Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters in High-Voltage Transmission and Distribution Systems

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters in High-Voltage Transmission and Distribution Systems"

Transcription

1 Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters in High-Voltage Transmission and Distribution Systems Effective and reliable devices increasing system availability and reducing maintenance costs Volker Hinrichsen, Siemens PTD, Berlin/Germany Abstract Surge arresters protect equipment of transmission and distribution systems, worth several magnitudes more than the arresters themselves, from the effects of lightning and switching overvoltages. If properly designed and configured, they are extremely reliable devices, able to offer decades of service without causing any problems. This paper presents information about the basic electrical characteristics and designs of modern metal-oxide surge arresters. In addition to the standard application protection of power transformers examples are provided, in which arresters help to reduce investment, repair and maintenance costs. This benefit can be augmented when arresters are combined with other equipment such as post insulators, disconnectors or earthing switches. Fundamentals Surge arresters constitute an indispensable aid to insulation coordination in electrical power systems. Figure 1 makes this clear. There the voltages which may appear in an electrical power system are given in per-unit of the peak value of the highest continuous line-to-earth voltage, depending on the duration of their appearance. The voltage or overvoltage which can be reached without the use of arresters, is a value of several p.u. If instead, one considers the curve of the withstand voltage of equipment insulation (here equipment means electrical devices such as Magnitude of (over-)voltage / p.u Voltages limited by arresters Lightning overvoltages (Microseconds) Possible voltages without arresters Switching overvoltages (Milliseconds) Temporary overvoltages (Seconds) Time duration of (over-)voltage Withstand voltage of equipment Highest voltage of equipment (Continuously) Figure 1: Voltages and overvoltages in high-voltage electrical power systems power transformers) one notices that starting in the range of switching overvoltages, and especially for lightning overvoltages, the equipment insulation cannot withstand the occurring dielectric stresses. At this point, the arresters intervene. When in operation, it is certain that the voltage that occurs at the terminal of the device - while maintaining an adequate safety margin - will stay below the withstand voltage. Arresters effect, therefore, involves lightning and switching overvoltages. Arresters installed today are all metal-oxide (MO) arresters without gaps. The distinctive feature of a MO-arrester is its extremely nonlinear voltage-current- or U-I-characteristic, rendering unnecessary the disconnection of the Peak value of voltage / kv Lightning impulse protection level = 823 kv Peak value of rated voltage: 475 kv Peak value of continuous operating voltage: 379 kv Peak value of line-to-earth voltage: 343 kv Leakage current: 100 µa Nominal discharge current: 10 ka Peak value of current / A Figure 2: U-I-characteristic of a typical MO arrester in a system of U m = 420 kv

2 arrester from the line through serial spark-gaps, as is found in the former gapped arresters with SiC-resistors. In Figure 2, an example is shown of the U-I-characteristic of a typical MO-arrester connected between the conductor and the ground in an effectively grounded 420-kVsystem. This arrester has a continuous operating voltage (U c ) of 268 kv and a rated voltage (U r ) which characterizes the capability of the arrester to deal with temporary overvoltages in the system and can only be applied for a time period of 10 seconds to 100 seconds of 336 kv (these values are r.m.s. values, while the U-Icharacteristic depicts them as peak values). While a leakage current of about 100 µa flows when the normal line-to-earth voltage is applied, this arrester has a residual voltage of only 823 kv when a lightning impulse current of 10 ka the so-called nominal discharge current is impressed. This voltage is called the lightning impulse protection level of the arrester. Equipment in the 420-kV-system normally has a standard lightning impulse withstand level (known as "BIL" in the IEEE standards) of 1425 kv. This (test voltage) value is not allowed to ever be attained in practice. In accordance with the IEC standards on insulation coordination [2] [3], the highest occurring voltage in the case of a non-self-restoring-insulation in operation should stay below this value by a factor of 1.15, that is, not exceed 1239 kv. Nevertheless, the lightning impulse protection level of 823 kv offers more than enough protection. It should, however, be noted that this value represents a voltage across the arrester terminals, caused by the flow of an ideal standardized test current at the same level as the arrester s nominal discharge current. Three significant causes can allow the voltage at the terminals of the equipment to be protected to take on a considerably higher value: a) inductive voltage drops; b) discharge currents higher than the nominal discharge current; c) separation effects by traveling wave processes between the terminals of the arrester and of the equipment to be protected. Especially the latter phenomenon has to be taken into account when planning the optimal location of an arrester (for detailed information see [4]). It is the main reason for the limited protection zone of arresters, which is in the range of 5 m (U m = 24 kv, compensated neutral) to 60 m (U m = 420 kv, effectively earthed). Arresters should therefore be installed as close as possible to the equipment to be protected. As a rule of thumb, an arrester of a lightning impulse protection level equal to the standard lightning impulse withstand voltage of the equipment to be protected, divided by 1.4, results in comfortable safety margins if at the same time the aforementioned distances are not exceeded. Such an arrester will act as an extremely reliable and economical device for protecting precious equipment like the big power transformer shown in Figure 3. Figure 3: Generator transformer (VEAG, Germany, U m = 420 kv) protected by three surge arresters Construction of modern MO surge arresters During the past twenty years surge arrester design and application has been dominated by two major changes in technology. The first one, introduction of the gapless metal-oxide arresters in the late seventies and early eighties of the last century, has considerably improved the protection characteristics and the reliability (reported failure rates of metal-oxide arresters in transmission systems are close to zero), while at the same time the construction, compared with that of gapped SiC-arresters, has become less complicated and less prone to mechanical or dielectric defects. The next major step involved using polymeric materials for the housings, starting in the late eighties. For no other device within the high-voltage transmission and distribution than for surge arresters has the change to polymer housings been so consistently carried out, and in the distribution systems, for instance, porcelain housed arresters are virtually no longer being installed. In the case of the conventional porcelain housing, different properties such as protection from environmental impact and provision of sufficient creepage distance on the one hand and mechanical strength on the other are united in a single component. In an arrester with polymer housing, however, these properties are apportioned to two different components. Mechanical strength is almost always achieved with fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) materials. In the example shown in Figure 4, several rods serve

