Milky Way & Hubble Law

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Milky Way & Hubble Law"

Transcription

1 Milky Way & Hubble Law Astronomy 1 Elementary Astronomy LA Mission College Spring F2015

2 Quotes & Cartoon of the Day Happy Thanksgiving!

3 Announcements 3rd midterm 12/3 I will drop the lowest midterm grade Final 12/15 at 10 AM! No Class Thursday!

4 Last Class Stellar Evolution wrapup. Black holes Binaries & Clusters Galaxies What s a Galaxy? Galaxy types LT Galaxy Classification Our Galaxy, the Milky Way

5 This Class Galaxies LT Galaxy Classification Our Galaxy, the Milky Way Hubble s Law

6 WARM-UP QUESTION

7 A galaxy that appears to be populated by mostly red stars, likely. A. never had blue stars in the galaxy. B. had blue stars that are not present anymore but were at one time long ago. C. has been around long enough for blue stars to all evolve into the red main sequence stars we see. D. never contained enough gas to have blue stars develop. E. as blue stars that are being blocked by dust.

8 LT GALAXY CLASSIFICATION

9 A galaxy that appears to be populated by mostly red stars, likely. A. never had blue stars in the galaxy. B. had blue stars that are not present anymore but were at one time long ago. C. has been around long enough for blue stars to all evolve into the red main sequence stars we see. D. never contained enough gas to have blue stars develop. E. as blue stars that are being blocked by dust.

10 Let s Practice

11 How would you classify the Milky Way? A. SBbc NASA/JPL-Caltech/R. Hurt B. Sb C. S0

12 The centers of most spiral galaxies appear redder than the arms. The most likely explanation for this is. A. young blue stars are primarily in the arms and old red stars in the bulge B. nuclear reactions in the center are creating heat C. the black hole in the center is glowing red

13 Elliptical galaxies contain mostly red stars. What can you conclude about the rate of star formation in elliptical galaxies? A. Few to no new stars are forming. B. Many new stars are forming. C. There is not enough information to conclude anything.

14 We live in a Galaxy: The Milky Way Astronomy 1 Elementary Astronomy LA Mission College Spring F2015

15 INTRO TO THE MILKY WAY

16 The Milky Way Our home galaxy A barred spiral galaxy From our solar system, we see this...

17 Milky Way over the VLT Image Credit: ESO (Yuri Beletsky) Astronomy 1 - Elementary Astronomy LA Mission College Levine F2015

18 Structure of the Milky Way Looking through the disk from inside and combining the 2-D data with distance information allows us to construct a model of what the Milky Way looks like from outside...

19 Edge-on Model

20 Face-on Model Image Credit NASA/JPL-Caltech/R. Hurt Astronomy 1 - Elementary Astronomy Image Credit LA Mission NASA/JPL-Caltech/R. College Hurt Levine F2015

21 Structure of the Milky Way Bulge: spherioidal about 6000 ly diameter Densely packed old red stars Bar Disk: flat about 90,000 ly x 900 ly Stars and interstellar gas and dust, including young stars Sun about 24,000 ly from center Halo: Spheroidal about 300,000 ly diameter Image Credit: R.J. Hall old stars, globular clusters, dark matter, hot gas

22 3D Model

23 WHAT S IN THE MW?

24 Milky Way Recipe 300 ± 100 billion stars at least 1983 planets Interstellar Medium (ISM) ~ M Supermassive Black Hole ~ x 10 6 M Dark Matter to account for a total mass of x M

25 Where is the Interstellar Medium? Milky Way Galaxy Interstellar Medium = ISM Everywhere between stars not uniformly distributed, denser in bar and arms Image Credit NASA/JPL-Caltech/R. Hurt

26 THE GALACTIC CENTER

27 The Galactic Center Images about 8 across. GC in upper left Entirely obscured in visible light First explored using radio astronomy later further explored with IR astronomy

28 The Galactic Center The GC is very wierd place WAAAY down inside the bulge This image about 3 (1400 ly) across Sgr A* location of black hole

29 Supermassive BH in MW

30 The Galactic Center stellar orbits in the central 3 ly evidence for a supermassive black hole, with mass 4 million times the mass of the Sun.

31 DARK MATTER

32 The data (blue curve) indicate the stars in the outer Galaxy have higher orbital speeds than can be explained by the known mass. Dark matter that extends to great distances from the galactic center provides the gravitational force needed to give the outer stars these higher speeds. Predicted Keplerian orbit based on cataloged content Actual rotation of Milky Way Astronomy Elementary Astronomy LA Mission College Levine F2015

33 What is Dark Matter? Rotation curve provides evidence mass But we don t see it as stars, dust, gas We call it dark matter because we haven t directly detected it through observing light We don t really know what it is made out of, we just know where it is and how much of it there is! In the Milky Way, most is in the halo, and possibly an extended disk 6 x10 11 to 3 x M

34 Cosmology the origin fate and history of the universe in no time at all Astronomy 1 Elementary Astronomy LA Mission College Spring F2015

35 HUBBLE S LAW

36 Hubble s Observations Hubble obtained distances and velocities for galaxies beyond our local group Velocity from Doppler shift Distance from standard candles Cephied variables

