# Convex Optimization SVM s and Kernel Machines

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1 Convex Optimization SVM s and Kernel Machines S.V.N. Vishy Vishwanathan National ICT of Australia and Australian National University Thanks to Alex Smola and Stéphane Canu S.V.N. Vishy Vishwanathan: Convex Optimization, Page 1

2 Overview Review of Convex Functions Convex Optimization Dual Problems Interior Point Methods Simple SVM Sequential Minimal Optimization (SMO ) Miscellaneous Tricks of Trade S.V.N. Vishy Vishwanathan: Convex Optimization, Page 2

3 Convex Set and Function Definition: A set X (subset of a vector space) is convex iff λx + (1 λ)x X x, x X and λ [0, 1] Convex Functions: A function f : X R is convex if for any x, x X and λ [0, 1] such that λx + (1 λ)x X f(λx + (1 λ)x ) λf(x) + (1 λ)f(x ) If strict inequality = a strictly convex function Below Sets: Let f : X R be convex. If X is convex then the set X := {x X : f(x) c} is convex S.V.N. Vishy Vishwanathan: Convex Optimization, Page 3

4 Convex Minimization Theorem: Function f : X R be convex The sets X and X X be convex sets Let c be the minimum of f X All x X for which f(x) = c form a convex set Corollary: Let f, c 1, c 2,... c n : X R be convex The set X be convex The optimization problem min f(x) x X s.t c i (x) 0 has its solution (if it exists) on a convex set. If strictly convex functions solution is unique S.V.N. Vishy Vishwanathan: Convex Optimization, Page 4

5 Convex Maximization Basic Idea: Convex maximization is generally hard Maximum attained on corner points or vertices Maximization on an Interval: Let f : [a, b] R be convex f attains its maximum at either a or b Maxima of Convex Functions: Let X be a compact convex set in X Denote by X the vertices of X Let f : X R be convex Then sup{f(x) x X} = sup{f(x) x X} S.V.N. Vishy Vishwanathan: Convex Optimization, Page 5

6 Newton Method Basic Idea: We replace a function by its quadratic approximation If approximations are good = fast convergence Maximization on an Interval: Suppose f : [a, b] R is convex and smooth The following iterations converge to min f(x) x n+1 = x n f (x n ) f (x n ) Convergence: Let g(x) := f (x) be continuous and twice differentiable Let x R and g(x ) = 0 and g (x ) 0 x 0 is sufficiently close to x = quadratic convergence S.V.N. Vishy Vishwanathan: Convex Optimization, Page 6

7 Gradient Descent Basic Idea: How do you climb up a hill? Take a step up and see how to go up again Algorithm: Suppose f : X R is convex and smooth The following iterations converge to min f(x) x n+1 = x n γf (x n ) Where γ > 0 minimizes f locally Such a γ must always exist Convergence: Can show that converges in infinite steps We will not do the proof! S.V.N. Vishy Vishwanathan: Convex Optimization, Page 7

8 Predictor Corrector Methods Basic Idea: Make a linear approximation to f Substitute your estimate into f and correct Example: Suppose f(x) = f 0 + ax bx2 Linear approximation f f 0 + ax Predictor solution x pred = f 0 a Substitute back f 0 + ax corr b(f 0 a ) ) 2 Solve x corr = f 0 a (1 + 1 f 0 b 2 a 2 Iterate until convergence Notice how we never compute b! S.V.N. Vishy Vishwanathan: Convex Optimization, Page 8

9 KKT Conditions Optimization: Optimization problem Lagrange Function: Define L(x, α, β) := f(x) + min f(x) s.t c i (x) 0 e j (x) = 0 n α i c i (x) + i=1 n j=1 β j e j (x) α i 0 and β j R Theorem: If L( x, α, β) L( x, ᾱ. β) L(x, ᾱ, β) then x is a solution S.V.N. Vishy Vishwanathan: Convex Optimization, Page 9

