UCM Compounds in Water Soluble Fractions of Crude Oils

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1 UCM Compounds in Water Soluble Fractions of Crude Oils Alf G. Melbye Jorunn Nerbø Hokstad N N N N N PROOF årsmøte Solstrand Fjord Hotell september 1

2 Why is the UCM fraction in focus? There is no evidence that there exists dark matter in oil by using the EIF method for determination of risks for acute toxicity The UCM fraction for crude oils and produced water from production of these varies depending on oil type. UCM is often a major mass fraction of the crude oils (and oil products), and the resulting water soluble fractions and produced waters The UCM fraction is relatively water soluble (and bioavailbale) The UCM fraction is persistent The UCM fraction is today not a part of environmental risk models So far very lack of relevant information on the long-term effects of UCM 2

3 History and projects SINTEF Materials and Chemistry has finished a pre-project literature study on polar oil compounds, financed by the Research Council Ongoing project at SINTEF Materials and Chemistry: Polar compounds in produced water. Financed by the Research Council Project partners: St. Olavs Hospital, Statoil and Norsk Hydro Close cooperation with the project The unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of petrogenic oils: Impacts in the seawater column (SINTEF Materials and Chemistry / NIVA) 3

4 Objectives Principal objective Obtain a thorough understanding of the chemical characteristics of the UCM fraction present in produced water and crude oils. The results from the project will form an essential basis for evaluation of possible long-term effects of produced water constituents in the marine environment Sub-goals Establish and adapt state-of-the art techniques for extraction of produced water Establish and adapt state-of-the art techniques for adequate fractionation of extracts from produced water Obtain detailed and group-type chemical characteristics of polar fractions from produced water 4

5 Environmental risk management of produced water EIF - Industry standard model for environmental risk management offshore oil and gas industry Using a best approach (but simplified) model for chemical composition; Dispersed oil Naphthalenes 2-3 ring PAH 4-6 ring PAH C -C 3 alkylated phenols C 4 -C 5 alkylated phenols C 6 -C 9 alkylated phenols 5

6 Fractionating produced water or WSF of crude oils Produced water and WSF s of crude oils are extremely complex matrixes (Identification of a large number of single components is not within scope of this project) A simplification of the complex matrixes is necessary prior to any analytical approach A number of different techniques are available for separation of complex matrixes combinations are possible In the initial phase of the project, a semi-preparative HPLC system for fractionating WSF s and produced water extracts has been developed 6

7 Fractionating produced water or WSF of crude oils Standard components was used for establishment and optimization of a fractionation system 2-D adsorption chromatography using a 3-solvent gradient 1 9 frak 1 frak 2 frak 3 frak 4 frak 5 frak 6 frak 7 frak 8 frak 9 frak 1 frak 11 frak 12 frak 13 frak 14 From - autosampler 2) Silica column heksan DCM metanol A To detectors B ) Amino column AC ) Cyano column separates backflushed polars from 2D chromatography column 1 and

8 UCM Unresolved Complex Material in Gas Chromatography FID1 A, (13299\34F161.D) FID1 A, (13299\31F131.D) counts counts o-terphenyl 5a-androstane Crude oil WSF Italian crude oil min min FID1 A, (19799\35F41.D) FID1 A, (19799\17F21.D) counts Marine diesel counts 5 4 WSF o-terphenyl 5a-androstane min min WSF 8

9 Chemical analysis of fractions GC/FID Unpolar column GC/MS Unpolar and polar columns m/z 35-8 (EI) fullscan mode LC/MS Crude run (no column) API-ES Positive ions m/z

10 *MSD1 SPC, time=.473:.7 of 8241GN1\ D+BSB API-ES, Pos, Scan, Frag: 1 1 Max: F Naphthalenes Phenantrenes /anthracenes / dibenzothiophenes m/z

11 *MSD1 SPC, time=.424:.635 of 8241GN1\2-235.D+BSB API-ES, Pos, Scan, Frag: 1 1 Max: F m/z

12 *MSD1 SPC, time=.473:.716 of 8241GN1\ D+BSB API-ES, Pos, Scan, Frag: 1 1 Max: F m/z

13 *MSD1 SPC, time=.424:.651 of 8241GN1\ D+BSB API-ES, Pos, Scan, Frag: 1 1 Max: F m/z

14 *MSD1 SPC, time=.48:.684 of 8241GN1\ D+BSB API-ES, Pos, Scan, Frag: Max: F C-C5 Phenols m/z 14

15 *MSD1 SPC, time=.44:.651 of 8241GN1\ D API-ES, Pos, Scan, Frag: 1 1 Max: F m/z

16 *MSD1 SPC, time=.424:.651 of 8241GN1\ D+BSB API-ES, Pos, Scan, Frag: 1 1 Max: F m/z

17 *MSD1 SPC, time=.441:.635 of 8241GN1\ D+BSB API-ES, Pos, Scan, Frag: 1 1 Max: F8 4 2 C5-C9 Phenols m/z

18 *MSD1 SPC, time=.44:.619 of 8241GN1\27-35.D+BSB API-ES, Pos, Scan, Frag: 1 1 Max: F m/z

19 *MSD1 SPC, time=.489:.684 of 8241GN1\ D+BSB API-ES, Pos, Scan, Frag: 1 1 Max: F m/z

20 *MSD1 SPC, time=.392:1.57 of 8241GN1\ D+BSB API-ES, Pos, Scan, Frag: 1 1 Max: F m/z

21 *MSD1 SPC, time=.48:.732 of 8241GN1\3-335.D+BSB API-ES, Pos, Scan, Frag: 1 1 Max: F m/z

22 *MSD1 SPC, time=.424:.668 of 8241GN1\ D+BSB API-ES, Pos, Scan, Frag: 1 1 Max: F m/z

23 *MSD1 SPC, time=.44:.651 of 8241GN1\ D+BSB API-ES, Pos, Scan, Frag: 1 1 Max: F m/z

24 F15 24

25 How to resolve the UCM? Some examples m/z 91- aromatic trace 25

26 How to resolve the UCM? Some examples Looking for C 4 -C 6 hydrocarbon chains (potential side chains) Side chains more abundant in the initial part of the UCM. Olefinic side chains most abundant 26

27 Future work Fractionate selected UCM rich fractions using Ion exchange chromatography Further detailed analysis using GC/MS (selective mass filtering and use of polar columns) LC/MS (systematic use of stronger ionization techniques, e.g. APPI) Further feedback from the project The unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of petrogenic oils: Impacts in the seawater column (SINTEF Materials and Chemistry / NIVA) for identification and focus on environmental important fractions Perform fractionation and analysis on extracts from produced water from Troll The chemical composition of UCM will be an issue in projects with focus on long-term effects in the water column 27

28 Til Julenissen I år ønsker jeg meg: Marine organismer som er eksponert for råolje eller vannløselig fraksjon av råolje som jeg kan opparbeide og analysere med hensyn på UCM (Gaven kan sendes til meg på jobben (jeg er ikke sikker på om jeg får lov til å ha døde dyr i kjøleskapet hjemme) 28

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