37 Doppler Effect

38 Detecting Doppler Shift In astronomy, we detect red (and blue) shift using spectral lines

39 THE HUBBLE LAW

40 Hubble s Law

41 Hubble s Law A straight line! The galaxies are all receding and the speed with which they are doing so increases as the distance increases v=h 0d H 0 is the Hubble Constant

42 WHAT IS COSMOLOGY?

43 What is Cosmology Cosmology is the scientific study of the large scale properties of the universe as a whole. It endeavors to use the scientific method to understand the origin, evolution and ultimate fate of the entire Universe. WMAP Science Team, "Cosmology: The Study of the Universe," NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe,last modified June 6, 2011, or

44 THE EXPANDING UNIVERSE

45 Hubble s Law Hubble s Law: galaxies are redshifted & the further away they are, the more they are redshifted not traveling THROUGH space space itself is getting bigger cosmological redshift due to the expansion of space

46 The Raisin Bread Analogy every raisin travels away from every other raisin obeys Hubble s Law

47 The Raisin Bread Analogy raisins the stuff in the universe dough space (space-time) dough is expanding, not raisins Space is expanding, not the stuff in it

48 THE OBSERVABLE UNIVERSE

49 Telescopes are Time Machines object We see they as they were ago What they would see looking at earth Proxima Centauri 4.3 years August 2009 Sirius ~ 28 years Apartheid dismantled HD156668b (a 2 earth-mass planet) ~80 years Hitler s rise to power Rigel Center of MW ~860 years ~24, 000 years Henry II marries Eleanor of Aquitane The traces of the very last Neanderthals Andromeda Galaxy 2.5 million years Homo erectus learns to use tools Center of Virgo Cluster 65 million years Extinction of the Dinosaurs Galaxy Cluster MCS J billion years Formation of the Solar System Light takes time to travel We see things as they were

50 The Observable Universe we can only see the portion of the Universe which is within the distance light could travel in the time since the beginning of the universe. Even though the Universe is infinite, we see only a portion of it. That portion is called the observable universe.

51 The Cosmological Principle We only see part of the infinite universe. Theorists want to apply theory to the whole universe the Cosmological Principle (an assumption) Universe is homogeneous and isotropic when averaged over very large scales. i.e. our location in the Universe is not special, it s the same everywhere

52 IT ALL STARTED WITH

53 Expanding Universe + General Relativity + The Cosmological Principle implies...

54 It all started with a Big Bang

55 Editorial Note The Bearnaked Ladies got a lot right except for making all the elements... But very smart people had the same wrong idea for a long time Only H and He (a little Li) are made by Big Bang nucelosynthesis.

56 WRAP-UP

57 Topic for Next Class The Big Bang & the fate of the universe

58 Reading Assignment Astro: 11 Astropedia:17

59 Homework None at this time

Milky Way & Hubble Law

Milky Way & Hubble Law Milky Way & Hubble Law Astronomy 1 Elementary Astronomy LA Mission College Spring F2015 Quotes & Cartoon of the Day Two things are infinite: the universe and human stupidity; and I'm not sure about the

More information

PART 3 Galaxies. Stars in the Milky Way

PART 3 Galaxies. Stars in the Milky Way PART 3 Galaxies Stars in the Milky Way A galaxy is a large collection of billions of stars The galaxy in which the Sun is located is called the Milky Way From our vantage point inside the galaxy, the Milky

More information

165 points. Name Date Period. Column B a. Cepheid variables b. luminosity c. RR Lyrae variables d. Sagittarius e. variable stars

165 points. Name Date Period. Column B a. Cepheid variables b. luminosity c. RR Lyrae variables d. Sagittarius e. variable stars Name Date Period 30 GALAXIES AND THE UNIVERSE SECTION 30.1 The Milky Way Galaxy In your textbook, read about discovering the Milky Way. (20 points) For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching

More information

Learning Objectives. at the center of our Galaxy...why were they wrong? are globular clusters? Cepheid Variable stars?

Learning Objectives. at the center of our Galaxy...why were they wrong? are globular clusters? Cepheid Variable stars? Our Milky Way Learning Objectives! What is the Milky Way? The Herschels thought we were at the center of our Galaxy...why were they wrong?! How did Shapley prove we aren t at the center? What are globular

More information

The Milky Way Galaxy. Our Home Away From Home

The Milky Way Galaxy. Our Home Away From Home The Milky Way Galaxy Our Home Away From Home Lecture 23-1 Galaxies Group of stars are called galaxies Our star, the Sun, belongs to a system called The Milky Way Galaxy The Milky Way can be seen as a band

More information

The Discovery of Galaxies Kant proposed Island Universes Earl of Rosse built 72 telescope in 1845

The Discovery of Galaxies Kant proposed Island Universes Earl of Rosse built 72 telescope in 1845 The Discovery of Galaxies 1755 Kant proposed Island Universes Earl of Rosse built 72 telescope in 1845 M51Whirlpool Galaxy Thru binoculars Earl of Rosse sketched the spiral nebulae Modern image Andromeda

More information

12-3. Spherical groups of millions of stars found in the Milky Way are called: a) novas b) globular clusters X c) open clusters d) galactic clusters

