# Edexcel Maths Linear Topic list HIGHER Edexcel GCSE Maths Linear Exam Topic List - HIGHER

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1 Edexcel GCSE Maths Linear Exam Topic List - HIGHER NUMBER Add, subtract, multiply, divide Order numbers Factors, multiples and primes Write numbers in words Write numbers from words Add, subtract, multiply, divide whole numbers, integers, negatives, fractions, and decimals and numbers in index form Multiply and divide any number between 0 and 1. Divide decimals up to 2 decimal places Solve a problem involving division by a decimal (up to two decimal places) Know the fraction-to-decimal conversion of familiar fractions Put in order of size, integers, decimals and fractions Understand and use positive and negative numbers on a number line Understand the terms; Odd and even Factor Multiple Common factor Highest common factor Least (lowest) common multiple Prime number Be able to identify factors, multiples and primes from a list of numbers Express a number as a product of prime factors (factor tree) Find common multiples or common factors of two numbers Find the highest common factor (HCF) or the lowest common multiple (LCM) of two numbers. Know all the square numbers from 2² = 4 up to 15² = 225 Know all the cube numbers from 2³ = 8 up to 5³ = 125 and also 10³ = 1000 Squares, square roots, cubes and cube roots Index notation Use index notation for squares and cubes, eg. 5³ Use index notation for powers of 10, eg Understand indices in calculations Index laws Standard form Equivalent fractions and adding and subtracting fractions Decimals, including recurring decimals Percentages Using fractions, decimals and percentages Multiply and divide by adding or subtracting indices Calculate using index laws when indices are fractions or negative Understand that for any number n, nº = 1 Understand that n-1 = 1 / n Understand that n ½ = n Understand that n ⅓ = 3 n Understand numbers written in standard form Write large or small numbers in standard form Convert between standard form and normal form Understand and use standard form on a calculator Find equivalent fractions Simplify a fraction to its simplest form Convert between improper fractions and mixed numbers Add and subtract fractions Know fraction to decimal conversions for simple fractions Convert between fractions and decimals Understand that all recurring decimals are exact fractions, and that some exact fractions are recurring decimals Convert between recurring decimals and fractions Know how to convert from recurring decimal to fraction using a proof Understand percentages Convert between fractions, decimals and percentages Find a fraction of a quantity Find a percentage of a quantity Use decimals to find quantities Use a multiplier to increase of decrease a quantity (eg. use x 1.05 to increase by 5%, or 0.88 to decrease by 12%))

2 Percentages and proportional change Direct and indirect proportion Fractions, decimals and percentages Number operations and the relationships between them, including order of operations and inverse operations Ratio Use surds and π in exact calculations Rounding and approximation Upper and lower bounds Use a calculator effectively ALGEBRA Use percentages to calculate and use o VAT o Simple interest o Income tax o Compound interest o Depreciation o Prices after an increase or decrease o Percentage profit and loss Find the original amount, given the new amount and the percentage change Calculate repeated proportional change Use a multiplier raised to a power to calculate repeated proportional change Use a multiplier to increase or decrease by a percentage Calculate an unknown quantity where quantities are in direct proportion Calculate an unknown quantity where quantities are in inverse proportion Find one number as a fraction of another number Find one number as a percentage of another number Multiply using percentages as operators Understand multiplying and dividing, and that one is the inverse of the other Use inverse operations Understand the use of brackets in calculations Understand the hierarchy of operations (BIDMAS) Solve word problems Understand and find reciprocals Understand that the inverse of raising to the power of n is the same as raising to the power of 1 over n Understand and use 1 over a number is the inverse of multiplying by that number Use reverse percentage calculations Write a ratio in its simplest form Divide a quantity in a given ratio Solve problems using ratios Use surds (roots) and π in calculations without a calculator, leaving the surd or π in the answer, eg. give an answer of 25 π Give an answer to a Pythagoras question as 17 Manipulate surds in calculations, eg. (3-3)² Rationalise a denominator, ie. manipulate so that there is no longer a surd on the bottom of the fraction Round to the nearest integer (whole number) Round numbers to any given power of 10 Round to a number of decimal places Round to a number of significant figures Estimate the answer to a calculation by using rounding Find the upper and lower bound of a calculation, especially in the calculation of: measurements perimeter area volume Give a final answer to a calculation to an appropriate degree of accuracy using upper and lower bounds Simple and complex calculations, including involving time or money Use the following functions +, -, x, x² and x memory functions brackets x to the power of y x to the power of 1 over y brackets trigonometrical functions Understand that rounding too early can causes inaccuracy Understand numbers shown in standard form, and be able to enter numbers in standard form Calculate in standard form Use for dividing to do reverse percentage calculations Use a multiplier and the power key to calculate exponential growth or decay

