Human Reproduction Practice Problems #1 Use your current knowledge and critical reasoning skills to choose the best answer

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1 Human Reproduction Practice Problems #1 Use your current knowledge and critical reasoning skills to choose the best answer Use the diagram below and your knowledge of biology to answer questions 1 through 3 which follow. 1. Which structure does the egg that is released in stage B normally enter first? (1.) cervix (2.) vagina (3.) uterus (4.) ovary (5.) oviduct 2. Which sequence best represents the order of the stages in the menstrual cycle? (1.) D -> B -> C -> A (2.) A -> B -> C -> D (3.) C -> A -> B -> D (4.) A -> B -> D -> C 3. Which stage is represented by letter A? (1.) ovulation (2.) follicle (3.) menstruation (4.) corpus luteum 4. In human males, sperm cells are suspended in a fluid medium. The main advantage gained from this adaptation is that the fluid (1.) activates the egg nucleus so that it begins to divide (2.) provides currents that propel the egg down the oviduct (3.) removes polar bodies from the surface of the sperm (4.) acts as a transport medium for sperm 5. The scrotum is an important adaptation in human males because the optimum temperature for sperm development is (1.) 10 to 12 degrees below normal body temperature (2.) 10 to 12 degrees above normal body temperature (3.) 2 to 4 degrees above normal body temperature (4.) 2 to 4 degrees below normal body temperature 6. Which techniques are sometimes used to help a woman who has blocked fallopian tubes have a child? (1.) in vitro fertilization and implantation (2.) inbreeding and natural selection (3.) hybridization and vegetative propagation (4.) synapsis and natural selection 7. Which statement does not correctly describe an adaptation of the human female reproductive system? (1) It produces gametes in ovaries. (2) It provides for internal development of the embryo. (3) It provides for external fertilization of an egg. (4) It removes excretions produced by the fetus. 8. Hormones produced by the testes control the expression of traits for (1.) voice quality and beard development (2.) hair quality and voice quality (3.) beard development and number of fingers (4.) hair color and eye color

2 9. Testes are adapted to produce (1) body cells involved in embryo formation (2) immature gametes that undergo mitosis (3) sperm cells that may be involved in fertilization (4) gametes with large food supplies that nourish a developing embryo 10. The reproductive system of the human male produces gametes and (1) releases hormones involved in external fertilization (2) produces enzymes that prevent fertilization (3) transfers gametes to the female for internal fertilization (4) provides an area for fertilization 11. Some cells involved in the process of reproduction are represented in the diagram below. The process of meiosis formed (1) cells 1and 2 (2) cell 2, only (3) cell 3, only (4) cells 2 and Which the structure in which internal fertilization usually occurs? (1.) birth canal (2.) fallopian tube (3.) gonad (4.) stomach 13. Which is the correct order of events in the reproductive cycle of the human female? (1.) growth of the follicle, breakdown of the corpus luteum, ovulation (2.) menstruation, ovulation, rupture of follicle (3.) growth of follicle, rupture of follicle, ovulation (4.) rupture of follicle, menstruation, ovulation 14. The development of different organs and tissues in the embryo is called (1.) ovulation (2.) menstruation (3.) meiosis (4.) differentiation 15. In which structure is a developing embryo implanted? (1.) oviduct (2.) uterus (3.) ovary (4.) vagina How many did you get correct?

3 Human Reproduction Practice Problems #2 Use your current knowledge and critical reasoning skills to choose the best answer 16. Some chemical interactions in a human are shown in the graph below. This graph represents hormones and events in the: (1) reproductive cycle of females (2) process of fetal growth and development (3) process of meiotic cell division during sperm development (4) reproductive cycle of males 17. Which structure produces female gametes? (1.) uterus (2.) oviduct (3.) ovary (4.) placenta 18. When asked to relate the terms "sperm," "scrotum," "testes," and "zygote," a student wrote the statements below. (A) They all contain homologous pairs of chromosomes. (B) The location of the testes within the scrotum aids in the production of sperm needed for zygote formation. (C) Mitotic cell division is involved in the formation of the testes and scrotum, and meiosis is involved in the production of sperm, which is involved in the formation of a zygote. (D.) Formation of the testes, scrotum, and sperm occurs in human males; zygote formation occurs in females. Which of these statements is correct? (1.) A, B, and D, only (2.) B, C, and D only (3.) B and D, only (4.) A, B, C, and D