12-3. Spherical groups of millions of stars found in the Milky Way are called: a) novas b) globular clusters X c) open clusters d) galactic clusters Chapter 12 Quiz, Nov. 28, 2012, Astro 162, Section 4 12-1. Where in our Galaxy has a supermassive (or galactic) black hole been observed? a) at the outer edge of the nuclear bulge b) in the nucleus X c)

More information

Lecture 19 Big Bang Cosmology

Lecture 19 Big Bang Cosmology The Nature of the Physical World Lecture 19 Big Bang Cosmology Arán García-Bellido 1 News Exam 2: you can do better! Presentations April 14: Great Physicist life, Controlled fusion April 19: Nuclear power,

More information

Chapter Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 19-22

Chapter Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 19-22 Suppose you tried to determine where we are in the galaxy by looking in different directions to see how many stars you could see. If you did this, you would pinpoint our location Suppose you tried to determine

More information

The Milky Way Galaxy. Studying Its Structure Mass and Motion of the Galaxy Metal Abundance and Stellar Populations Spiral Structure and Star Formation

The Milky Way Galaxy. Studying Its Structure Mass and Motion of the Galaxy Metal Abundance and Stellar Populations Spiral Structure and Star Formation The Milky Way Galaxy Studying Its Structure Mass and Motion of the Galaxy Metal Abundance and Stellar Populations Spiral Structure and Star Formation The Milky Way Almost everything we see in the night

More information

PS 224, Fall 2014 HW 4

PS 224, Fall 2014 HW 4 1. True or False? Explain in one or two short sentences. (2x10 points) a. The fact that we have not yet discovered an Earth-size extrasolar planet in an Earth-like orbit tells us that such planets must

More information

Milky Way Galaxy Determining the size/extent counting stars (doesn t work) Variable Stars Red Giants/Supergiants Instability Strip Hydrostatic

Milky Way Galaxy Determining the size/extent counting stars (doesn t work) Variable Stars Red Giants/Supergiants Instability Strip Hydrostatic Milky Way Galaxy Determining the size/extent counting stars (doesn t work) Variable Stars Red Giants/Supergiants Instability Strip Hydrostatic Equilibrium Cepheids characteristics Type I, II differences

More information

Ay 20 - Fall Lecture 16. Our Galaxy, The Milky Way

Ay 20 - Fall Lecture 16. Our Galaxy, The Milky Way Ay 20 - Fall 2004 - Lecture 16 Our Galaxy, The Milky Way Our Galaxy - The Milky Way Overall structure and major components The concept of stellar populations Stellar kinematics Galactic rotation and the

More information

Observing the Universe

Observing the Universe Observing the Universe Stars & Galaxies Telescopes Any questions for next Monday? Light Doppler effect Doppler shift Doppler shift Spectra Doppler effect Spectra Stars Star and planet formation Sun Low-mass

More information

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 23. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 23. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outlines Chapter 23 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 23 The Milky Way Galaxy Units of Chapter 23 23.1 Our Parent Galaxy 23.2 Measuring the Milky Way Early Computers 23.3 Galactic

More information

Measuring the mass of galaxies Luminous matter in a galaxy: stars (of different masses) gas (mostly hydrogen) Can detect these directly using optical

Measuring the mass of galaxies Luminous matter in a galaxy: stars (of different masses) gas (mostly hydrogen) Can detect these directly using optical Measuring the mass of galaxies Luminous matter in a galaxy: stars (of different masses) gas (mostly hydrogen) Can detect these directly using optical and radio telescopes - get an estimate of how much

More information

The Milky Way. The Milky Way. First Studies of the Galaxy. Determining the Structure of the Milky Way. Galactic Plane.

The Milky Way. The Milky Way. First Studies of the Galaxy. Determining the Structure of the Milky Way. Galactic Plane. The Milky Way The Milky Way Almost everything we see in the night sky belongs to the Milky Way. 1 We see most of the Milky Way as a faint band of light across the sky. From outside, our Milky Way might

More information

Answers for the Student Worksheet for the Hubble Space Telescope Scavenger Hunt

Answers for the Student Worksheet for the Hubble Space Telescope Scavenger Hunt Instructions: Answers are typed in blue. Answers for the Student Worksheet for the Hubble Space Telescope Scavenger Hunt Crab Nebula What is embedded in the center of the nebula? Neutron star Who first

More information

The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and the Fate of the Universe. Chapter 23 Review Clickers

The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and the Fate of the Universe. Chapter 23 Review Clickers Review Clickers The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and the Fate of the Universe Doppler shifts can be measured with a) visible light. b) radio waves. c) microwaves. d) all

More information

4 Formation of the Universe

4 Formation of the Universe CHAPTER 2 4 Formation of the Universe SECTION Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is the big bang theory? How

More information

Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016. Pre-course assessment

Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016. Pre-course assessment Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016 Pre-course assessment In order to grant two graduate credits for the workshop, we do require you to spend some hours before arriving at Penn State. We encourage all of

More information

ASTRONOMY 113 EXAM #3: Covering Chapters Time: 3:00-4:15pm VERSION C (KEY)

ASTRONOMY 113 EXAM #3: Covering Chapters Time: 3:00-4:15pm VERSION C (KEY) ASTRONOMY 113 EXAM #3: Covering Chapters 26-28 Time: 3:00-4:15pm VERSION C (KEY) Please write your GMU ID, Which test version you got (if not there will not be any way that I will be able to guess) Warning:

More information

The Milky Way Galaxy. This is NOT the Milky Way galaxy! It s a similar one: NGC 4414.

