# Statistiek I. t-tests. John Nerbonne. CLCG, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. John Nerbonne 1/35

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1 Statistiek I t-tests John Nerbonne CLCG, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen John Nerbonne 1/35 t-tests To test an average or pair of averages when σ is known, we use z-tests But often σ is unknown, eg, in specially constructed psycholinguistics tests, in tests of reactions of readers or software users to new books or products In general, σ is known only for standard tests (IQ tests, CITO tests, ) t-tests incorporate an estimation of σ (based on the standard deviation SD of the sample in order to reason in the same way as in z-tests John Nerbonne 2/35

2 t-tests Student s t-test ( Student pseudonym of Guiness employee without publication rights) three versions: independent samples compares two means determine whether difference is significant paired data compares pairs of values example: two measurements on each of 20 patients single sample (estimate mean) population statistics (µ, σ) unnecessary of course, sample statistics need appropriate with numeric data normally distributed see Mann-Whitney U-Test, Wilcoxon rank-sum test for non-parametric fall-backs John Nerbonne 3/35 The t Statistic t statistic: t = x µ s/ n z = x µ σ/ n Note that s is used (not σ) Of course, s should be good estimate Cf z test n is the number of items in the sample Always used with respect to a number of degrees of freedom, normally n 1 (below we discuss exceptions) To know the probability of a t statistic we refer to the tables (eg, M&M, Tabel E) We have to check on P(t(df)), where df is the degrees of freedom, normally n 1 John Nerbonne 4/35

3 t Tables Given degrees of freedom, df, and chance of t p, what t value is needed? df/p z Note comparison to z For n 100, use z (differences neglible) Compare M&M, Tabel E Be able to use table both to check P(t) and, for a given p, to find min t P(t) p John Nerbonne 5/35 z vs t Suppose you mistakenly used s in place of σ in a z test with 10 or 20 elements in the sample, what would the effect be? df/p z You would, eg, treat a differences of +233s as significant at the level 001 level (only 1% likely), when in fact you need to show differences of +28 or +25, respectively, to prove this level of significance Applying a z test using s instead of σ overstates the significance of the results John Nerbonne 6/35

4 Independent Sample t-tests Two samples, unrelated data points (eg, not before-after scores) Compares sample means, x 1, x 2, wrt significant difference H 0 is always µ 1 = µ 2, ie, that two populations have the same mean Two-sided alternative is H a : µ 1 µ 2 We use x 1, x 2 to estimate µ 1, µ 2 t = x 1 x 2 s 1/n 1 + 1/n 2 Degrees of freedom df = Min{(n 1 1), (n 2 1)} (using a smaller number makes showing significance harder, and therefore more reliable) Notate bene: S+ (and other statistical packages) often deviate from this conservative recommendation, using (something close to) df = (n 1 1) + (n 2 1) = n 2 (legitimate) t increases with large diff in means, or with small standard deviations (like z) John Nerbonne 7/35 Independent Sample t-test: Assumptions Assumptions of Independent Sample t-tests 1 Exactly two samples unrelated 2 No large skew or outliers if n 15 Distribution roughly normal if n < 15 If three or more samples, use ANOVA (later in course) If distribution unsuitable, using Mann-Whitney (later in course) John Nerbonne 8/35

5 Independent Sample t-test: Example Example: You wish to check on whether there s a difference in verbal reasoning in boys vs girls There are tests, but no published σ You test whether there s a difference in average ability in these two independent samples Assume two variables, VReason, Sex 1 78 M 2 90 M F F Two independent samples (no two scores from same person) John Nerbonne 9/35 Example t-test: One-Sided or Two-Sided? Example: You wish to check on whether there s a difference in verbal reasoning in boys vs girls There are tests, but no published σ You test whether there s a difference in average ability in these two independent samples No question of one being better than the other This is a two-sided question H Hypotheses: 0 : µ m = µ f H a : µ m µ f What would hypotheses be if we asked whether boys are better than girls? John Nerbonne 10/35

6 Independent Sample t-test: Normality Test n 1 = n 2 = 10, so for t-test, distributions must be roughly normal Are they? Boys Girls verbal reasoning score verbal reasoning score Normal Distribution Normal Distribution John Nerbonne 11/35 Normal Quantile Plots 90 verbal reasoning score Normal Distribution Plot expected normal distribution quantiles (x axis) against quantiles in samples If distribution is normal, the line is roughly straight Here: distribution roughly normal More exact technique: check KOLMOGOROV-SMIRNOV GOODNESS OF FIT (uses H 0 : distribution normal) If rejected, alternative tests are needed (eg, Mann-Whitney) John Nerbonne 12/35