4 19. The diagram below represents a system in the human body. The primary function of structure X is to (1) produce energy needed for sperm to move (2) provide food for the sperm to carry to the egg (3) produce and store urine (4) form gametes that may be involved in fertilization 20. The series of cellular divisions by which the zygote becomes a multicellular embryo is known as (1.) gastrulation (2.) mitosis (3.) meiosis (4.) disjunction 21. Compared to animals that carry on internal fertilization, animals that carry on external fertilization (1.) reproduce in water (2.) produce fewer eggs (3.) reproduce by spores (4.) display more parental care 22. Into which of the following structures does the sperm cell first pass on its entry into the human female? (1.) ovaries (2.) vagina (3.) fallopian tubes (4.) cervix 23. The membrane which forms a sac, filled with fluid, that serves as a protection for the developing embryo is the (1.) allantois (2.) chorion (3.) placenta (4.) amnion 24. Which structure least influences the human female menstrual cycle? (1.) corpus luteum (2.) pancreas (3.) pituitary (4.) ovarian follicle 25. During the menstrual cycle, ovulation occurs when (1.) the embryo is implanted in the uterine wall (2.) an egg is fertilized (3.) the uterine wall begins to break down (4.) an egg is released from the follicle 26. The female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone are produced in the (1.) pancreas (2.) uterus (3.) umbilical cord (4.) ovaries

5 27. A large number of sperm cells are produced by males every day. This large number of sperm cells increases the chance that (1) some of the sperm cells will survive to reach the egg (2) several sperm cells will unite with an egg so the fertilized egg will develop properly (3) at least one sperm cell will be reached when the eggs swim toward the sperm cells in the ovary (4) enough sperm cells will be present to transport the egg from where it is produced to where it develops into a fetus 28. The diagram below represents a reproductive process that takes place in humans. Which statement does not correctly describe this process? (1) The zygote will develop to become identical to the dominant parent. (2) The normal species chromosome number is restored. (3) Males and females each contribute DNA to the offspring. (4) The sex of the zygote is determined by DNA in the gametes. 29. In the human male, sperm leave the body through the (1.) urethra (2.) testes (3.) epididymis (4.) vas deferens 30. In the human male, gametes are produced in the (1.) prostate gland (2.) testes (3.) bladder (4.) urethra 31. The diagram below shows the human female reproductive system. The sperm normally enters through structure (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D

6 Use the diagram below and your knowledge of biology to answer question Which process is represented by arrow A? (1.) implantation (2.) fertilization (3.) gametogenesis (4.) gastrulation Use the diagram below and your knowledge of biology to answer questions 33 through This structure produces eggs (1.) A (2.) B (3.) C (4.) D 34. Internal fertilization normally occurs here (1.) A (2.) B (3.) C (4.) D 35. Most of embryonic development normally occurs here. (1.) A (2.) B (3.) C (4.) D 36. Which reproductive method most likely produces organisms that possess adaptations for survival in a changing environment? (1.) sexual reproduction (2.) mitosis (3.) budding (4.) cloning 37. One meiotic division in males normally produces (1.) one active gamete (2.) two active gametes (3.) three active gametes (4.) four active gametes 38. During which process in humans are eggs and polar bodies formed? (1.) fertilization (2.) fission (3.) meiosis (4.) mitosis 39. External fertilization is most common among organisms that live in: (1.) deserts (2.) oceans (3.) fields (4.) forests