The Milky Way Galaxy. This is NOT the Milky Way galaxy! It s a similar one: NGC 4414. The Milky Way Galaxy This is NOT the Milky Way galaxy! It s a similar one: NGC 4414. 1 The Milky Way Galaxy 2 Interactive version 3 Take a Giant Step Outside the Milky Way Artist's Conception Example (not

More information

X-ray Astronomy Field Guide

X-ray Astronomy Field Guide X-ray Astronomy Field Guide The Milky Way The word galaxy comes from a Greek word meaning "milky circle" or, more familiarly, "milky way." The white band of light across the night sky that we call the

More information

Astro 102 Test 5 Review Spring 2016. See Old Test 4 #16-23, Test 5 #1-3, Old Final #1-14

Astro 102 Test 5 Review Spring 2016. See Old Test 4 #16-23, Test 5 #1-3, Old Final #1-14 Astro 102 Test 5 Review Spring 2016 See Old Test 4 #16-23, Test 5 #1-3, Old Final #1-14 Sec 14.5 Expanding Universe Know: Doppler shift, redshift, Hubble s Law, cosmic distance ladder, standard candles,

More information

Our Galaxy, the Milky Way

Our Galaxy, the Milky Way Our Galaxy, the Milky Way In the night sky, the Milky Way appears as a faint band of light. Dusty gas clouds obscure our view because they absorb visible light. This is the interstellar medium that makes

More information

Where did the idea for the Big Bang come from anyway? Strategy

Where did the idea for the Big Bang come from anyway? Strategy The Big Bang Where did the idea for the Big Bang come from anyway? Strategy 1. Document present state of the Universe via observations 2. Find an explanation that fits all observations Observation 1a:

More information

What Are Stars? continued. What Are Stars? How are stars formed? Stars are powered by nuclear fusion reactions.

What Are Stars? continued. What Are Stars? How are stars formed? Stars are powered by nuclear fusion reactions. What Are Stars? How are stars formed? Stars are formed from clouds of dust and gas, or nebulas, and go through different stages as they age. star: a large celestial body that is composed of gas and emits

More information

The Milky Way Galaxy (ch. 23)

The Milky Way Galaxy (ch. 23) Notes on Ch. 23 and 24. The Milky Way Galaxy (ch. 23) [Exceptions: We won t discuss sec. 23.7 (Galactic Center) in class, but look it over in order to just get the most basic point I might put a question

More information

A Universe of Galaxies

A Universe of Galaxies A Universe of Galaxies Today s Lecture: Other Galaxies (Chapter 16, pages 366-397) Types of Galaxies Habitats of Galaxies Dark Matter Other Galaxies Originally called spiral nebulae because of their shape.

More information

The Milky Way Galaxy Chapter 15

The Milky Way Galaxy Chapter 15 The Milky Way Galaxy Chapter 15 Topics to be covered: 1. Contents of our Galaxy: Interstellar Medium(ISM) and Stars. Nebulae 2. Distribution of galactic clusters and center of our Galaxy. 3. Structure

More information

Why is the Night Sky Dark?

Why is the Night Sky Dark? Why is the Night Sky Dark? Cosmology Studies of the universe as a whole Today Brief history of ideas (Early Greeks Big Bang) The expanding universe (Hubble, Relativity, density & destiny) An alternative

More information

The formation of the galaxy is believed to be similar to the formation of the solar system.

The formation of the galaxy is believed to be similar to the formation of the solar system. The formation of the galaxy is believed to be similar to the formation of the solar system. All the gas & dust collapsed into a disk. During the time that stars were being formed, our galaxy didn t have

More information

Astronomy Ch 23 The Milky Way. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Astronomy Ch 23 The Milky Way. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Period: Date: Astronomy Ch 23 The Milky Way MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) In structure, our Milky Way is most similar to

More information

Astronomy Ch 23 The Milky Way. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Astronomy Ch 23 The Milky Way. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Period: Date: Astronomy Ch 23 The Milky Way MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) In structure, our Milky Way is most similar to

More information

19. Our Galaxy The Milky Way Revealed. Our goals for learning: Regions of the Milky Way Galaxy. Regions of the Milky Way Galaxy

19. Our Galaxy The Milky Way Revealed. Our goals for learning: Regions of the Milky Way Galaxy. Regions of the Milky Way Galaxy 19. Our Galaxy The infinitude of creation is great enough to make a world, or a Milky Way of worlds, look in comparison with it what a flower or an insect does in comparison with the Earth. 19.1 The Milky

More information

Chapter 15.3 Galaxy Evolution

Chapter 15.3 Galaxy Evolution Chapter 15.3 Galaxy Evolution Elliptical Galaxies Spiral Galaxies Irregular Galaxies Are there any connections between the three types of galaxies? How do galaxies form? How do galaxies evolve? P.S. You

More information

4/27/ Unseen Influences in the Cosmos. Chapter 18: Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and the Fate of the Universe.