3 Algebraic notation Manipulate algebraic expressions Solve linear equations Solve simultaneous equations with two unknowns Solve quadratic equations Using formulae Solve linear inequalities Trial and improvement Sequences Nth term of a sequence Coordinates Understand notation and symbols used in algebra Understand the difference between expression, formula, equation and identity Be able to select an expression, formula, equation or identity from a list Be able to write an expression to solve a problem Simplify by collecting like terms Multiply out a single bracket Factorise a single bracket by taking out a common factor Expand two brackets Factorise quadratics into two brackets Factorise quadratics using the difference of two squares, eg. 4y² - 25 = (2y + 5)(2y - 5) Simplify algebraic expressions by cancelling, adding, subtracting and multiplying Use index laws, including fractional, zero and negative powers, and powers raised to another power Set up simple equations for a problem Rearrange simple equations Solve simple equations Solve equations with the unknown on either side Solve equations with the unknown on both sides Solve equations that include brackets Solve equations with negatives, including negative answers Solve equations involving fractions Use elimination to solve simultaneous equations Use substitution to solve simultaneous equations Draw straight line graphs and find the solution from the intersection of the two graphs Write simultaneous equations for a problem Solve quadratic equations by factorisation Solve quadratic equations by completing the square Solve quadratic equations using the quadratic formula Derive formulae Substitute numbers (positive or negative) into a formula, including formulae with x² or x³ terms Change the subject of a simple formula Change the subject of a formula where the subject appears on both sides of the formula Change the subject of a formula that includes a power of the subject Solve a simple linear inequality with one variable Show the solution to a linear inequality with one variable on a number line Show the solution to several inequalities with two variables on a graph Use trial and improvement to find an approximate solution to an equation Understand odd and even numbers Generate number sequences from diagrams Describe the rule for a number sequence Find a particular term in a sequence, or explain why a particular number is not in a sequence Find the nth term expression for a sequence Use the nth term expression to find a number in the sequence Use axes and coordinates, both positive and negative in 2D Understand and plot points in four quadrants Use axes and coordinates in 3D Find the coordinates of a point Plot a point given the coordinates, in 2D or 3D Find the mid-point of a line Calculate the length of a line using coordinates