7 Human Reproduction Practice Problems #3 Use your current knowledge and critical reasoning skills to choose the best answer 40. Which evolutionary adaptation was necessary for successful reproduction by land animals? (1.) external fertilization (2.) internal fertilization (3.) motile eggs (4.) motile sperms Use the diagram below and your knowledge of biology to answer questions 41 to This structure is the ovary. (1.) A (2.) B (3.) C (4.) D 42. This structure is the uterus. (1.) A (2.) B (3.) C (4.) D 43. This structure is the fallopian tube. (1.) A (2.) B (3.) C (4.) D 44. Internal fertilization occurs here normally. (1.) A (2.) B (3.) C (4.) D 45. What are the normal chromosome numbers of a sperm, egg, and zygote, respectively? (1.) haploid, haploid, and diploid (2.) diploid, diploid, and diploid (3.) haploid, diploid, and diploid (4.) haploid, haploid, and haploid 46. A major advantage of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction is that sexual reproduction results in (1.) more rapid production of offspring (2.) larger offspring (3.) a greater number of offspring (4.) a greater variety of offspring 47. Male flower part is called (1.) stamen (2.) stigma (3.) style (4.) pistil 48. How many sperm are needed in flower fertilization? (1.) 0 (2.) 1 (3.) 2 (4.) Where does pollination take place? (1.) anther (2.) ovule (3.) stamen (4.) stigma 50. Where does fertilization in a flower take place (1.) oviduct (2.) style (3.) stigma (4.) ovule

8 51. Which two processes are included in the prenatal development of a single human embryo? (1.) gastrulation and differentiation (2.) menopause and cleavage (3.) puberty and gastrulation (4.) menstruation and fertilization 52. Base your answer on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents stages in the development of a vertebrate. During a pregnancy, identical twins could result from the (1.) differentiation of cells in stage 7 (2.) separation of the cells at stage 3 (3.) implantation of the structure in stage 6 (4.) repetition of the process in stage 1 Use the diagram below and your knowledge of biology to answer questions 53 through 55 which follow. 53. The diagram represents a human embryo developing in the uterus. Structure 3 represents the (1.) membrane that protects the embryo from mechanical shock (2.) site where the female gametes undergo meiosis during maturation (3.) site of exchange of materials between the mother and the fetus (4.) structure that stores yolk for the developing fetus 54. The diagram represents a human embryo developing in the uterus. Internal fertilization normally takes place in the structure indicated by number (1.) 1 (2.) 2 (3.) 3 (4.) 4 (5.) The amniotic fluid is best represented by structure (1.) 1 (2.) 2 (3.) 3 (4.) 4 (5.) 5

9 Use the diagram below and your knowledge of biology to answer questions 56 though 58 which follow. 56. The graph shows the different concentrations of female reproductive hormones during the menstrual cycle of humans. Which process usually begins at B? (1.) fertilization (2.) embryo development (3.) menstruation (4.) ovulation 57. The graph shows the different concentrations of female reproductive hormones during the menstrual cycle of humans. Which event normally occurs at A? (1.) fertilization (2.) embryo development (3.) menstruation (4.) ovulation 58. The graph shows the different concentrations of female reproductive hormones during the menstrual cycle of humans. Which is a correct inference about an event that occurs prior to day 14? (1.) A high level of estrogen may stimulate the production of LH. (2.) A high level of LH may stimulate the production of FSH. (3.) A low level of FSH inhibits the production of estrogen. (4.) A low level of progesterone inhibits the production of estrogen. Use the diagram below, along with your knowledge of biology to answer questions 59 and 60 which follow. 59. Which structure produces a hormone which stimulates secondary sex characteristics in the male? (1.) A (2.) B (3.) C (4.) D (5.) E (6.) F 60. Which structure is an adaptation for internal fertilization and excretion? (1.) A (2.) B (3.) C (4.) D (5.) E (6.) F

10 Use the diagram below and your knowledge of biology to answer questions 61 through 64 which follow. 61. After sperm cells are deposited inside the female, the pathway they follow to reach the egg is from (1.) G to H to I (2.) K to I to H (3.). J to K to H (4.) H to I to K 62. Meiosis occurs within structures (1.) D and H (2.) B and I (3.) E and G (4.) A and J 63. Which structures are directly affected by hormones involved in the menstrual cycle? (1.) G and I (2.) I and J (3.) A and D (4.) C and E 64. Which structures secrete hormones that regulate the development of secondary sex characteristics? (1.) A and J (2.) D and H (3.) E and G (4.) F and I 65. A temporary suspension of the menstrual cycle normally occurs during (1.) menopause (2.) menstruation (3.) ovulation (4.) pregnancy 66. Which diagram shows the first appearance of the distinct layer of cells that will form the muscular, skeletal, and circulatory systems? (1.) 1 (2.) 6 (3.) 8 (4.) Which diagram illustrates the first tissue differentiation of the developing organism? (1.) 1 (2.) 6 (3.) 8 (4.) If stages 1 through 4 represent developmental stages of a human, where in the human female would these stages normally occur? (1.) uterus (2.) ovary (3.) vagina (4.) oviduct 69. Which events must occur immediately before the sequence represented in the diagrams can take place? (1.) gametogenesis and fertilization (2.) placenta formation and metamorphosis (3.) prenatal development and gestation (4.) menstruation and menopause