10 Diff. Convex Problems Optimization Problem: Optimization problem min f(x) s.t c i (x) 0 e j (x) = 0 KKT Conditions: If f, c i are convex and differentiable then x is a solution if ᾱ R n s.t. α i 0 and n x L( x, ᾱ) = x f( x) + ᾱ i x c i ( x) = 0 αi L( x, ᾱ) = c i ( x) 0 ᾱ i c i (x) = 0 i i=1 S.V.N. Vishy Vishwanathan: Convex Optimization, Page 10

11 KKT Gap Proximity to Solution: Let f and c i be convex and differentiable For any (x, α) such that x feasible, α i 0 and x L(x, α) = 0 αi L(x, α) 0 If x is the optimal then the KKT gap is given by f(x) f( x) f(x) + i α i c i (x) Also called the duality gap Duality: Instead of solving a primal problem solve a dual problem Find saddle point of L(x, α) S.V.N. Vishy Vishwanathan: Convex Optimization, Page 11

12 Optimization Problem Let H ij = y i y j k(x i, x j ), then Primal Problem: 1 minimize 2 θ 2 subject to y i ( θ, x i + b) 1 0 for all i {1, 2,..., m} Dual Problem: maximize subject to 1 2 α Hα + α i i α i y i = 0 and α i 0 for all i {1, 2,..., m}. i Generalized Dual Problem: maximize subject to 1 2 α Hα + c α Aα = 0 and 0 α i C S.V.N. Vishy Vishwanathan: Convex Optimization, Page 12

13 SimpleSVM The Big Picture Chunking: Take chunks of data and solve the smaller problem. Retain the SV s, add the next chunk, and retrain. Repeat until convergence. SimpleSVM: Take an active set and optimize. Select a violating point greedily. Add violator to the active set. Add/delete only one SV at a time. Recompute the exact solution. Repeat until convergence. S.V.N. Vishy Vishwanathan: Convex Optimization, Page 13

14 A Picture Helps - I Consider a hard margin linear SVM. x and o belong to different classes. Three SV s and one violator are shown. S.V.N. Vishy Vishwanathan: Convex Optimization, Page 14

15 A Picture Helps - II The support plane has been shifted. It passes thru the violator (rank-one update). A previous SV is now well classified (rank-one downdate). S.V.N. Vishy Vishwanathan: Convex Optimization, Page 15

16 What About Box Constraints? Point 1 is the current optimal solution. Add a new constraint α and optimize over (α, α ). Point 3 is the unconstrained optimal. Move from point 3 to 2 where α becomes bound. Now optimize over α to reach point 4. If 4 does not satisfy box constraints repeat. S.V.N. Vishy Vishwanathan: Convex Optimization, Page 16

17 Putting It Together Initialize with a suitable pair of points. Step 1: Locate a violating point and add to the active set. Ignore box constraints if any. Solve the optimization problem for the active set. Step 2: If new solution satisfies box constraints we are done. Else remove the first box constraint violator. Goto Step 2. Repeat until no violators (Goto Step 1). S.V.N. Vishy Vishwanathan: Convex Optimization, Page 17

18 Other Issues Choosing Initial Points: Randomized strategies. Find a good pair with high probability. Rank One Updates: Kernel matrices are generally rank-degenerate. Cheap factorization algorithms. Cheap rank-one updates (Vishwanathan, 2002). Convergence: Few sweeps thru the dataset suffice. Speed of convergence: Linear. S.V.N. Vishy Vishwanathan: Convex Optimization, Page 18

19 Performance Comparisons - I Performance comparison between SimpleSVM and NPA on the Spiral dataset and the WPBC dataset. S.V.N. Vishy Vishwanathan: Convex Optimization, Page 19

20 Performance Comparisons - II Performance comparison between SimpleSVM and NPA on the Adult dataset. S.V.N. Vishy Vishwanathan: Convex Optimization, Page 20

21 Performance Comparisons - III Performance comparison between SimpleSVM and SMO on the Spiral and WPBC datasets. S.V.N. Vishy Vishwanathan: Convex Optimization, Page 21

22 Questions? S.V.N. Vishy Vishwanathan: Convex Optimization, Page 22

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