5 Angles on intersecting lines, in triangles and quadrilaterals, and on parallel lines Interior and exterior angles of polygons Properties of quadrilaterals Reflection and rotation symmetry in 2D shapes Congruence and similarity Pythagoras theorem Trigonometry Angles round a point add up to 360 Angles on a straight line add up to 180 Perpendicular lines Know the properties of scalene, isosceles, equilateral and right-angled triangles Angles in a triangle add up to 180 Angle properties of intersecting lines, and vertically opposite angles are equal Be able to mark parallel lines on a diagram Corresponding angles in parallel lines Alternate angles in parallel lines Calculate angles and give reasons Explain why the angle sum of a quadrilateral is 360 Understand a proof that the angle sum of a triangle is 180 Understand the proof that the exterior angle of a triangle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the interior angles at the other two vertices Calculate angles in more complex problems Calculate the sum of interior angles in a polygon Understand the polygon names; hexagon, heptagon, octagon and decagon Use the angle sum of an irregular polygon in a problem Calculate and use the sum of the interior angles of a regular polygon Understand and use fact that the exterior angles of a polygon add up to 360 Understand and use the fact that the interior and exterior angles at one vertex of a polygon add up to 180 Be able to calculate the exterior angle of a regular polygon Be able to calculate the interior angle of a regular polygon Be able to deduce the number of sides of a regular polygon, given one of its angles Understand tessellations of regular and irregular polygons Tessellate combinations of polygons Explain why some shapes tessellate and some do not Remember the definitions and properties (including symmetry) of special quadrilaterals, ie. Square Rectangle Parallelogram Trapezium Rhombus Kite List or classify quadrilaterals by their properties Recognise reflection symmetry and be able to draw lines of symmetry on a shape Recognise rotation symmetry of 2D shapes Identify the order of rotational symmetry of a shape Complete a diagram given the line or lines of symmetry State a line of symmetry on a grid as a simple algebraic equation, eg. x = 2 or y = x Complete diagrams with a given order of rotational symmetry Understand that angles in similar shapes are the same Prove the congruence of triangles using SSS, SAS, ASA and RHS and formal argument Understand SSS, SAS, ASA and RHS in ruler and compass constructions Understand similarity of triangles and other 2D shapes, Use understanding of similar figures in problems Prove formally that two triangles are similar Understand and use Pythagoras theorem in triangles Understand and use Pythagoras theorem in 3D problems Understand the language associated with 3D shapes, including diagonals of a cuboid Use Pythagoras theorem to calculate the length of a diagonal of a cuboid Understand and remember trigonometric relationships in right angled triangles Use trigonometry in 2D problems Use trigonometry in 3D problems Use trigonometry to find the angle between a line and a plane Find angle of elevation and angle of depression Use the sine rule to solve 2D and 3D problems Use the cosine rule to solve 2D and 3D problems

6 Parts of a circle Circle theorems and their proofs Using 2D diagrams to represent 3D shapes Transformations Draw a circle with compasses, given either the diameter or radius Understand and remember parts of a circle: Centre Radius Diameter Chord Circumference Tangent Arc Sector Segment Prove and use each of the circle theorems: Tangent is perpendicular to the radius at the point the tangent meets the circle Two tangents from a point are equal in length Angle subtended from an arc at the centre is twice the angle at the circumference Angle in a semicircle is a right angle Angles in the same segment are equal Opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral add up to 180 Alternate segment theorem Perpendicular from the centre to a chord bisects the chord Use isometric grids Draw nets and show how they fold to make a 3D solid shape Understand and draw front and side elevations and plans of simple solids Draw a sketch of a 3D solid shape given the front and side elevations and plan of the solid Rotations Rotate a 2D shape around the origin or other point Understand that a rotation is defined by an angle, direction and a centre of rotation Find the centre of rotation Understand that a rotation produces a shape congruent to the original Reflections Understand and describe reflections Identify the mirror line for a reflection, and find its equation Understand that a reflection produces a shape congruent to the original Translations Understand and use translations Understand that translations are defined by a distance and a direction using vector notation Translate a shape by a given vector Understand that a translation produces a shape congruent to the original Enlargements Understand that an enlargement is defined by a centre of enlargement and a scale factor Understand that angles remain the same in an enlargement Enlarge a shape using (0, 0) or any other point as the centre Enlarge a shape by a positive scale factor Enlarge a shape by a fractional scale factor Enlarge a shape by a negative scale factor Find the centre of a given enlargement Identify the scale factor of a given enlargement Combined transformations Describe a transformation using a combination of rotation, reflection, translation or enlargements.