3 this purpose. They are strained in the aluminum end fittings and enclose the MO-resistor stack. This is how a mechanical high-strength unit out of MO-resistors, end fittings and the FRP structure are created. This module is inserted in a mold, in which silicone rubber is directly injected. Thus it is possible to obtain a perfect bond of the silicone rubber with the other components, voidfree and permanent. Similarly, in case of an arrester overload, which is an extremely rare event but nevertheless has to be considered, a pressure buildup and the related risk of violent housing breakage has been avoided. Flange with vent Seal Pressure relief diaphragm Compression spring Metal oxide resistors Composite hollow insulator (FRP tube / silicone rubber sheds) Figure 5: Modern high-voltage arrester with housing made of a composite hollow insulator important being the possibility to design highvoltage arresters which are so mechanically strong, that they can endure the strongest earthquakes intact and at the same time be used as a post insulator in a substation (Figure 6). Figure 4: Modern distribution arrester with directly molded silicone rubber housing (left: complete arrester, right: internal design) An advantage of the applied silicone rubber in this case, in comparison to cheaper materials, are the excellent long-term properties. Another advantage is the characteristic unique to silicone rubber, hydrophobicity: even if the silicone surface is very dirty, water simply drips off. This suppresses the formation of conductive layers and advantageously affects the operational performance of the arrester in polluted conditions. While this design principle constitutes the most economical way to produce an arrester for distribution or lower transmission voltages, it has its technical limitations for higher system voltages. The possible length of the individual units is limited to about one meter and the achievable mechanical cantilever strength to values of about 5 knm. Here another concept, as shown in Figure 5, has proven to be advantageous. In principle, this has the same design as a conventional porcelain housed arrester. Indeed, essentially only the porcelain insulator has been replaced with a composite-hollow insulator. The composite-hollow insulator is made up of an FRPtube on which the silicone rubber sheds are directly molded on. This design principle offers some considerable advantages for applications up to the highest voltage levels, one of the most Figure 6: Polymer housed arrester (U m = 550 kv) during seismic testing on a shaking table Another property is only found in this design: in the case of an arrester overload it is certain that with this construction a housing breakage will never occur, not even any of the inner parts are ejected. The tube will remain almost completely intact, and as a result it offers the best possible safety for the whole switchgear. It must be mentioned, however, that at these system voltage levels the conventional porcelain housed MO arresters, not explained here in further detail, are still pre-dominant. Another principal design of arresters, metalenclosed gas-insulated arresters, which are of

4 great importance in protecting GIS, cannot be dealt with here either. Application examples Protection of transformers is without a doubt the most common application of surge arresters. There are, however, many other fields where arresters protect different kind of equipment from the effect of overvoltages and thus help to improve power supply quality and reduce maintenance costs in the networks. It should always be kept in mind here that in most cases the purchase price of the arresters is in the range of only 1% or less of the equipment they protect. Some more selected application examples are given below. Partly they have become possible only after introducing polymeric housings, which allow arresters to operate even in areas of public access (safety aspect!) and in any mounted position (such as horizontal or suspended). - Protection of cables: cables are exposed to lightning overvoltages if they are directly connected to overhead lines. This is the case particularly in distribution systems. Distribution overhead lines are normally not protected by shield wires, so direct lightning strikes into the phase conductors are quite common. Protection of the cables directly at the cable terminations is therefore a must. Figure 7 shows that this is, however, not limited to distribution voltages. breaking porcelain housing in case of an arrester overload has prevented application of surge arresters on locomotives for a long time. Modern breaking resistant designs of polymer housed arresters have overcome this problem and offer economical protection against damages to the expensive locomotives (Figure 8). Figure 8: Polymer housed arrester for protection of electric locomotives (High speed train "ICE", Deutsche Bahn, 15 kv/16.7 Hz) - Protection of series capacitors: long a.c. transmission lines require capacitive compensation of the line inductance. Series capacitor banks installed along the line at distances of several hundred kilometers are an effective means of improving system stability and transmission capacity. To protect the series capacitors from the effect of a.c. overvoltage in case of a line fault current, arrester banks are connected in parallel, which carry most parts of the fault current while limiting the voltage across the capacitors to undangerous values. By connecting many (up to 100) MO-columns in parallel, distributed to several housings (Figure 9), it is possible to increase the energy Figure 7: 161-kV-tower with 6 cable terminations, protected by suspended polymer housed surge arresters (IEC, Israel) - Protection of traction systems: damages of electric locomotives frequently occur if no overvoltage protection is provided. The risk of a Figure 9: Arrester bank for protection of a series capacitor (U m = 550 kv, Eletronorte, Brazil) absorption capability of the arrester bank to extreme values [5] [6]. Compared with other alternatives, this has turned out to be a good compromise between necessary investment and the achievable degree of availability of the line. - Protection of thyristors in HVDC applications: HVDC transmission lines and back-to-back

5 stations are gaining importance worldwide to exchange electric energy over long distances by overhead lines or (sea-) cables, to interconnect different grids or to supply concentrated load centers. The main components of the converters are thyristors, which have achieved a high degree of technical performance and reliability, but are nevertheless expensive devices. Among the different other locations within an HVDC converter station where surge arresters are indispensable [7] the valve protection arresters, which protect the thyristors from overvoltages, play an outstanding role. The maximum blocking voltage of modern thyristors is about 8 kv, thus requiring many of them to be connected in series in order to handle transmission voltages up to ± 500 kv. Arresters of extremely reduced protection levels parallel to the valve towers allow the number of thyristors in series to be reduced and thereby help to considerably decrease the overall cost of the converter (Figure 10). Figure 10: Suspended valve tower with polymer housed valve protection arresters (LADWP, California/USA, ± 500 kv dc) - Line arresters: distribution lines are normally unshielded lines, thus making direct lightning strikes with consequential power supply interruptions a comparatively likely event. But even shielded transmission lines may be affected by lightning, either by direct strikes to the line conductors in case of shielding failures, or by back flashovers after a lightning strike into the tower or the overhead ground wire. In an increasingly competitive environment due to deregulation there is growing interest in reducing outage time and improving power supply quality. However, later installation of (additional) overhead ground wires, improvement of the footing resistance of the towers in order to decrease the probability of back flashovers, or other means, are not possible in many cases for technical reasons, and besides this, they are always very expensive. Here installation of surge arresters parallel to the line insulators has turned out to be a costeffective alternative. There are many options for optimizing the necessary investment against power supply quality by protecting only part of the towers, part of the phases, or by choosing inexpensive arresters of low energy absorption capability based on an arrester failure risk analysis [8] [9]. Improved benefit by combined arresters As mentioned before, arresters comparatively cheap devices within the electric power supply system are able to reliably protect equipment worth several magnitudes more than the arresters themselves. They can, however, be used even more effectively when combined with other devices. Two examples are given below. - Arresters as post insulators: Normally surge arresters are not used as post insulators. In the very rare (but nevertheless possible) event of an arrester failure the arrester housing may break and completely lose its mechanical integrity. On the other hand, achieving this additional function is a favorable goal for economical as well as for technical reasons. A post insulator, including a pedestal and the required foundation work, can easily create costs of several thousand Euros. A simple calculation can show that drastic cost reductions may be achieved when using arresters as post insulators. Saving space is another economical point. From a technical point of view, omitting post insulators helps to reduce the length of lines and bus bars in a substation, which may improve the lightning overvoltage protection of the equipment, as distances between the arrester and the equipment to be protected become shorter. The extremely low failure rates of MO resistors over the past twenty years, together with the availability of mechanical highstrength, breaking resistant polymer housed arresters as depicted in Figure 5, have made Figure 11: Polymer housed arresters used as post insulators (EnBW, Germany, U m = 420 kv)