4/27/ Unseen Influences in the Cosmos. Chapter 18: Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and the Fate of the Universe. Lecture Outline 18.1 Unseen Influences in the Cosmos Chapter 18: Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and the Fate of the Universe Our goals for learning: What do we mean by dark matter and dark energy? What do we

More information

Gravity slows down the expansion

Gravity slows down the expansion Key Concepts: Lecture 33: The Big Bang! Age of the Universe and distances from H 0 Gravity slows down the expansion Closed, Flat and Open Universes Evidence for the Big Bang (Galactic Evolution; Microwave

More information

i>clicker Questions A scientific law is something that has been proven to be true. A. True B. False C. Only in experimental sciences.

i>clicker Questions A scientific law is something that has been proven to be true. A. True B. False C. Only in experimental sciences. A scientific law is something that has been proven to be true. A. True B. False C. Only in experimental sciences. i>clicker Questions The fifth planet from the sun, the sixth planet and the seventh planet

More information

Measuring the Rotational Speed of Spiral Galaxies and Discovering Dark Matter

Measuring the Rotational Speed of Spiral Galaxies and Discovering Dark Matter Measuring the Rotational Speed of Spiral Galaxies and Discovering Dark Matter Activity UCIObs 9 Grade Level: College Source: Copyright (2009) by Rachel Kuzio de Naray & Tammy Smecker-Hane. Contact tsmecker@uci.edu

More information

In studying the Milky Way, we have a classic problem of not being able to see the forest for the trees.

In studying the Milky Way, we have a classic problem of not being able to see the forest for the trees. In studying the Milky Way, we have a classic problem of not being able to see the forest for the trees. A panoramic painting of the Milky Way as seen from Earth, done by Knut Lundmark in the 1940 s. The

More information

The Origin, Evolution, and Fate of the Universe

The Origin, Evolution, and Fate of the Universe The Origin, Evolution, and Fate of the Universe Announcements n Homework # 8 is available as of this morning in OWL. Due date for is Friday Dec 9th n Exam # 3 will take place on Tuesday, December 6 th

More information

Unit 1: Cosmology and Earth s Place in Space

Unit 1: Cosmology and Earth s Place in Space Unit 1: Cosmology and Earth s Place in Space Objectives: E5.1b - Describe how the Big Bang theory accounts for the formation of the universe. E5.1c - Explain how observations of the cosmic background radiation

More information

Unit 1: Astronomy, Part 1: The Big Bang

Unit 1: Astronomy, Part 1: The Big Bang Earth Science Notes Packet #1 Unit 1: Astronomy, Part 1: The Big Bang 1.1: Big Bang The universe is How do we know this? All matter and energy in the universe was once condensed into a single point bya

More information

Astrophysics Syllabus

Astrophysics Syllabus Astrophysics Syllabus Center for Talented Youth Johns Hopkins University Text: Astronomy Today: Stars and Galaxies, Volume II Author: Chaisson and McMillan Course Objective: The purpose of this course

More information

The Expanding Universe

The Expanding Universe Stars, Galaxies, Guided Reading and Study This section explains how astronomers think the universe and the solar system formed. Use Target Reading Skills As you read about the evidence that supports the

More information

The facts we know today will be the same tomorrow but today s theories may tomorrow be obsolete.

The facts we know today will be the same tomorrow but today s theories may tomorrow be obsolete. The Scale of the Universe Some Introductory Material and Pretty Pictures The facts we know today will be the same tomorrow but today s theories may tomorrow be obsolete. A scientific theory is regarded

More information

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Teacher s. Science Background. GalaxY Q&As

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Teacher s. Science Background. GalaxY Q&As National Aeronautics and Space Administration Science Background Teacher s GalaxY Q&As 1. What is a galaxy? A galaxy is an enormous collection of a few million to several trillion stars, gas, and dust

More information

Milky Way Galaxy. A. Star counts. B. Core and Arms. C. Galaxy Rotation. Milky Way. A1a. Milky Way 4 A1b. Milky Way: Galactic Equator 5

Milky Way Galaxy. A. Star counts. B. Core and Arms. C. Galaxy Rotation. Milky Way. A1a. Milky Way 4 A1b. Milky Way: Galactic Equator 5 Milky Way Galaxy Milky Way A. Star counts B. Core and Arms C. Galaxy Rotation Dr. Bill Pezzaglia Updated: Nov, Aa. Milky Way 4 Ab. Milky Way: Galactic Equator a. Galileo Galilei (64-64) 6 Ac. 7 Thomas

More information

Binary Stars. Binary Stars. Methods of Observation. Need to look for binary signatures. Only direct method of measuring star masses!!!

Binary Stars. Binary Stars. Methods of Observation. Need to look for binary signatures. Only direct method of measuring star masses!!! Binary Stars Two stars gravitationally bound after formation (~ 55% stars in MW) Each star orbits the center of mass (COM) ( balance point ) Stars of equal mass: COM equidistant from each star Binary Stars

More information

Modeling Galaxy Formation

Modeling Galaxy Formation Galaxy Evolution is the study of how galaxies form and how they change over time. As was the case with we can not observe an individual galaxy evolve but we can observe different galaxies at various stages

More information

SCIENCE 101 DISTANCES IN ASTRONOMY LECTURE NOTES

SCIENCE 101 DISTANCES IN ASTRONOMY LECTURE NOTES SCIENCE 0 DISTANCES IN ASTRONOMY LECTURE NOTES Distances in the Solar System Distance to Venus can be obtained using radar ranging Send signal, determine how long it takes to return Radio waves move at