7 Straight edge and compass constructions Loci Perimeter and area Area of a triangle Circumference and area of a circle Volumes of prisms Complex shapes and solids Vectors Construct a given triangle Construct an equilateral triangle Understand that SSS, SAS, ASA and RHS triangles are unique but ASS ones are not Construct a perpendicular bisector of a line Construct a perpendicular from a point to a line Construct a perpendicular from a point on a line Bisect an angle Construct angles of 60, 90, 30 and 45 Construct parallel lines Draw circles and arcs of a given radius Construct a regular hexagon inside a circle Construct diagrams involving any of the above Construct diagrams from given information Construct a region bounded by a circle and an intersecting line Construct a loci of a given distance from a point and a given distance from a line Construct a loci of equal distances from two points Construct a loci of equal distances from two lines Identify regions defined by nearer to or greater than Find or describe regions satisfying a combination of loci Measure shapes to find perimeter or area Find the perimeter of a rectangle or triangle Use a formula to find the area of a rectangle Use a formula to find the area of a triangle Use a formula to find the area of a parallelogram Use a formula to find the area of a trapezium Calculate the perimeter and area of compound shapes made from triangles, rectangles and other shapes Find the surface area of shapes such as prisms or pyramids by using the formulae for triangles, rectangles and other shapes Calculate the area of a triangle using the formulae A = ½ ab sinc Find circumference of a circle using C = πd or C = 2πr Find the area of a circle using A = πr² Use π = or the π button on a calculator Find the perimeter and area of semcircles and quarter circles Calculate the length of an arc Calculate the area of a sector Give answers in terms of π if required Find the surface area of a cylinder Use the formula to calculate the volume of a cuboid Calculate volume of a prism, such as a triangular prism Calculate the volume of a prism made from cuboids Find the volume of a cylinder Find the surface area of cubes, cuboids, cones, pyramids, spheres and hemispheres Find the volumes of cones, pyramids, spheres and hemispheres, frustrums Find the surface area or volume of a compound solid made up of other solid shapes, eg. a cuboid with pyramid on top, or cyclinder with cone on top. Use volumes in complex problems Find the area of a segment of a circle given the radius and length of the chord Understand and use vector notation Add or subtract two vectors Multiply a vector by a number Calculate the result of two vectors Solve problems using vectors Use vectors in geometrical proofs MEASURES Maps and scale drawings Use, interpret and construct maps and scale drawings Draw lines and shapes to scale Estimate lengths using a scale diagram

8 Enlargement of shapes, including solids Interpretation and accuracy Converting measurements Estimation of measures Bearings Compound measures Measure and draw lines and angles Drawing using a ruler and protractor Understand the effect of enlargement on perimeter, area and volume Understand and use the fact that area and volume are affected differently by an enlargement Know the relationship between linear, area and volume scale factors when one 2D or solid shape is an enlargement of another Read and interpret scales on measuring equipment Know the relationships between seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months and years Use 12 and 24 hour clock times Calculate time intervals Recognise inaccuracy of measurement, and choose appropriate units of measurement Understand that choice of unit affects accuracy Understand that measurements given to a whole unit may be up to half a unit inaccurate in either direction Know conversion factors between different metric units Convert between metric units Convert between imperial units, given the conversion factor Know rough imperial/metric equivalents as follows 1 kg = 2.2 pounds 1 litre = 1¾ pints 4.5 litres = 1 gallon 8 km = 5 miles 30 cm = 1 foot Convert between imperial and metric measures using the above conversion factors Convert between metric measurements of area Convert between metric measurements of volume Convert between different metric units of speed, eg. metres per second and km per hour Convert between metric units of volume and metric units of capacity, eg. 1 cm³ = 1 ml Make estimates of measurements Choose appropriate units for estimates of measurements Use 3 figure bearings to specify direction Mark a point on a diagram, given a bearing and distance from another point Measure or draw a bearing on a map or scale plan Given a bearing of one point from another, find the bearing of the first point from the second Understand and use compound measures, including speed and density Measure and draw straight lines to the nearest mm Measure and draw angles to the nearest degree Make accurate drawings of triangles and other 2D shapes using ruler and protractor Make an accurate scale drawing from a diagram Use accurate drawing to solve bearings problems STATISTICS Data handling Bias Designing a survey Design data collection methods Tables and lists Two-way tables Decide on what data and analysis may be required for a problem Data collection Presenting data Discuss data Identify why data may be biased, and know how to minimise bias Understand the implications of different sizes of samples Identify what data is needed Consider fairness of a survey Understand sample and population Design a question for a survey Criticise questions for a survey Understand random sampling Understand stratified sampling Calculate numbers needed for stratified sampling Design and use a data collection sheet, including one for continuous data Sort and classify data, and put data into a table Group data into class intervals with equal width Extract data from tables and lists Design two-way tables