6 application of surge arresters as post insulators possible [10]. An example is shown in Figure Arresters integrated into disconnectors and earthing switches: Arresters installed at the line entrance of a substation can effectively protect circuit breakers and instrument transformers from the effects of nearby direct lightning strikes into the overhead line conductors. While even for new substations the additional space requirements are a serious problem, later installation of surge arresters at the line entrance of already existing substations is nearly impossible in most cases. This problem can be overcome by integrating the arresters into the line side disconnectors, as shown in the left part of Figure 12. The introduction of gapless MO arresters in the late seventies and early eighties of the last century has remarkably improved the protection characteristics, reliability and the ease of application in general. The use of polymer housings, beginning in the late eighties, have contributed to safety, thus opening new fields of application, for instance in areas of public access, or where there are extreme requirements on mechanical strength. Countless applications exist in which modern arresters help to reduce investment, repair and maintenance costs in systems of electric power supply. This benefit can be further increased if arresters are combined with other devices, such as post insulators, disconnectors or earthing switches solutions which have been supported by the users' increasing confidence in arrester performance and the possibilities offered by modern arrester technology. Figure 12: Arrester integrated in a 420-kV-disconnector (left) and in a 245-kV-earthing switch (right) (RWE Net, Germany) One column of a two-column rotating disconnector has been replaced by a surge arrester, requiring only a modification of the arrester's grading ring. This solution has been realized for U m = 420 kv and 245 kv and is incidentally a good example of an installation of surge arresters which has not only been the most economical but in fact virtually the only possible way to solve existing problems with switchgear failure caused by lightning overvoltage phenomena [11]. The picture on the right in Figure 12 shows a similar arrangement of an earthing switch in which the insulator column has been replaced by an arrester. Conclusion Surge arresters protect equipment of transmission and distribution systems, worth several magnitudes more than the arresters themselves, from the effects of lightning and switching overvoltages. If properly designed and configured, they are extremely reliable devices, offering decades of service without causing any problems. References [1] IEC , Edition 1.1, Surge arresters Part 4: Metal-oxide surge arresters without gaps for a.c. systems [2] IEC , Seventh edition, Insulation co-ordination Part 1: Definitions, principles and rules [3] IEC , Third edition, Insulation co-ordination Part 2: Application guide [4] IEC , First edition, Surge arresters Part 5: Selection and application recommendations [5] Renz, Hinrichsen Quite at Home at 50 C EV Report 1/95, pp [6] Mainville, Riffon, Rollin, Hinrichsen Pressure Relief Tests on Varistors for the Series Compensation Banks installed at the Montagnais Substation IEEE/PES 1993 Summer Meeting, Vancouver/Canada, paper 93 SM PWRD [7] IEC 28/139/CDV IEC : Insulation co-ordination Part 5: Procedures for HVDC Converter Stations [8] CIGRÉ Working Group Task Force 03 Application of Metal Oxide Surge Arresters to Overhead Lines Électra No. 186, October 1999, pp [9] Tarasiewicz, Rimmer, Morched Transmission Line Arrester Energy, Cost, and Risk of Failure Analysis for Partially Shielded Transmission Lines IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol.15, No.3, July 2000, pp [10] Hinrichsen, Fien, Solbach, Priebe Metal Oxide Surge Arresters with Composite Hollow Insulators for High-Voltage Systems CIGRÉ conference Paris 1994, paper [11] Hinrichsen, Göhler, Lipken, Breilmann Economical Overvoltage Protection by Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters Integrated in High-Voltage AIS Disconnectors Substation Integration, Design and Test Experience CIGRÉ conference Paris 2000, paper

High Voltage Surge Arresters for Protection of Series Compensation and HVDC Converter Stations

High Voltage Surge Arresters for Protection of Series Compensation and HVDC Converter Stations High Voltage Surge Arresters for Protection of Series Compensation and HVDC Converter Stations Kai Steinfeld, Reinhard Göhler, Daniel Pepper Siemens AG, Berlin Abstract The efficiency of overhead power

More information

Surge Arresters Application and Selection. Adria Jones

Surge Arresters Application and Selection. Adria Jones Surge Arresters Application and Selection Adria Jones Functions of Surge Arresters Mounted in parallel to the transformer/equipment Handle over voltage surge, clamp it down Absorb energy from the surge

More information

Catalog HG 21 2007. 3EE Surge Arresters 3EF Surge Limiters. Medium-Voltage Equipment Selection and Ordering Data.

Catalog HG 21 2007. 3EE Surge Arresters 3EF Surge Limiters. Medium-Voltage Equipment Selection and Ordering Data. Catalog HG 21 2007 3EE Surge Arresters Medium-Voltage Equipment Selection and Ordering Data www.siemens.com/energy R-HG21-100.tif 2 Siemens HG 21 2007 Contents Contents Page 3EE Surge Arresters Medium-Voltage

More information

Type XPI-III Surge Arresters Maximum System Voltage 2 to 48 kv

Type XPI-III Surge Arresters Maximum System Voltage 2 to 48 kv Type XPI-III Surge Arresters Maximum System Voltage 2 to 48 kv XPI-III Metal Oxide Surge Arrester XPI-III Metal Oxide Surge Arresters are for protection of switchgear, transformers, and other equipment

More information

New Distribution Class Arrester Ground Lead Disconnector Design Enhances Detonation Reliability and Improves Arrester Performance

New Distribution Class Arrester Ground Lead Disconnector Design Enhances Detonation Reliability and Improves Arrester Performance New Distribution Class Arrester Ground Lead Disconnector Design Enhances Detonation Reliability and Improves Arrester Performance Dennis W. Lenk, Fellow, IEEE Abstract-- This paper examines performance

More information

MEDIUM VOLTAGE SURGE ARRESTERS

MEDIUM VOLTAGE SURGE ARRESTERS 011: 2008 CEB SPECIFICATION MEDIUM VOLTAGE SURGE ARRESTERS CEYLON ELECTRICITY BOARD SRI LANKA Specification for MEDIUM VOLTAGE SURGE ARRESTERS CEB Specification - 011: 2008 CEYLON ELECTRICITY BOARD No.