7 Visualizing Comparison 90 verbal reasoning score M Sex F Box plots show middle 50% in box, median in line, 15 interquartile range (up to most distant) John Nerbonne 13/35 Independent Sample t-test: Example But is difference statistically significant? Invoke (in S+) 1 Compare samples Two Samples t-test 2 Specify variable VReason, groups Sex 3 Specify two-sided comparison, no assumption of equal variance (conservative) Calculates t, df, two-tailed probablity (p-value) John Nerbonne 14/35

8 Results Welch Modified Two-Sample t-test data: x: VReasn with Sex = M, and y: VReasn with Sex = F t = 17747, df = 17726, p-value = alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is not equal to 0 95 percent confidence interval: sample estimates: mean of x mean of y Note that Table E in M&M, p634 is for one-tailed test Thus values 1/2 those of S+ Degrees of Freedom (n 1 1) + (n 2 1) (less conservative than book) John Nerbonne 15/35 Interpreting Results We tested whether boys and girls differ in verbal reasoning ability We selected 10 healthy individuals of each group randomly, and obtained their scores on <Named> Verbal Reasoning Assessment We identify the hypotheses: H 0 : µ m = µ f (male and female the same) H a : µ m µ f (male and female different) Since σ is unknown for this verbal reasoning test, we applied a two-sided t-test after checking that the distributions were roughly normal We discuss one outlier below The samples showed a 6-pt difference in average scores, yielding p = 009 Thus we did not reject the null hypothesis at the level p 005 We retain H 0 Discussion: Given the small sample, and low outlier in the higher scoring group, we might confirm the hypothesis in a larger study or by recalculating, eliminating this individual Should we? John Nerbonne 16/35

9 Reporting Results 1 State the issue in terms of the populations (not merely the samples) Formulate H 0 and H a 2 State how your hypothesis is to be tested, how samples were obtained, what procedures (test materials) were used to obtain measurements 3 Identify the statistical test to be used, why 4 Illustrate your research question graphically, if possible For example, with box plots, as above 5 Present the results of the study on the sample, their significance level 6 State conclusions about the hypotheses 7 Discuss and interpret your results Practice this in laboratory exercises! John Nerbonne 17/35 One-Sided t-test If testing directional hypothesis, eg, that boys are better than girls in 3-dim thinking, then one can divide 2-tailed prob obtained above by 2 (Since 009/2 < 005, you could conclude immediately that the null hypothesis is rejected at the p = 005-level) But you can avoid even this level of calculation, by specifying the one-sided hypothesis in S+ Welch Modified Two-Sample t-test data: x: VReasn with Sex = M, and y: VReasn with Sex = F t = 17747, df = 17726, p-value = alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is greater than 0 95 percent confidence interval: NA John Nerbonne 18/35

10 Single Sample t-tests Moore & McCabe introduce using single sample (not focus here, but useful below) t-statistic: t = x µ s/ n z = x µ σ/ n where df = n 1 Recall that t increases in magnitude with large diff in means, or with small standard deviations Use eg to test whether µ has a particular value, µ 0 H 0 : µ = µ 0 and H a : µ µ 0 Then t = x µ 0 s/, where in general, scores of large magnitude (positive or n negative) indicate large differences (reason to reject H 0 ) John Nerbonne 19/35 Single Sample t-tests Example: Claim that test has been developed to determine EQ (Emotional IQ) Test shows that µ = 90 (in general population), no info on σ We want to test H 0 : µ = 90 H a : µ 90 Measure 9 randomly chosen Groningers (df = n 1 = 8) Result: x = 872, s = 5 Could the restriction to Groningen be claimed to bias results? t = x µ 0 s/ n = / 9 = = 175 One-sided chance of t = 175 (M&M Table E, p634, df = 8) is 005 John Nerbonne 20/35

11 Interpreting Single Sample t-test H 0 : µ EQ = 90 H a : µ EQ 90 Nota bene M&M, Table E gives one-tailed chance P(t(8) < 186) = 005) Since this is a two-sided test, we note P( t(8) > 186) = 010) The value 175 falls within the central 90% of the distribution Result: insufficient reason for rejection Retain H 0 Discussion: The small sample gives insufficient reason to reject the claim (at p = 005 level of significance) that the test has a mean of 90 John Nerbonne 21/35 Single Sample t-tests Example 2: Confidence Intervals As above, check system for EQ Measure x and derive 95% confidence interval 1 Measure 9 randomly chosen Groningers (df = n 1 = 8) Result: x = 872, s = 5 2 Find (in table) t such that P( t(8) > t ) = 005, which means that P(t(8) > t ) = 0025 Result: t = 23 3 Derive 95%-Confidence Interval = x ± t (s/ n) John Nerbonne 22/35