9 Charts and diagrams Types of average and range Interpreting graphs and diagrams Patterns in data Lines of best fit Comparing data Using calculators Complete a two-way table Draw the following charts or diagrams Bar chart Dual bar chart Pie chart Histogram with equal class intervals Frequency polygon Frequency diagram for grouped discrete data Scatter graph Line graph Frequency polygon for grouped data Grouped frequency table for continuous data Stem and leaf diagram Two-sided stem and leaf diagram Cumulative frequency table Cumulative frequency graph Box plots (from raw data, or when given the median and quartiles) Histograms with unequal class intervals, using frequency density Calculate the following Mean Mode Modal class Median Interval containing the median Range Estimate the mean of grouped data using mid-points of intervals Find median, quartiles and interquartile range for grouped data Estimate the mean for grouped data Find median, quartiles and interquartile range from a cumulative frequency graph Find median, quartiles and interquartile range from a box plot Understand and find information from pie charts stem and leaf diagrams scatter graphs frequency polygons box plots cumulative frequency diagrams histograms Find the median or other information from a histogram, for example the number of people in a particular group Find information from line graphs, frequency polygons and frequency diagrams Find information from pie charts Find median, mode, range and interquartile range from stem and leaf diagrams Estimate values and find median, quartiles and interquartile range from a cumulative frequency graph Complete a frequency table from a histogram Understand and define frequency density Find patterns in data Find exceptions in data Explain an isolated point on a scatter graph Draw a line of best fit Understand positve, negative and no correlation Understand that correlation does not always imply one thing causes the other Predict values using a line of best fit Understand that no correlation does not necessarily mean no relationship between the values, just no linear relationship Compare two sets of data using shapes of distributions Compare two sets of data using averages and spread, such as median, range and quartiles Compare spread using box plots or cumulative frequency graphs Compare two pie charts Compare data from dual bar charts Understand the advantages and disadvantages of different types of average Calculate mean using the correct key on a scientific calculator Σx and Σfx or calculation of the line of best fit

10 PROBABILITY Probability language and the probability scale Estimates of probability and relative frequency Listing events Impossible, unlikely, even chance, likely and certain events Mark events or probabilities on a 0 to 1 probability scale Write probabilities as fractions, decimals or percentages Find probabilities of events using dice, spinners, coins Understand and use relative frequency as estimates of probability Calculate an estimate of how many times an event will occur, given its probability and the number of trials List the outcomes for one or two events Use and draw diagrams to show all possibilities Mutually exclusive outcomes Understand that the sum of all the mutually exclusive outcomes is 1 Know that if P is a probability of an outcome occurring, then 1 - P is the probability of the same outcome not occurring Fill in a missing probability in a table Know and use the fact that, for mutually exclusive events, P(A OR B) = P(A) + P(B) Independent events Know that, for independent events, P(A AND B) = P(A) x P(B) Understand the difference in calculation for selection of an object with or without replacement Tree diagrams Draw a probability tree diagram Calculate probability of compound events from a tree diagram Experimental data and theoretical probability Compare experimental data with theoretical probability Understand that the same experiment repeated can have different results, and that increasing sample size increases accuracy Compare results from different sample sizes

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