More information

Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters in High-Voltage Power Systems

Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters in High-Voltage Power Systems www.siemens.com/energy/arrester Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters in High-Voltage Power Systems Fundamentals Author: Volker Hinrichsen 3rd edition Answers for energy. FOREWORD 1 Foreword to the Third Edition

More information

High-Voltage Compact Switchgear 3AP1 DTC for 145 kv and 245 kv

High-Voltage Compact Switchgear 3AP1 DTC for 145 kv and 245 kv High-Voltage Compact Switchgear AP1 DTC for 1 kv and kv Answers for energy. The AP1 DTC Complying with our Customers demands Experience you can rely on - at anytime, anywhere Decades of experience in high-voltage

More information

Medium voltage surge arresters ASM

Medium voltage surge arresters ASM Medium voltage surge arresters ASM VISION OF GRUPA APATOR We want our metering systems to help our customers with economical management of electricity, heat, water and gas consumption. We pursue to accuracy

More information

Bulk power transmission at extra high voltages, a comparison between transmission lines for HVDC at voltages above 600 kv DC and 800 kv AC.

Bulk power transmission at extra high voltages, a comparison between transmission lines for HVDC at voltages above 600 kv DC and 800 kv AC. Bulk power transmission at extra high voltages, a comparison between transmission lines for HVDC at voltages above 6 kv DC and 8 kv AC. Lars Weimers, ABB Power Technologies AB 771 8 Ludvika, Sweden, +

More information

CONTENTS About the company 1. Low-voltage arresters LVA type 2. Metal-oxide surge arresters for distribution systems. 3.

CONTENTS About the company 1. Low-voltage arresters LVA type 2. Metal-oxide surge arresters for distribution systems. 3. CONTENTS About the company 4 1. Low-voltage arresters LVA type 5 2. Metal-oxide surge arresters for distribution systems. 6 2.1 РA-DM type 6 Dimensions of arresters of PA-DM 9 2.2 РA-DH types 10 Dimensions

More information

Power Voltage Transformers for Air Insulated Switchgear

Power Voltage Transformers for Air Insulated Switchgear Power Voltage Transformers for Air Insulated Switchgear Introduction Trench Power Voltage Transformers (Power VTs) combine the attributes of an inductive voltage transformer with the application of a small

More information

Lightning Arresters P30027 18 KVA P30038 10 KVA. Description & Installation

Lightning Arresters P30027 18 KVA P30038 10 KVA. Description & Installation Lightning Arresters P30027 18 KVA P30038 10 KVA Description & Installation Printed in USA 09/11 TO330 Rev. B Table of Contents Page 1.0 SCOPE 2 2.0 PRODUCT OVERVIEW 2 2.1 Intended Uses 2 2.2 Lightning

More information

High Voltage Surge Arresters Station Class

High Voltage Surge Arresters Station Class Power Transmission and Distribution High Voltage Surge Arresters Station Class Product Overview High Voltage High Protection Just as the Golden Gate Bridge has successfully defied all winds, weather and

More information

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD INTERNATIONAL STANDARD IEC 60071-2 Third edition 1996-12 Insulation co-ordination Part 2: Application guide This English-language version is derived from the original bilingual publication by leaving out

More information

I235-92. Surge Arresters. UltraSIL Polymer-Housed VariSTAR Type U2 Surge Arrester for Systems through 275 kv IEC 10-kA; Line Discharge Class 2 GENERAL

I235-92. Surge Arresters. UltraSIL Polymer-Housed VariSTAR Type U2 Surge Arrester for Systems through 275 kv IEC 10-kA; Line Discharge Class 2 GENERAL Surge s UltraSIL Polymer-Housed VariSTAR Type U2 Surge for Systems through 275 kv IEC 10-kA; Line Discharge Class 2 Electrical Apparatus I235-92 GENERAL UltraSIL Polymer-Housed VariSTAR Type U2 Surge s

More information

Knowing the Surge Protection Device

Knowing the Surge Protection Device Knowing the Surge Protection Device There are so many names for protective devices such as 'lightning barriers', 'surge arresters ', 'lightning protection units', etc. In ideal condition, the surge protection

More information

SF 6 Gas Insulated Switchgear Type SDF for 170 kv

SF 6 Gas Insulated Switchgear Type SDF for 170 kv Three Phase Encapsulated Type SF 6 Gas Insulated Switchgear Type SDF for 170 kv 06B1-E-0001 With Trustworthy Technology, Structure Fuji Electric as a manufacturer of comprehensive substation equipment

More information

Outdoor Lighting. White paper. Street Lighting. The challenges of surge protection

Outdoor Lighting. White paper. Street Lighting. The challenges of surge protection Outdoor Lighting White paper Street Lighting The challenges of surge protection The need for protection Voltage surges have a huge destructive impact upon public lighting systems. They wear out LED drivers

More information

IEC/CIGRE UHV Symposium Beijing 2007-07-23 3-1-4 800KVDC: EXTERNAL INSULATION, INSULATION COORDINATION, TEST LEVELS

IEC/CIGRE UHV Symposium Beijing 2007-07-23 3-1-4 800KVDC: EXTERNAL INSULATION, INSULATION COORDINATION, TEST LEVELS IEC/CIGRE UHV Symposium Beijing 2007-07-23 3-1-4 800KVDC: EXTERL INSULATION, INSULATION COORDITION, TEST LEVELS D. Wu (*) U. Åström V. F. Lescale ABB Power Systems, HVDC Ludvika, Sweden SUMMARY The use

More information

1ZSC AAA en, Rev. 4. Resin impregnated paper bushing, oil to SF 6., type GSBK Technical guide

1ZSC AAA en, Rev. 4. Resin impregnated paper bushing, oil to SF 6., type GSBK Technical guide 1ZSC563-AAA en, Rev. 4 Resin impregnated paper bushing, oil to SF 6, type GSBK Technical guide This Technical Guide has been produced to allow transformer manufacturers, and their designers and engineers,

More information

Exploring the Possibility of the Power Transmission Towers Shield Wires Removal with considering Tower Footing Resistance via EMTP-RV Software

Exploring the Possibility of the Power Transmission Towers Shield Wires Removal with considering Tower Footing Resistance via EMTP-RV Software Volume 6.1, January 2016 ISSN 2224-3577 Exploring the Possibility of the Power Transmission Towers Shield Wires Removal with considering Tower Footing Resistance via EMTP-RV Software Ali Mahmoudian, Mohsen

More information

Station Class Surge Arresters. Product Overview. Answers for energy.

