# CHAPTER - 45 SEMICONDUCTOR AND SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES

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1 1. f = 101 kg/m, V = 1 m CHAPTER - 45 SEMCONDUCTOR AND SEMCONDUCTOR DEVCES m = fv = = 101 kg No.of atoms = = a) Total no.of states = N = = 58.5 = b) Total no.of unoccupied states = n a pure semiconductor, the no.of conduction electrons = no.of holes Given volume = 1 cm 1 cm 1 mm = = 10 7 m No.of electrons = = Hence no.of holes = E = 0. ev, K = KT = E T = T = Bandgap = 1.1 ev, T = 00 K a) Ratio = KT = = 670. = 4.5= b) 4.5 = or T = = K T KT = Energy gap between acceptor band and valency band E = ( 1.8 ) 10 1 J = ev 10 ev = ev = mev = 50 mev. 6. Given : Band gap =. ev, E = hc / = 14 / =. or = 88.1 nm. 7. = 80 nm E = hc / = 14/80 = 1.5 ev 8. Band Gap = 0.65 ev, =? E = hc / = 14 / 0.65 = m = m. 9. Band gap = Energy need to over come the gap hc 14eV nm =.0 ev. 60nm 10. Given n = Now, n 1 = e n = e E / KT e, E = Diamon 6 ev ; E Si 1.1 ev 6 E 5 1 / KT e 1.1 E 5 / KT e n n = Due to more E, the conduction electrons per cubic metre in diamond is almost zero. 1

2 / E / KT 11. = T e at 4 K 0.74 / = 4 e = 8 e At 00 K, 0.67 / = e e. 8 Ratio = 8 e [( 170)/ 8] e 1.95 = 64 e Total no.of charge carriers initially = = /Cubic meter Finally the total no.of charge carriers = / m We know : The product of the concentrations of holes and conduction electrons remains, almost the same. Let x be the no.of holes. So, ( ) ( ) = x ( x) 14x x = x 14x = x = = = ncreased in no.of holes or the no.of atoms of Boron added atom of Boron is added per = = (No. of holes) (No.of conduction electrons) = constant. At first : No. of conduction electrons = No.of holes = After doping No.of conduction electrons = 10 No. of holes = x. ( ) ( ) = ( 10 )x 14. = = x 10 x = = E / KT 0 e E = ev, T = 00 K According to question, K = ev E E / KT K 00 0e 0e T e = Taking in on both sides, 0.65 We get, = T' T ' 0.65 T = = 18 K. 5 8

3 15. Given band gap = 1 ev Net band gap after doping = (1 10 )ev = ev According to the question, KT 1 = 0.999/50 T 1 = 1.78 = 1.8 For the maximum limit KT = T = Temperature range is (. 1.8). 16. Depletion region d = 400 nm = m Electric field E = V/m a) Potential barrier V = E d = 0. V b) Kinetic energy required = Potential barrier e = 0. ev [Where e = Charge of electron] 17. Potential barrier = 0. Volt a) K.E. = (Potential difference) e = 0. ev (in unbiased cond n ) b) n forward biasing KE + Ve = 0.e KE = 0.e 0.1e = 0.1e. c) n reverse biasing KE Ve = 0. e KE = 0.e + 0.1e = 0.e. 18. Potential barrier d = 50 mev nitial KE of hole = 00 mev We know : KE of the hole decreases when the junction is forward biased and increases when reverse blased in the given Pn diode. So, a) Final KE = (00 50) mev = 50 mev b) nitial KE = ( ) mev = 550 mev 19. i 1 = 5 A, V = 00 mv, i = 75 A a) When in unbiased condition drift current = diffusion current Diffusion current = 5 A. b) On reverse biasing the diffusion current becomes O. c) On forward biasing the actual current be x. x Drift current = Forward biasing current x 5 A = 75 A x = (75 + 5) A = 100 A. 0. Drift current = 0 A = A. Both holes and electrons are moving So, no.of electrons = 1. a) e av/kt = 100 e V V R = = 100 ev / KT1 0(e ) = = V = = V V = (100 1) V 0 = 0 R = = V. =

4 c) 0. = KT e ei 0 ev / KT K = ev/k, T = 00 K i 0 = A. Substituting the values in the equation and solving We get V = 0.5. a) i 0 = A, T = 00 K, V = 00 mv ev 1 i = i ekt = 0 10 (e 1) =.18 A = A b) 4 = V (e 1) V e 1 0 V10 e V V = 15 mv = 18 mv.. a) Current in the circuit = Drift current (Since, the diode is reverse biased = 0 A) b) Voltage across the diode = 5 ( ) = 5 ( ) = 5 V. 4. From the figure : According to wheat stone bridge principle, there is no current through the diode. A B Hence net resistance of the circuit is 40 = a) Since both the diodes are forward biased net resistance = 0 i = V = 1 A i V b) One of the diodes is forward biased and other is reverse biase. Thus the resistance of one becomes. i = = 0 A. V Both are forward biased. Thus the resistance is 0. i = = 1 A. V One is forward biased and other is reverse biased. Thus the current passes through the forward biased diode. i = = 1 A. V 6. The diode is reverse biased. Hence the resistance is infinite. So, current through A 1 is zero. For A, current = = 0. Amp. 10 A 1 V A 10 4

5 7. Both diodes are forward biased. Thus the net diode resistance is i = = 1 A. (10 10) / One diode is forward biased and other is reverse biased. Current passes through the forward biased diode only. V 5 i = = 1/ = 0.5 A. R 10 0 net i 10 i 5V 10 i 10 5V a) When R = 1 The wire EF becomes ineffective due to the net ( )ve voltage. Hence, current through R = 10/4 = = 0.4 A. b) Similarly for R = i = 10 (48 1) = 10/60 = 0.16 A. A C E 4V 6V 1 R 1 B D F A 10 B V X V A i 1 B Since the diode is reverse biased no current will pass through it. X V V 0. Let the potentials at A and B be V A and V B respectively. i) f V A > V B Then current flows from A to B and the diode is in forward biased. Eq. Resistance = 10/ = 5. ii) f V A < V B Then current flows from B to A and the diode is reverse biased. Hence Eq.Resistance = b = 80 A 0 A = 50 A = A c =.5 ma 1 ma =.5 ma =.5 10 A = c b V ce = constant = Current gain = A B

6 . = 50, b = 50 A, V 0 = RG = 50 /0.5 = 00. a) VG = V 0 /V 1 = V0 V0 00 V R i b i 6 = 8000 V. b) V i = b R i = = V = 5 mv. c) Power gain = R0 RG = 500 = R 0.5. X = ABC BCA CAB a) A = 1, B = 0, C = 1 X = 1. b) A = B = C = 1 X = For ABC BCA B C A i R 1=0.5K C K N P N e 5. LHS = AB AB = X X f X = 0, X = 1 f X = 0, X = or = 1 RHS = 1 (Proved) [X = AB] ` 6

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