More information

1.1 A Modern View of the Universe" Our goals for learning: What is our place in the universe?"

1.1 A Modern View of the Universe Our goals for learning: What is our place in the universe? Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe What is our place in the universe? What is our place in the universe? How did we come to be? How can we know what the universe was

More information

Milky Way morphology: early research. The Milky Way at far-ir wavelengths. Milky Way morphology: early research

Milky Way morphology: early research. The Milky Way at far-ir wavelengths. Milky Way morphology: early research The Milky Way at far-ir wavelengths Milky Way morphology: early research >1610: Galileo Galilei discovered the Milky Way to be a vast collection of stars Mid 1700s: Milky Way is a stellar disk in which

More information

The Milky Way is a spiral galaxy.

The Milky Way is a spiral galaxy. The Big Bang Logistics Final Exam: Monday May 6, 1530-1730 We will *not* have normal office hours next week, but if you need to meet, email Will cover *all* material this semester (including todays class)

More information

Faber-Jackson relation: Fundamental Plane: Faber-Jackson Relation

Faber-Jackson relation: Fundamental Plane: Faber-Jackson Relation Faber-Jackson relation: Faber-Jackson Relation In 1976, Faber & Jackson found that: Roughly, L! " 4 More luminous galaxies have deeper potentials Can show that this follows from the Virial Theorem Why

More information

12. The Milky Way Galaxy

12. The Milky Way Galaxy Astronomy 110: SURVEY OF ASTRONOMY 12. The Milky Way Galaxy 1. Structure of the Milky Way 2. Generations of Stars 3. Origin and Center The Milky Way Galaxy is a vast pinwheel of stars and gas turning within

More information

1 A Solar System Is Born

1 A Solar System Is Born CHAPTER 3 1 A Solar System Is Born SECTION Formation of the Solar System BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a nebula? How did our solar system

More information

Cosmology - The Story of our Universe. Raghu Rangarajan Physical Research Laboratory Ahmedabad

Cosmology - The Story of our Universe. Raghu Rangarajan Physical Research Laboratory Ahmedabad Cosmology - The Story of our Universe Raghu Rangarajan Physical Research Laboratory Ahmedabad What is Cosmology? Study of our Universe today galaxies, clusters, superclusters Understanding the past history

More information

Class 2 Solar System Characteristics Formation Exosolar Planets

Class 2 Solar System Characteristics Formation Exosolar Planets Class 1 Introduction, Background History of Modern Astronomy The Night Sky, Eclipses and the Seasons Kepler's Laws Newtonian Gravity General Relativity Matter and Light Telescopes Class 2 Solar System

More information

UNIT V. Earth and Space. Earth and the Solar System

UNIT V. Earth and Space. Earth and the Solar System UNIT V Earth and Space Chapter 9 Earth and the Solar System EARTH AND OTHER PLANETS A solar system contains planets, moons, and other objects that orbit around a star or the star system. The solar system

More information

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Our Solar System is a collection of gravitationally interacting bodies that include Earth and the Moon. Universal

More information

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 26. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 26. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outlines Chapter 26 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 26 Cosmology Units of Chapter 26 26.1 The Universe on the Largest Scales 26.2 The Expanding Universe 26.3 The Fate of the

More information

The Hidden Lives of Galaxies. Jim Lochner, USRA & NASA/GSFC

The Hidden Lives of Galaxies. Jim Lochner, USRA & NASA/GSFC The Hidden Lives of Galaxies Jim Lochner, USRA & NASA/GSFC What is a Galaxy? Solar System Distance from Earth to Sun = 93,000,000 miles = 8 light-minutes Size of Solar System = 5.5 light-hours What is

More information

Smiley Radio Telescope Lab 4 Radio Waves from the Galaxy

Smiley Radio Telescope Lab 4 Radio Waves from the Galaxy Smiley Radio Telescope Lab 4 Radio Waves from the Galaxy Competency Goals This activity addresses the following competency goals Middle Grades 6 8: Grade 6 1.01 Identify and create questions and hypotheses

More information

FXA 2008. UNIT G485 Module 5 5.5.1 Structure of the Universe. Δλ = v λ c CONTENTS OF THE UNIVERSE. Candidates should be able to :

FXA 2008. UNIT G485 Module 5 5.5.1 Structure of the Universe. Δλ = v λ c CONTENTS OF THE UNIVERSE. Candidates should be able to : 1 Candidates should be able to : CONTENTS OF THE UNIVERSE Describe the principal contents of the universe, including stars, galaxies and radiation. Describe the solar system in terms of the Sun, planets,

More information

CHAPTER 9: STARS AND GALAXIES

CHAPTER 9: STARS AND GALAXIES CHAPTER 9: STARS AND GALAXIES Characteristics of the Sun 1. The Sun is located about 150 million kilometres from the Earth. 2. The Sun is made up of hot gases, mostly hydrogen and helium. 3. The size of

More information

The Milky Way Galaxy is Heading for a Major Cosmic Collision

The Milky Way Galaxy is Heading for a Major Cosmic Collision The Milky Way Galaxy is Heading for a Major Cosmic Collision Roeland van der Marel (STScI) [based on work with a team of collaborators reported in the Astrophysical Journal July 2012] Hubble Science Briefing