Station Class Surge Arresters. Product Overview. Answers for energy. Station Class Surge Arresters Product Overview Answers for energy. 1 High Voltage Reliable Protection Just as the Golden Gate Bridge has successfully defied all winds, weather and earthquakes for decades,

More information

THE DIAGNOSTIC TESTING OF HIGH VOLTAGE SILICON CARBIDE SURGE ARRESTERS. J. D. F. McDonald, M. Darveniza, T. K. Saha

THE DIAGNOSTIC TESTING OF HIGH VOLTAGE SILICON CARBIDE SURGE ARRESTERS. J. D. F. McDonald, M. Darveniza, T. K. Saha THE DIAGNOSTIC TESTING OF HIGH VOLTAGE SILICON CARBIDE SURGE ARRESTERS Abstract J. D. F. McDonald, M. Darveniza, T. K. Saha Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering The University of Queensland

More information

TAN δ (DELTA) CABLE TESTING OVERVIEW AND ANSWERS TO FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS. What Is Tan δ, Or Tan Delta?

TAN δ (DELTA) CABLE TESTING OVERVIEW AND ANSWERS TO FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS. What Is Tan δ, Or Tan Delta? TAN δ (DELTA) CABLE TESTING OVERVIEW AND ANSWERS TO FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS What Is Tan δ, Or Tan Delta? Tan Delta, also called Loss Angle or Dissipation Factor testing, is a diagnostic method of testing

More information

ELECTRICAL INSULATION TESTING OF HV EQUIPMENT UP TO 33kV

ELECTRICAL INSULATION TESTING OF HV EQUIPMENT UP TO 33kV 1. SCOPE This document details PowerSystems requirements for electrical testing of HV Equipment up to and including 33kV. 2. ISSUE RECORD This is a Reference document. The current version of Controlled

More information

The Dielectric Voltage Withstand Test. Benefits and limitations

The Dielectric Voltage Withstand Test. Benefits and limitations The Dielectric Voltage Withstand Test Benefits and limitations The Dielectric Voltage Withstand Test Benefits and limitations The dielectric voltage withstand test is an integral part of the product safety

More information

SANS 10142-1 : 2008 CODE OF PRACTICE THE WIRING OF PREMISES Part 1 : Low Voltage Installation

SANS 10142-1 : 2008 CODE OF PRACTICE THE WIRING OF PREMISES Part 1 : Low Voltage Installation SANS 10142-1 : 2008 CODE OF PRACTICE THE WIRING OF PREMISES Part 1 : Low Voltage Installation 4 Compliance Proof of Compliance (Sub clause 4.1.1) The SABS safety mark The SABS approved performance mark

More information

Presented by Joe Ellwood. 17th edition first amendment Surge protection

Presented by Joe Ellwood. 17th edition first amendment Surge protection Presented by Joe Ellwood 17th edition first amendment Surge protection Introduction Amended section 443 is surge protection required? Secondary lightning effects surges/transient overvoltages How do they

More information

Lightning Transient Study of a Hybrid Overhead and Underground High-Voltage System

Lightning Transient Study of a Hybrid Overhead and Underground High-Voltage System Lightning Transient Study of a Hybrid Overhead and Underground High-Voltage System G. W. Chang, Y. J. Liu, and H. M. Huang June 26, 2007 1 Outline Introduction Insulation Coordination Modeling of the Hybrid

More information

High-Voltage Circuit-Breakers 3AP1/2 72.5 kv up to 550 kv. Power Transmission and Distribution

High-Voltage Circuit-Breakers 3AP1/2 72.5 kv up to 550 kv. Power Transmission and Distribution High-Voltage Circuit-Breakers AP/ 7.5 kv up to 550 kv Power Transmission and Distribution The AP/ High-Voltage Circuit-Breakers Now Applicable for 550 kv Decades of our experience in high-voltage switching

More information

KNX TP1 Installation. KNX Association

KNX TP1 Installation. KNX Association KNX TP1 Installation Table of Contents 1 Safety Low Voltage Networks...3 2 SELV Safety Extra Low Voltage Network...4 3 Types of Bus Cable...5 4 Installation of Cables...7 5 Bus Devices in Distribution

More information

Power surges can also be generated by equipment in your facility such as:

Power surges can also be generated by equipment in your facility such as: Power Quality Surge Suppressors What is Surge Protection A surge suppressor can be the first and best defense against the instant or gradual destruction of electrical equipment. Compared to the replacement

More information

Monitoring of High Voltage Metal Oxide Surge Arresters

Monitoring of High Voltage Metal Oxide Surge Arresters Monitoring of High Voltage Metal Oxide Surge Arresters Volker Hinrichsen Siemens AG, Berlin/Germany ABSTRACT High voltage metal oxide surge arresters have proven to be extremely reliable devices within

More information

APPLICATION OF LIGHTNING PROTECTION AND SURGE ARRESTRES IN RAILWAY FACILITIES

APPLICATION OF LIGHTNING PROTECTION AND SURGE ARRESTRES IN RAILWAY FACILITIES APPLICATION OF LIGHTNING PROTECTION AND SURGE ARRESTRES IN RAILWAY FACILITIES Ranko Pešič Boris Grmovšek 1 September 2011 CONTENT Overvoltages in railway systems Lightning and surge protection ofrailway

More information

Fundamentals of Modern Electrical Substations Part 1: Mission of Electrical Substations and their Main Components

Fundamentals of Modern Electrical Substations Part 1: Mission of Electrical Substations and their Main Components Fundamentals of Modern Electrical Substations Part 1: Mission of Electrical Substations and their Main Components Course No: E02-010 Credit: 2 PDH Boris Shvartsberg, Ph.D., P.E., P.M.P. Continuing Education

More information

IEEE Fort Worth PES Chapter

IEEE Fort Worth PES Chapter IEEE Fort Worth PES Chapter Presentation on: Potential Concerns and Mitigation for Shunt Capacitor and Reactor Switching May 19, 2015 Prepared by: Mitsubishi Electric Power Products, Inc. (MEPPI) Power

More information

2012 San Francisco Colloquium

2012 San Francisco Colloquium 2012 San Francisco Colloquium http : //www.cigre.org HVDC and Power Electronic Systems for Overhead Line and Insulated Cable Applications B4-8 Trans Bay Cable A Breakthrough of VSC Multilevel Converters

More information

Testing of 400 kv GIS. ROBERT LE ROUX, DERMOT DORGAN, BRIAN PERRY ESB International Ireland

Testing of 400 kv GIS. ROBERT LE ROUX, DERMOT DORGAN, BRIAN PERRY ESB International Ireland 2016 CIGRE-IEC Colloquium 21, rue d Artois, F-75008 PARIS May 9-11, 2016 http : //www.cigre.org Montréal, QC, Canada Testing of 400 kv GIS ROBERT LE ROUX, DERMOT DORGAN, BRIAN PERRY ESB International Ireland

More information

Choosing the correct surge protection equipment.

