Ch:6 The American Revolution. 6:2 A Critical Time

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1 Ch:6 The American Revolution Washington Crossing the Deleware. IMAGE. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web 13 Oct < 6:2 A Critical Time Washington Crossing the Deleware. IMAGE. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web 13 Oct < 1

2 Standards 8.23 Determine the central ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence and write an expository piece in which the legacy of these ideas in today s world is described and validated with supporting evidence from the text Using Thomas Paine s Common Sense and The Crisis identify aspects of the texts that reveal the author s point of view and purpose including loaded language Identify and explain the significance of the major battles, leaders, and events of the American Revolution 8.27 Compare the points of views of the Loyalists and Patriots by integrating visual information through charts, graphs, or images with print texts. Objectives Discover the results of fighting in the Middle States. Understand why the Battle of Saratoga was a turning point in the American Revolution. Learn how foreign nations and volunteers helped the Americans. 2

3 Terms and People Nathan Hale Connecticut officer and American spy who was executed by the British mercenary soldier who is paid to fight for a country other than his or her own alliance formal agreement between two powers to work together toward a common goal Marquis de Lafayette French noble and high-ranking officer in Washington s army Terms and People (continued) cavalry units of troops on horseback Friedrich von Steuben German baron who helped train the Continental army By Charles Willson Peale, Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Public Domain Baron von Steuben drilling American recruits at Valley Forge in 1778, painted by Edwin Austin ncojournal.dodlive.mil 3

4 How were the early years of the war a critical time? In 1776, Americans declared their independence. But they were not yet free. Declaration of Independence. IMAGE. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 13 Oct < First, they had to defeat one of the world s most powerful nations. As the Continental Congress met in Philadelphia, a large British fleet landed in New York. The fleet was commanded by Sir William Howe. Anne S.K. Brown Military History Collection at Brown University Public Domain Howe gathered his forces on Staten Island and prepared to attack the Continental army. 4

5 George Washington expected the attack. But his troops were no match for the British. Americans 20,000 poorly trained volunteers British 34,000 professional soldiers No navy Navy fleet; 10,000 sailors Little equipment; few supplies Well equipped; fully supplied In a series of battles and American retreats, the British drove Washington from New York, across New Jersey, and into Pennsylvania. Americans British 5

6 Spirits were low, and many soldiers deserted. To boost morale Thomas Paine wrote another pamphlet, The Crisis, urging Americans to fight for their cause. v=yfg37sn-tc0 6

7 Though his army was battered, Washington rallied his troops for a surprise attack. On Christmas night, Washington crossed the Delaware, slipping into New Jersey. His army defeated Hessian mercenaries and British troops in two key battles. Washington Crossing the Deleware. IMAGE. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web 13 Oct < media1.school.eb.com/eb-media/09/ eeca00b.jpg> Battle of Trenton 12/26/1776 Attacked as mercenaries slept. Battle of Trenton, December 26, Source: U.S. Army Center of Military History Battle of Princeton 1/3/1777 Photo credit; Yale University Art Gallery Public Domain 7

8 Another American victory soon followed. General John Burgoyne planned to push toward Albany, New York, from three directions. British They hoped to cut New England off from the rest of the colonies by taking control of the Hudson River Valley. British Albany, New York British New England Two forces never arrived. The third, coming from Canada, was led by British general John Burgoyne. Americans led by General Horatio Gates surrounded Burgoyne s troops at Saratoga, New York. On October 17, Horatio Gates, esquire. Public domain After suffering heavy losses, Burgoyne surrendered. Burgoyne, John; surrender to Gates, IMAGE. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 13 Oct < 8

9 The Revolutionary War, The Battle of Saratoga proved to be a turning point for the Americans. ended British threat to New England lifted Patriot spirits convinced Europeans Americans could win Battle of Saratoga Burgoyne, John; surrender to Gates, IMAGE. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Web. 13 Oct <http;//media1.school.eb-nedia/15/ BOA66D.jpg> 9

10 Soon after Saratoga, France agreed to support American independence. United States France forms an alliance with the Americans Eager to weaken Britain, France took the war to Europe, forcing the British to fight on many fronts. European volunteers from many nations made key contributions to the Patriot cause. France Marquis de Lafayette Officer in Washington s army Poland Thaddeus Kosciusko Military engineer Poland Casimir Pulaski Cavalry expert Encyclopædia Britannica. Web. 13 Oct < media1.school.eb.com/eb-media/16/ f7ca5.jpg>. Encyclopædia Britannica. Web. 13 Oct < media1.school.eb.com/eb-media/ 68/ C6FF5AE.jpg>. 10

11 Friedrich von Steuben, a German baron, helped train American troops and build the Continental army into a more effective fighting force. Baron von Steuben drilling American recruits at Valley Forge in 1778, painted by Edwin Austin ncojournal.dodlive.mil Despite Patriot advances, the winter of was difficult. Washington and his troops faced terrible hardships at Valley Forge. They had little warm clothing, and almost no food. Many died. Yet spring finally came, and the army slowly regained strength for the battles ahead. 11

12 Section Review QuickTake Quiz Know It, Show It Quiz 12

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