11 Use the diagram below and your knowledge of biology to answer questions 70 through 72 which follow. 70. What would most likely happen if structure C was blocked at the X? (1.) Sperm production would increase. (2.) Sperm could not be transported to the outside of the body. (3.) Urine could not be discharged from the urinary bladder. (4.) Sex hormones would no longer be produced. 71. Which structure produces a hormone that is responsible for such characteristics as body hair, muscle development, and a deep voice? (1.) A (2.) B (3.) C (4.) D (5.) E 72. Which structure is part of both the reproductive and excretory systems? (1.) A (2.) B (3.) C (4.) D (5.) E (6.) F 73. Substances can diffuse from the mother's blood into the fetal blood through the structure known as the (1.) placenta (2.) yolk sac (3.) amnion (4.) fallopian tube 74. The permanent cessation of the menstrual cycle is known as (1.) menopause (2.) adolescence (3.) puberty (4.) in vitro fertilization

12 Constructed Response Questions Use the diagram below and your knowledge of biology to answer the questions which follow. 1. Identify the correct biological name of each of the numbered structures. 2. State the function of each of the lettered structures in the diagram above. 3. List in order the major stages of the human female menstrual cycle. State the chief events of each stage. Explain how the hormones estrogen and progesterone are involved in female reproduction.

13 Base your answers to questions 5 and 6 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. Women are advised to avoid consuming alcoholic beverages during pregnancy. 4. Identify the structure labeled A and explain how the functioning of structure A is essential for the normal development of the fetus. 5. Explain why consumption of alcoholic beverages by a pregnant woman is likely to be more harmful to her fetus than to herself.

14 Answer Key for Practice Questions Human Reproduction Practice Problems # Human Reproduction Practice Problems # Human Reproduction Practice Problems #

15 Constructed Response 1. A = urinary bladder B = urethra C= penis D= epididymis leading into vas deferens E= testes F = scrotum G= ovary H= oviduct I= uterus J= urinary bladder K = vagina 2. Urinary bladder serves to temporarily store urine. The urethra transports semen and urine from the body. The penis is an adaptation for internal fertilization. The vas deferens carries sperm away from the testes. The testes makes sperm and testosterone. The scrotum is a pouch housing the testes which keeps them 2 C -4 C degrees cooler than the body. The ovary produces eggs and estrogen. The oviduct or fallopian tube carries the egg from the ovary and is the site of internal fertilization and initial cleavage in humans. The uterus is where development of the embryo/fetus is completed. The urinary bladder serves to temporarily store urine. The vagina or birth canal is where the baby is born and where sperm are initially deposited in the female. 3. The follicle stage involves the final maturation of the egg in a pouch in the ovary called a follicle. Ovulation is the release of this egg. The yellow tissue which forms in this follicle once the egg is released is referred to as being the corpus luteum stage. When the uterine lining is sloughed off and released, the final stage of the menstrual cycle called menstruation occurs. The hormone estrogen produced by the ovaries initiates the thickening of the uterine lining and stimulates the development of female secondary sex characteristics. The corpus luteum produces the hormone progesterone which maintains the thickness of the uterine lining which estrogen has already begun. 4. The structure labeled A as the placenta. It is the exchange surface for nutrients or wastes or O2 between mother and fetus 5. When the alcohol from the mother s bloodstream enters the fetus, the relative amount is much greater due to the smaller size of the fetus. Also the the fetus is still developing and is more vulnerable to the effects of poisons.

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