Choosing the correct surge protection equipment. Choosing the correct surge protection equipment. An easy to use guide for contractors. clipsal.com Surge protection made easy We invest thousands of dollars in state-of-the-art electronic equipment and

More information

VariSTAR Type AZG3 Surge Arrester, 10,000 A, Line Discharge Class 3 IEC 60099-4 (99-4)

VariSTAR Type AZG3 Surge Arrester, 10,000 A, Line Discharge Class 3 IEC 60099-4 (99-4) CP9818 PAGE: 1 of 16 CERTIFIED TEST REPORT VariSTAR Type AZG3 Surge Arrester, 10,000 A, Line Discharge Class 3 IEC 60099-4 (99-4) 0711 Supersedes 0601 Cooper Industries, Inc. CP9818 PAGE: 2 of 16 CERTIFICATION

More information

Unified requirements for systems with voltages above 1 kv up to 15 kv

Unified requirements for systems with voltages above 1 kv up to 15 kv (1991) (Rev.1 May 2001) (Rev.2 July 2003) (Rev.3 Feb 2015) Unified requirements for systems with voltages above 1 kv up to 15 kv 1. General 1.1 Field of application The following requirements apply to

More information

insulate and isolate

insulate and isolate Introduction to Power Systems Expensive! Influential!Intrusive! Source: Riadh W. Y. Habash, Electromagnetic Fields and Radiation, Marcel Dekker, New York, 2001. In North America, power systems operate

More information

Fiber Optics Current Sensor Free Standing Enabling smart grids and digital substations

Fiber Optics Current Sensor Free Standing Enabling smart grids and digital substations Fiber Optics Current Sensor Free Standing Enabling smart grids and digital substations Content ABB Global Technology Leader ABB HV Products Portfolio Instrument Transformers ABB HV Products Portfolio Current

More information

2. INDUCTIVE VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS Oil-paper insulation Gas insulation

2. INDUCTIVE VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS Oil-paper insulation Gas insulation 2. INDUCTIVE VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS Oil-paper insulation Gas insulation 123 kv Inductive Fingrid (Finland). 18 Instrument transformers igh voltage INTRODUCTION Inductive voltage transformers are designed

More information

Elastimold. Cable Accessories. Surge Arresters. Metal Oxide Varistor (MOV) Surge Arresters

Elastimold. Cable Accessories. Surge Arresters. Metal Oxide Varistor (MOV) Surge Arresters Metal Oxide Varistor (MOV) Fully shielded, fully submersible for convenient energized connection with 200 A loadbreak or deadbreak components up to 35 kv Voltage surges that exceed the BIL rating of the

More information

Grounding of Electrical Systems NEW CODE: Grounding and Bonding

Grounding of Electrical Systems NEW CODE: Grounding and Bonding Grounding of Electrical Systems NEW CODE: Grounding and Bonding Presented By Scott Peele PE Grounding of Electrical Systems Outline Defining the Terms Why should I Ground? Types of Grounding Systems Separately

More information

VACUUM INTERRUPTER IMPULSE VOLTAGE TESTING PROCEDURES SHOULD RECOGNIZE INITIAL BREAKDOWNS AS RECONDITIONING EVENTS

VACUUM INTERRUPTER IMPULSE VOLTAGE TESTING PROCEDURES SHOULD RECOGNIZE INITIAL BREAKDOWNS AS RECONDITIONING EVENTS VACUUM INTERRUPTER IMPULSE VOLTAGE TESTING PROCEDURES SHOULD RECOGNIZE INITIAL BREAKDOWNS AS RECONDITIONING EVENTS R. Kirkland Smith, Ph.D. Cutler-Hammer 200 Westinghouse Circle, Horseheads, NY 14845-2277,

More information

Rectiverter Wiki. Loss of mains AC voltage source seamless switch over to DC source

Rectiverter Wiki. Loss of mains AC voltage source seamless switch over to DC source Rectiverter Wiki The RECTIVERTER is a technology created by Eltek. The Rectiverter is a three port module with an AC input port, an AC output port, and a bidirectional DC port. It is intended for the use

More information

Switching of capacitors and filter circuits

Switching of capacitors and filter circuits Medium-voltage switchgear Switching of capacitors and filter circuits Solutions for the high demands on switching technology White Paper Edition 2015 siemens.com/medium-voltage-switchgear Switching of

More information

What You Need to Know about Surge Protection. Curtis McCombs 2015

What You Need to Know about Surge Protection. Curtis McCombs 2015 1 What You Need to Know about Surge Protection Curtis McCombs 2015 Course Objectives Upon completion of this course you will be able to: Define the basic principles of a transient surge Identify the causes

More information

www.siemens.com/energy/arresters A full range of monitoring solutions for surge arresters Answers for energy.

www.siemens.com/energy/arresters A full range of monitoring solutions for surge arresters Answers for energy. www.siemens.com/energy/arresters A full range of monitoring solutions for surge arresters Answers for energy. Highly reliable equipment monitoring with added value ACM advanced ACM basic and LCM 500 Overview

More information

Application guidelines. Overvoltage protection Metal oxide surge arresters in medium voltage systems

Application guidelines. Overvoltage protection Metal oxide surge arresters in medium voltage systems Application guidelines Overvoltage protection Metal oxide surge arresters in medium voltage systems First published: November 1994 2 nd revised edition: September 1995 3 rd revised edition: May 1999 4

More information

Reduction of Lightning Caused Interruptions on Electric Power Systems Reduction Des Compures Dues a la Faudre Dans Les Reseaux

