, VDL ~105km, Ebusco ~160km, Caetano ~120km 8

9 Driven mileage per bus Ebusco km since December 2013 Caetano km since September 2012 BYD km since summer 2014 VDL km since summer

10 The role of VTT (Finnish National Research Institute) in ebus project Project coordination and supporting function: Data capturing and analysis: EV field test busses will be equipped with data logging and measurement devices that collects the data e.g. operational profiles and working conditions of batteries, engine, heating components and auxiliary components in the EV bus Effect of driving style in to the energy consumption Data base for evaluating different components inside EV bus and supports product development (as well as a test mule) Emission calculations 10

11 Open items: the charging options from opportunity charging: (no flexibility) inductive, pantograph or cable or long autonomy with flexibility 11

12 Charging concept 1. Overnight charging in the depot 2. Overnight charging + fast charging during the day 3. Opportunity charging (automatic high-power charging) Charging consepts for electric buses Infrastructur e costs Low, Chargers only in the depot Moderate, Chargers both in the depot and terminals Additional costs for parking while charging? High, expensive charging systems in terminals Vehicle costs High, Expensive battery Moderate, slightly smaller batteries Moderate, small battery, expensive technology depending on system Data capture from Veikko Karvonen, VTT Operation costs Concept feasibility High, low battery lifetime, high energy consumption Moderate high, slightly longer battery lifetime, additional costs if extra buses and drivers needed Low, no changes into normal bus operations Possible in demonstrational phase Possible in demonstrational phase, parking space in bus terminals limits in wider scale use Feasible only as a large system where there are enough vehicles to take advantage of the investment 12

13 Opportunity charging graph Charging in bus terminals and some times during the line Battery is always used in the middle area of state of charge Extended battery lifetime Extra capacity always available in case that one charging would fail Data capture from Veikko Karvonen, VTT 13

14 Battery price estimations is another key issue The price of the batteries have been one obstacle but it seems that the price has gone down now to even as low as 300 /kwh (OEM price) TODAY IT SEEMS THAT LTO BATTERIES ARE THE SAFEST CHOICE FOR E-BUSES WITH MORE THAN 8000 CYCLES AND RESISTANCE TO -40 TO +50 DEGREES! 50% price drop already in less than 3 years Veolia Transport Finland 14

15 R&D LTO Cycle life analysis the structure of nano materials graphite Five advantages of LTO batteries Excellent safety performance; not easy to explode Fast charging: 6 min The space between layers of LTO changed much less during charge/discharge, so it has better cycle life performance Performance of graphite Li battery Performance of LTO battery Long cycle life(over 25,000 times) Wider operating temperature range ( ) Excellent consistency 15

16 but also battery lifetime expectations has an effect on cost and reliability! 16

17 17 Source: Nils-Olof Nylund, VTT

18 Test mule energy consumption 18 Courtesy of VTT Kimmo Erkkilä and Nils-Olof Nylund

19 Test mule energy consumption 19 Courtesy of VTT Kimmo Erkkilä and Nils-Olof Nylund

20 ebus today and open issues Risks in general: - Chinese suppliers does not understand European demand for maintenance&spare parts! - Lot of activity but no standards - Bad design insulation in cold - HVAC energy consumption webasto must? - Battery technology LTO or LFP Thermal management and BMS - Local education and knowledge of e-buses - Operational issues: All sort of problems in the beginning (2012) but now all project members have learnt to deal with the cold Driver education crucial driver effect can be 35% on range During January 2014 in -20 C Ebusco was more reliable than diesel buses Also Caetano has been performing well during winter Accidents (specially for battery location) will be an issue - TCO model is it solid or too many IF factors calculations indicate that e-buses pay pack time is less than 10y without subsidy depending on infrastructure investments Energy cost is ¼ of the diesel bus energy cost 20

21 THE END Contact information to ebus projects related issues: Lasse Tiikkaja ebus project manager/workshop manager Veolia Transport Finland Oy Tel:

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