More information

Top 10 Discoveries by ESO Telescopes

Top 10 Discoveries by ESO Telescopes Top 10 Discoveries by ESO Telescopes European Southern Observatory reaching new heights in astronomy Exploring the Universe from the Atacama Desert, in Chile since 1964 ESO is the most productive astronomical

More information

Federation of Galaxy Explorers Space Science

Federation of Galaxy Explorers Space Science Federation of Galaxy Explorers Space Science Once Upon A Big Bang Learning Objectives: 1. Explain how the universe was created using the Big Bang theory. 2. Understand how the existence of Cosmic Background

More information

TO GO TO ANY OF THE PAGES LISTED BELOW, CLICK ON ITS TITLE

TO GO TO ANY OF THE PAGES LISTED BELOW, CLICK ON ITS TITLE TO GO TO ANY OF THE PAGES LISTED BELOW, CLICK ON ITS TITLE CHAPTER 18 The Sun and Other Stars 1 18-1 How are stars formed? 2 18-2 How is spectroscopy used to study stars? 3 18-3 What is magnitude? 4 18-4

More information

Astronomy 330. Outline. The Universe: Timeline. The Universe

Astronomy 330. Outline. The Universe: Timeline. The Universe Astronomy 330 This class (Lecture 5): The End of the Universe Outline! The probable fate of the Universe! Everything depends on Dark Energy! Star Formation.. today. Next Class: Molecular Clouds Presentation

More information

OBSERVING THE UNIVERSE

OBSERVING THE UNIVERSE OBSERVING THE UNIVERSE Overview: Galaxies are classified by their morphology. Objectives: The student will: classify 15 images of distant galaxies using a galaxy classification table; sketch, classify

More information

GENERAL RELATIVITY & the UNIVERSE

GENERAL RELATIVITY & the UNIVERSE GENERAL RELATIVITY & the UNIVERSE PCES 3.32 It was realised almost immediately after Einstein published his theory that it possessed solutions for the configuration of spacetime, in the presence of a homogeneous

More information

Lecture 26: The Realm of the Nebulae: The Milky Way and Andromeda Readings: Sections 25-1, 26-1, and 26-2

Lecture 26: The Realm of the Nebulae: The Milky Way and Andromeda Readings: Sections 25-1, 26-1, and 26-2 Lecture 26: The Realm of the Nebulae: The Milky Way and Andromeda Readings: Sections 25-1, 26-1, and 26-2 Key Ideas: The Milky Way is our Galaxy We see it as a diffuse band of light crossing the sky Milky

More information

Galaxy Classification and Evolution

Galaxy Classification and Evolution name Galaxy Classification and Evolution Galaxy Morphologies In order to study galaxies and their evolution in the universe, it is necessary to categorize them by some method. A classification scheme generally

More information

Beginning of the Universe Classwork 6 th Grade PSI Science

Beginning of the Universe Classwork 6 th Grade PSI Science Beginning of the Universe Classwork Name: 6 th Grade PSI Science 1 4 2 5 6 3 7 Down: 1. Edwin discovered that galaxies are spreading apart. 2. This theory explains how the Universe was flattened. 3. All

More information

ASTRONOMY/SPACE SCIENCE TEST

ASTRONOMY/SPACE SCIENCE TEST ASTRONOMY/SPACE SCIENCE TEST For some questions, there may be more than one correct answer. However, each question has only one best answer. Choose the single best answer from the five choices for each

More information

Today. Course Evaluations Open. Modern Cosmology. The Hot Big Bang. Age & Fate. Density and Geometry. Microwave Background

Today. Course Evaluations Open. Modern Cosmology. The Hot Big Bang. Age & Fate. Density and Geometry. Microwave Background Today Modern Cosmology The Hot Big Bang Age & Fate Density and Geometry Microwave Background Course Evaluations Open 1 Distances between faraway galaxies change while light travels. distance? 2 2007 Pearson

More information

Lecture 15 Fundamentals of Physics Phys 120, Fall 2015 Cosmology

Lecture 15 Fundamentals of Physics Phys 120, Fall 2015 Cosmology Lecture 15 Fundamentals of Physics Phys 120, Fall 2015 Cosmology A. J. Wagner North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108 Fargo, October 20, 2015 Overview A history of our view of the universe The Big

More information

Modern Ways of Dating the Universe. Martha P. Haynes Goldwin Smith Professor of Astronomy Cornell University. CAU Study Tour June 2014

Modern Ways of Dating the Universe. Martha P. Haynes Goldwin Smith Professor of Astronomy Cornell University. CAU Study Tour June 2014 Modern Ways of Dating the Universe Martha P. Haynes Goldwin Smith Professor of Astronomy Cornell University CAU Study Tour June 2014 What does the night sky look like? The disk of the Milky Way, our galaxy

More information

Discover the Universe AST-1002 Section 1025, Fall 2013

Discover the Universe AST-1002 Section 1025, Fall 2013 Discover the Universe AST-1002 Section 1025, Fall 2013 Instructor: Dr. Francisco Reyes Office: Room 12 Bryant Space Science Center Telephone: 352-294-1885 Email: freyes@astro.ufl.edu Office hours: Wednesday