Reduction of Lightning Caused Interruptions on Electric Power Systems Reduction Des Compures Dues a la Faudre Dans Les Reseaux Reduction of Lightning Caused Interruptions on Electric Power Systems Reduction Des Compures Dues a la Faudre Dans Les Reseaux Harold S. Brewer Product Manger Ohio Brass Resume L avenement d équipements

More information

Lightning incident at Saudi Arabia s first Aluminium Smelter at Ras Al Khair,

Lightning incident at Saudi Arabia s first Aluminium Smelter at Ras Al Khair, Lightning incident at Saudi Arabia s first Aluminium Smelter at Ras Al Khair, Authors: - Karl Cunningham, Alcoa Power, Automation, E&I PM - Wesam Al Gamhdi Ma aden Aluminium KSA, Area Manager Power and

More information

Lightning and surge protection in outdoor lighting systems

Lightning and surge protection in outdoor lighting systems Lightning and surge protection in outdoor lighting systems Cirprotec Technical Article No. 3 Page 1 0. Introduction The various types of voltage surges have a direct impact on public lighting systems.

More information

Line Arrester Application on a 110 kv High Alpine Overhead Line to reduce Lightning-Caused Outages

Line Arrester Application on a 110 kv High Alpine Overhead Line to reduce Lightning-Caused Outages Application of Line Surge Arresters in Power Distribution and Transmission Systems COLLOQUIUM Cavtat 2008 Line Arrester Application on a 110 kv High Alpine Overhead Line to reduce Lightning-Caused Outages

More information

INNER CONE CONNECTORS Type CPI, SPI and FPI

INNER CONE CONNECTORS Type CPI, SPI and FPI INNER CONE CONNECTORS Type CPI, SPI and FPI Completing the picture nkt cables GmbH 999 NKT A/S, Denmark, merged with Felten & Guilleaume Kabelwerke GmbH in Germany to form nkt cables group GmbH with headquarters

More information

Power Voltage Transformers for Air Insulated Substations. THE PROVEN POWER.

Power Voltage Transformers for Air Insulated Substations. THE PROVEN POWER. Power Voltage Transformers for Air Insulated Substations THE PROVEN POWER. Introduction Trench Power Voltage Transformers (Power VTs) combine the attributes of an inductive voltage transformer with the

More information

IEEE Power, Switchgear, Substations & Relays Standards Collection: VuSpec

IEEE Power, Switchgear, Substations & Relays Standards Collection: VuSpec IEEE Power, Switchgear, Substations & Relays Standards Collection: VuSpec Summary This new comprehensive collection represents the most complete resource available for professional engineers looking for

More information

Surge-Trap SPD Application Information

Surge-Trap SPD Application Information What is the Surge-Trap SPD? The Surge-Trap is a branded surge protection device (SPD) that utilizes Mersen s patented thermally protected metal oxide varistor (TPMOV ) technology. This technology eliminates

More information

SUITABILITY OF DIFFERENT TEST VOLTAGES FOR ON-SITE TESTING OF XLPE CABLE SYSTEMS

SUITABILITY OF DIFFERENT TEST VOLTAGES FOR ON-SITE TESTING OF XLPE CABLE SYSTEMS SUITABILITY OF DIFFERENT TEST VOLTAGES FOR ON-SITE TESTING OF XLPE CABLE SYSTEMS Michael Hensel HIGHVOLT Prüftechnik Dresden GmbH 2 3 Content 1 Introduction Test parameters and their significance Differences

More information

Surge arresters for railway applications. Product guide. siemens.com/energy/arrester. Answers for energy.

Surge arresters for railway applications. Product guide. siemens.com/energy/arrester. Answers for energy. Surge arresters for railway applications Product guide siemens.com/energy/arrester Answers for energy. Definition of surge arresters Surge arresters are used to protect electrical equipment, such as transfor

More information

Video Camera Installation Guide

Video Camera Installation Guide Video Camera Installation Guide The intent of this guide is to provide the information needed to complete or modify a video camera installation to avoid lightning and induced power surge damage. This guide

More information

History of Circuit Breaker Standards. Jeffrey H. Nelson, P.E. Principal Electrical Engineer Tennessee Valley Authority Senior Member, IEEE

History of Circuit Breaker Standards. Jeffrey H. Nelson, P.E. Principal Electrical Engineer Tennessee Valley Authority Senior Member, IEEE History of Circuit Breaker Standards Jeffrey H. Nelson, P.E. Principal Electrical Engineer Tennessee Valley Authority Senior Member, IEEE 1 IEEE/PES Circuit Breaker Tutorial Pittsburgh, PA 24 July 2008

More information

GAPS Guidelines SURGE PROTECTION GAP INTRODUCTION. A Publication of Global Asset Protection Services LLC

GAPS Guidelines SURGE PROTECTION GAP INTRODUCTION. A Publication of Global Asset Protection Services LLC GAP.5.2.2 A Publication of Global Asset Protection Services LLC SURGE PROTECTION INTRODUCTION GAP.5.7.1.3 describes electrical surges as part of a broad, power quality problem. This guide identifies specific

More information

MiCAFIL. 1 RIP Technology. Bushings. Z. Zic 09/2003

MiCAFIL. 1 RIP Technology. Bushings. Z. Zic 09/2003 MiCAFIL 1 RIP Technology Z. Zic 09/2003 )XQFWLRQRI+LJK9ROWDJH%XVKLQJ Uncontrolled (natural) electrical field Capacity-controlled electrical field %XVKLQJV0DLQ,QVXODWLRQ6\VWHPV 7\SH 0DLQ,QVXODWLRQ +RXVLQJFRYHU

More information

TEST ON INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS

TEST ON INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS TEST ON INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS TRAINING BOOKLET: 4 The information in this document is subject to change. Contact ARTECHE to confirm the characteristics and availability of the products described here.

More information

TR FI ES MA GM MK TN EG AZ IQ SY SA AE YE MZ OUTDOOR SOLID CORE POST INSULATORS

TR FI ES MA GM MK TN EG AZ IQ SY SA AE YE MZ OUTDOOR SOLID CORE POST INSULATORS TR FI ES MA GM MK TN EG AZ IQ SY SA AE YE MZ OUTDOOR SOLID CORE POST INSULATORS About us ANKARA SERAMİK A.Ş Ankara Seramik A.S established in 1996 is one of the largest porcelain insulator companies

More information

LIMITING SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS IN MEDIUM-VOLTAGE APPLICATIONS

LIMITING SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS IN MEDIUM-VOLTAGE APPLICATIONS LIMITING SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS IN MEDIUM-VOLTAGE APPLICATIONS Terence Hazel Senior Member IEEE Schneider Electric 38050 Grenoble France Abstract The power requirements for large industrial sites is increasing.