12 Calculating Confidence Intervals with t P(t(8) > 23) = 0025 The t-based 95%-confidence interval is = x ± t (s/ n) 872 ± 23(5/ 9) 872 ± 37 = (835, 909) Subject to same qualifications as other t-tests Sensitive to skewness and outliers (as is mean!) if n < 40 Look at data! Only use when distribution approximately normal when n < 15 Look at Normal-Quantile Plot John Nerbonne 23/35 Paired t-tests More powerful application of t-test possible if data comes in pairs Then pairwise comparison of data points possible (instead of just mean) Then we examine the difference between scores We can check the hypothesis that the scores are from the same populations by check whether the average differences tends to be zero H 0 : µ (xi y i ) = 0 and H a : µ (xi y i ) 0 This can be regarded as a single sample of differences We get the calculations (in some statistics packages), by calculating a set of differences, then applying a single-sample t-test to check the hypothesis that the mean is zero Some packages have built-in paired t-tests, eg, SPSS John Nerbonne 24/35

13 Paired t-test: Example Example: Suppose you suspect that the test for verbal reasoning which prove boys better is flawed You find a second Now you look at results of both tests on 15 subjects subj test1 test2 δ m sd Suppose we applied a t-test for independent samples, with H 0, H a : H 0 : µ test1 = µ test2 H a : µ test1 µ test2 Then t = 0546, p = 00546, retain H 0 at α = 005 No proof that tests are different John Nerbonne 25/35 Paired t-tests Paired t-test appropriate when there are two related samples (eg, two measurements x, y of the same people) This is called PAIRED DATA Then we can examine differences between the first and second elements of the pairs: H 0 : µ (xi y i ) = 0 and H a : µ (xi y i ) 0 1 This is inappropriate when scores differ in scale, eg, when one score is %-percentage, and other in [0, 600] Consider then REGRESSION 2 In small samples, both sets of scores must be roughly normally distributed John Nerbonne 26/35

14 Paired t-test: Application & Results We assume two sets of data, X, Y Let δ i be x i y i t = δ s δ / n For data in last slide (p24), s δ 04 t = 06 04/ 15 = 06 04/39 = = 6 For df = 14, p 0000 (Table, p643) John Nerbonne 27/35 Paired t-test: Interpretation We reject the null hypothesis at p 0001-level The tests do not yield the same results Discussion: The second test yields slightly, but consistently higher scores Note: We were not able to prove the two tests different using the t test for independent samples But since we have two sets of test results for the same people, we can examine the data in pairs General lesson: More sophisticated statistics allow more sensitivity to data Using the paired data, we could prove that the tests were different Using only unpaired data commits error of second sort: null hypothesis false, but not rejected John Nerbonne 28/35

15 Nonparametric Alternatives to paired t-tests If distribution nonnormal, recommended alternative is the WILCOXON SIGN RANK TEST (treated later in this course) If distribution nonnormal and asymmetric, we can note the sign of the differences and use those in the SIGN TEST (also later in the course) This is an application of the BINOMIAL DISTRIBUTION: note chance of sign of δ, either all positive or 14 positive, one negative: ( ) 15 ( + 1 ( 15 0 ) )(05) Sign test (M&M, p409) sometimes necessary when small samples too skewed for t test John Nerbonne 29/35 z- vs t-tests, including paired data compare 2 averages σ known z test σ unknown 2 grp 3 grp t-test different subjects same subjects paired t-test t-test unrelated samples John Nerbonne 30/35

16 t-tests: summary Simple t statistic: t = m 1 m 2 s/ n for numeric data, compares means of two groups, determines whether difference is significant population statistics (µ, σ) unnecessary of course, sample statistics need three applications: independent samples: compares two means single sample (eg, to estimate mean, or check hypothesis about mean) paired: compares pairs of values example: two measurements on each of 20 patients John Nerbonne 31/35 t-tests: summary Assumptions with all t-tests 1 Exactly two samples unrelated measurements 2 Distribution roughly normal if n < 15 no large skew or outliers if n 15 Nonparametric fallbacks: Independent samples Mann-Whitney Paired t-test Wilcoxon rank-sum test John Nerbonne 32/35

17 Multiple Tests Applying multiple tests risks finding apparent significance through sheer chance Example: Suppose you run three tests, always seeking a result significant at 005 The chance of finding this in one of the three is Bonferroni s family-wise α-level α FW = 1 (1 α) n = 1 (1 05) 3 = 1 (95) 3 = = 0143 To guarantee a family-wise alpha of 005, divide this by number of tests Example: 005/3 = 017 (set α at 01) ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE is better in these cases (topic later) John Nerbonne 33/35 Effect Size and Sample Size Statistical significance obtains when an effect is unlikely to have arisen by chance Very small differences may be significant when samples are large, ie, these small differences are (probably) not due to chance As we saw in discussion of z, a difference of two standard errors or more (z 2 or z 2) is likely to arise in less than 5% of the time due to chance diff (in σ s) n p , The recommendation for sample sizes of about 30 stems from the the idea that small effect sizes (under 03σ) are uninteresting, at least until you are quite advanced John Nerbonne 34/35

18 Next Topic Analysing Proportions John Nerbonne 35/35

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