More information

Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe

Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe Syllabus 4 tests: June 18, June 30, July 10, July 21 Comprehensive Final - check schedule Website link on blackboard 1.1 Our Modern View of the Universe Our goals for

More information

Inside the Zodiac A 10-minute planetarium mini-show by Alan Gould 1, Toshi Komatsu 1, Jeff Nee 1, and Dr. Steve Howell 2

Inside the Zodiac A 10-minute planetarium mini-show by Alan Gould 1, Toshi Komatsu 1, Jeff Nee 1, and Dr. Steve Howell 2 Inside the Zodiac A 10-minute planetarium mini-show by Alan Gould 1, Toshi Komatsu 1, Jeff Nee 1, and Dr. Steve Howell 2 About this show In one Word... In one Sentence... In one Paragraph... Storyboard

More information

Study Guide: Solar System

Study Guide: Solar System Study Guide: Solar System 1. How many planets are there in the solar system? 2. What is the correct order of all the planets in the solar system? 3. Where can a comet be located in the solar system? 4.

More information

How Deep Into Space Can the Harken Observatory Telescope See?

How Deep Into Space Can the Harken Observatory Telescope See? How Deep Into Space Can the Harken Observatory Telescope See? TELESCOPE: 12 LX200GPS- SMT Manufacturer: Meade Optical Design Schmidt-Cassegrain Clear Aperture 305mm (12") Primary Mirror Diameter 314mm

More information

A. Answer all of the following multiple choice questions (50%):

A. Answer all of the following multiple choice questions (50%): Core 30.01 - Cosmology Fall 2006 Prof. Micha Tomkiewicz Final Exam: My Name A. Answer all of the following multiple choice questions (50%): 1. The universe became matter dominated approximately after the

More information

Supermassive Black Holes at the Center of Galaxies

Supermassive Black Holes at the Center of Galaxies Supermassive Black Holes at the Center of Galaxies Christopher J. Greenwood Abstract. This was my final paper for the AST 308 Galaxies class at Michigan State University. Using many sources I was able

More information

Ellipticals. Elliptical galaxies: Elliptical galaxies: Some ellipticals are not so simple M89 E0

Ellipticals. Elliptical galaxies: Elliptical galaxies: Some ellipticals are not so simple M89 E0 Elliptical galaxies: Ellipticals Old view (ellipticals are boring, simple systems)! Ellipticals contain no gas & dust! Ellipticals are composed of old stars! Ellipticals formed in a monolithic collapse,

More information

The Big Bang Theory: How the Universe Began

The Big Bang Theory: How the Universe Began The Big Bang Theory: How the Universe Began The Big Bang Theory is the most widely accepted theory of how the universe began. It states that the universe started when all matter was contained in a small,

More information

The Messier Objects As A Tool in Teaching Astronomy

The Messier Objects As A Tool in Teaching Astronomy The Messier Objects As A Tool in Teaching Astronomy Dr. Jesus Rodrigo F. Torres President, Rizal Technological University Individual Member, International Astronomical Union Chairman, Department of Astronomy,

More information

Origin of Our Universe

Origin of Our Universe Origin of Our Universe Before the Big Bang? As cosmologists begin to understand what happened just after the Big Bang, many are questioning what led up to the Big Bang (4 possibilities) 1. No previous

More information

Chapter 1: Our Place in the Universe. 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley

Chapter 1: Our Place in the Universe. 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Chapter 1: Our Place in the Universe Topics Our modern view of the universe The scale of the universe Cinema graphic tour of the local universe Spaceship earth 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe Our goals

More information

Defining Characteristics (write a short description, provide enough detail so that anyone could use your scheme)

Defining Characteristics (write a short description, provide enough detail so that anyone could use your scheme) GEMS COLLABORATON engage The diagram above shows a mosaic of 40 galaxies. These images were taken with Hubble Space Telescope and show the variety of shapes that galaxies can assume. When astronomer Edwin

More information

Chapter 15 Cosmology: Will the universe end?

Chapter 15 Cosmology: Will the universe end? Cosmology: Will the universe end? 1. Who first showed that the Milky Way is not the only galaxy in the universe? a. Kepler b. Copernicus c. Newton d. Hubble e. Galileo Ans: d 2. The big bang theory and

More information

Chapter 16. The Hubble Expansion

Chapter 16. The Hubble Expansion Chapter 16 The Hubble Expansion The observational characteristics of the Universe coupled with theoretical interpretation to be discussed further in subsequent chapters, allow us to formulate a standard

More information

Using Photometric Data to Derive an HR Diagram for a Star Cluster

Using Photometric Data to Derive an HR Diagram for a Star Cluster Using Photometric Data to Derive an HR Diagram for a Star Cluster In In this Activity, we will investigate: 1. How to use photometric data for an open cluster to derive an H-R Diagram for the stars and

More information

In Pictures: Journey to the Stars

In Pictures: Journey to the Stars In Pictures: Journey to the Stars This text is provided courtesy of OLogy, the American Museum of Natural History s website for kids. Hi, we're Mordecai-Mark Mac Low and Rebecca Oppenheimer. We are astrophysicists

More information

California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping

California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping California Standards Grades 912 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping Earth Sciences Earth s Place in the Universe 1. Astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the solar system s structure,

More information