France Integrated solutions for biodegradable waste management

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1 ECN Workshop 2012, Rennes France Integrated solutions for biodegradable waste management Yves Coppin 13 June 2012

2 Setting the scene 65 M. inh. / 29 M. ha agricultural land Soft Wheat durum wheat barley maize oats Triticum rice mix soils : large demand for organic matter agriculture is the preferred market (mass market)

3 Setting the scene For household biowastes, few economic incentives to sort biowastes : Only 4% of the French population is involved in PAYT schemes (the most common scheme is taxes based on the fiscal value of the residence)

4 Kg/inh/a Collected biowastes : where do they come from? Scope of the figure below: Household & municipal biowastes + biowastes form stores & restaurants (biowastes from Food industry are not taken into account) France (194 kg/inh/a) Germany (165 kg/inh/a) UK (245 kg/inh/a) Spain (185 kg/inh/a) Biowastes fraction collected through MSW Door-to-door sep. collection Civic amenities sep. collection Stores & restaurants sep. collection BIPE, 2012 (data 2009 compiled)

5 Kg/inh/a Collected biowastes : where do they go? Scope of the figure below: Household & municipal biowastes + biowastes form stores & restaurants (biowastes from Food industry are not taken into account) France (120 kg/inh/a) Germany (57 kg/inh/a) UK (142 kg/inh/a) Spain (163 kg/inh/a) Landfilling Incineration MBT-stabilisation + landfilling MBT-composting for use on land MBT-AD for use on land BIPE, 2012 (data 2009 compiled)

6 Biodegradable wastes : a step-by-step strategy Household biowastes : Food w. Diffuse pool 1 Civic amenities sites 2 Home composting? 5-6 Mt Sep. Coll. : 0.1 M HH bw. : (120 kh/a/inh.) MBT : 0.3 Mt Green w. No national strategy / Subsidiarity? (6 to 10?) Mt (0 to 300 kg/a/inh) Sep. Coll. : ~ 3.5 to 4 Mt? Home composting : 4 Mt? Low tonnages Business & public activities bw. : Compulsory ( ) Green w. 3-4 Mt? Sep. Coll. :? High tonnages Other bw. 2 Mt? Sep. Coll. : 0.5 Mt? Specific legal framework (waste & product Biosolids (sewage & industrial sludges) status) 1.2 Mt DM (sewage) + 1 Mt DM (ind.) (eq Mt himid weight) Use on land : 70% (sew., of whom ~20%is composted) % (ind.) Personnal,2012 (BIPE, ADEME, estimations based on data 2009, 2010 & 2011 compiled) Concentrate pool

7 The treatment organisation: key points Green wastes (from households & others): About 40% of the French population is involved in GW collection scheme High capture rate via civic amenities ( ), 2 home composting ( ), 3 door-to-door collection ( ), 4 drop off points ( ) Composted: alone (~550 plants) / co-composted with kitchen wastes (100 plants, mainly small) or sludges (??? Plants) Household kitchen wastes: A large part of waste authorities (for ~85% population) didn t set up specific collection scheme for organic recovery Less than 5% pop. (3% in 2006) is involved in separate collection scheme / ~100 plants MBT (comp. & AD) is in place for 8-10% pop. / 27 plants MBT before landfilling is rare (4 plants) Conclusion: Biowastes management as a whole is not reality for many reasons (costs, collection schemes, etc.)

8 The treatment organisation: figures COMPOSTING ANAEROBIC DIGESTION + COMPOSTING Biowastes separately collected MBT for use on land MBT before landfilling Sludge (cocomposting with green wastes) Biowastes separate collected MBT for use on land PLANTS IN OPERATION Nb plants ~ (?) for Household kitchen & green wastes (mainly small plants) ~ for other biowastes (90% GW) 21 4 ~120 4 for Household kitchen wastes ~ 10 for other biowastes (business activities + sometimes manure) 6 Treatment capacity (input)? (600 kt?) ~ kt 780 kt 141 kt 350 kt DM 140 kt? kt 370 kt PLANTS SCHEDULED Nb plants 1(more?) for Household kitchen wastes? (10?) for other biowastes 20 4? (very few) 1 for Household kitchen wastes (+ ε sludge) ~ for other biowastes (business activities + sometimes manure) 14 Treatment capacity (input)? kt? kt 802 kt 175 kt???? kt 40 kt? kt 670 kt

9 Kg/inh/a Biowastes treatment : which place for AD? Scope of the figure below: Household & municipal biowastes + biowastes form stores & restaurants (biowastes from Food industry are not taken into account) France (57 kg/inh/a) Germany (143 kg/inh/a) UK (72 kg/inh/a) Spain (18 kg/inh/a) Composting Anaerobic digestion BIPE, 2012 (data 2009 compiled)

10 Collected biowastes : some comparisons Feed-in tariff rates c /KWh FR DE UK SP Min 2012 (2009) 11 (8) 14 (8) 11 (0) 7 (10) Max 2012 (2009) 20 (12.6) 16 (18) 28 (0) 7 (16) BIPE, 2012 (data 2009 & 2012 compiled) Biogas production in 2009 FR DE UK SP BIPE, 2012 (data 2009 & 2012 compiled)

11 Composts: French production 1.8 Mt composts produced in France ( ) (incl. co-compostzed sludge - ADEME, 2011) of whom 90% complying with French EoW standard Composted digestate Compost Compost production in 2009 (excl. cocomposted sludge) kg/inh./a compost from sludge FR DE UK SP BIPE, 2012

12 Composts: France has got national «endof-waste» status for a long time 2 French «normes» (compulsory standards) are our national EoW criteria : NFU for co-composted biosolids (1995) NFU (2001, rev 2006 & 2010) for other composts (incl. composted manure, etc.) Waste regime burdensome & expensive strong administrative requirements public enquiries, with opposition from populations NFU NFU produit = End-of-waste regime The future European EoW criteria will disturb this consensual organisation

13 Composts: quality French national Institute INERIS, 2012 (30 plants / 390 analysis, upon 3 years, with French methods) Lead From separate collection From MBT INERIS, 2012

14 Composts: quality Zinc From separate collection From MBT INERIS, 2012

15 Conclusion for France: diversity of situations is dealt with subsidiarity & adaptation Gradual strategy, focusing on the concentrate and easily reached pools for costs & technical reasons Based on French experience, the EoW status: Is a good tool to enhance compost quality, provided it takes into account the local situations, and focuses on the results rather than the means Should be based on national approach because composts do not travel, and are managed through local markets Should be an evolutive process in order to enhance stakholders behaviour, and develop the organic recovery

16 Conclusion for France: Stakes for the future To define a clear and shared strategy for biowastes, with a reasonable (costs/organisation) way to deal with the diffuse pool (i.e. mainly household kitchen wastes), To set up a unique & consensual quality assurance scheme, without excluding any kind of compost To develop AD on sustainable economic schemes, with a clear legal framework for digestates For green wastes, to improve home composting (prevention) & to spread the green wastes collection schemes

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