More information

Earthing of MV and LV Distribution Lines: A multi-faceted problem.

Earthing of MV and LV Distribution Lines: A multi-faceted problem. Earthing of MV and LV Distribution Lines: A multi-faceted problem. Dr Hendri Geldenhuys Gareth Stanford Eskom, Industry Association Resource Centre (IARC) Abstract Earthing and bonding of systems and the

More information

Understanding Direct Lightning Stroke Shielding of Substations

Understanding Direct Lightning Stroke Shielding of Substations Understanding Direct Lightning Stroke Shielding of Substations P.K. Sen, Ph.D., P.E. Professor Division of Engineering Colo. School of Mines Golden, Colorado (303) 384-2020 psen@mines.edu PSERC Seminar

More information

Short-circuits Lecture 1 Introduction and Basic Definitions

Short-circuits Lecture 1 Introduction and Basic Definitions Short-circuits Lecture 1 Introduction and Basic Definitions Prof. Désiré Rasolomampionona Prof. dr hab. Jan Machowski Outline of the lecture Introduction Definitions Basics Useful notions INTRODUCTION

More information

www.siemens.com/energy High Voltage Circuit Breakers 3AP Type 72.5 kv to 800 kv Answers for energy.

www.siemens.com/energy High Voltage Circuit Breakers 3AP Type 72.5 kv to 800 kv Answers for energy. s www.siemens.com/energy High Voltage Circuit Breakers AP Type 7.5 kv to 800 kv Answers for energy. The AP High Voltage Circuit Breakers Available up to 800 kv Decades of our experience in high voltage

More information

TWENTIES WORKSHOP, EWEA 2012 Unveiling the future energy system: full scale demonstrations to reach 2020 targets. 17th April 2012

TWENTIES WORKSHOP, EWEA 2012 Unveiling the future energy system: full scale demonstrations to reach 2020 targets. 17th April 2012 TWENTIES WORKSHOP, EWEA 2012 Unveiling the future energy system: full scale demonstrations to reach 2020 targets 17th April 2012 Session 2 Technological challenges to cope with in TWENTIES field tests

More information

Product brochure Multi Functional Switchgear PASS M00 72.5 kv Flexible and compact switchgear solutions for windfarms

Product brochure Multi Functional Switchgear PASS M00 72.5 kv Flexible and compact switchgear solutions for windfarms Product brochure Multi Functional Switchgear PASS M00 72.5 kv Flexible and compact switchgear solutions for windfarms The future of Wind Farms As offshore wind farms move towards deploying higher capacity

More information

ELECTRIC POWER SUBSTATIONS, COMPONENTS AND FUNCTIONS

ELECTRIC POWER SUBSTATIONS, COMPONENTS AND FUNCTIONS ELECTRIC POWER SUBSTATIONS, COMPONENTS AND FUNCTIONS BY ENGR. ISIBOR SIMEON, MNSE, MNIEEE, MAIP MD/CEO SIB ENGINEERING LTD CIVIL SERVICE CLUB, MABUSHI-ABUJA PRESENTED AT THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE AND

More information

Telecommunication Line Protectors

Telecommunication Line Protectors TN CR 0025 Telecommunication Line s 1.1 The nature of telecom surges The telecom services considered in this report are transported on twisted pair. Each service has two wires, or lines, sometimes called

More information

Low Voltage Capacitor LVCP. The new choice for Power Factor Correction

Low Voltage Capacitor LVCP. The new choice for Power Factor Correction Low Voltage Capacitor LVCP The new choice for Power Factor Correction LVCP : the new choice for Power Factor Correction The LVCP is a compact and powerful capacitor. It offers high modularity, unmatched

More information

High-Voltage GIS yesterday - today - tomorrow

High-Voltage GIS yesterday - today - tomorrow High-Voltage GIS yesterday - today - tomorrow Peter Glaubitz, Siemens AG, Principal Expert GIS-Technology siemens.at/future-of-energy Table of content GIS yesterday beginning and establishment of Gas-

More information

Regulatory & IEC 950. Nick Stapleton 3Com

Regulatory & IEC 950. Nick Stapleton 3Com Regulatory 802.3 & IEC 950 Nick Stapleton 3Com Review of IEEE 802.3 Isolation Requirements 10BASE-T 1000BASE-T Multi-Port Devices Repeaters Switches 10BASE-T Isolation 14.3.1.1 Isolation requirement The

More information

IEC and IEEE Standards for High-Voltage Switchgear and Controlgear Present Situation and Future Evolution

IEC and IEEE Standards for High-Voltage Switchgear and Controlgear Present Situation and Future Evolution IEC and IEEE Standards for High-Voltage Switchgear and Controlgear Present Situation and Future Evolution Denis Dufournet Chairman IEC TC 17 & SC17A Fellow IEEE Senior Expert Areva T&D Mumbai, January,

More information

Protection of RS-232 Serial Connections

Protection of RS-232 Serial Connections Protection of RS-232 Serial Connections White Paper #16 Executive Summary This White Paper explains the special power protection issues related to RS-232 cabling. First, the special vulnerabilities of

More information

Presco AG Zürcherstrasse 70 -CH 8104 Weiningen Tel Fax P.O. Box 155 Switzerland

Presco AG Zürcherstrasse 70 -CH 8104 Weiningen Tel Fax P.O. Box 155 Switzerland Zürcherstrasse 70 -CH 8104 Weiningen Tel. + 41 44 750 63 63 Fax + 41 44 750 63 66 P.O. Box 155 Switzerland Email : kfischer@prescoag.com Universal High Voltage Reference Divider Type ID-0500-CD00 Instruction

More information

Design Strategies for Arc Flash Hazard Mitigation in Metal- Enclosed Power Capacitor Banks and Harmonic Filter Banks

Design Strategies for Arc Flash Hazard Mitigation in Metal- Enclosed Power Capacitor Banks and Harmonic Filter Banks 66 Carey Road TEL: (518) 792-4776 www.nepsi.com Queensbury, NY 12804 FAX: (518) 792-5767 sales@nepsi.com Design Strategies for Arc Flash Hazard Mitigation in Metal- Enclosed Power Capacitor Banks and Harmonic

More information

CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION. The bias voltage test recommended by IEC as a method of. testing of the longitudinal insulation of high voltage

CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION. The bias voltage test recommended by IEC as a method of. testing of the longitudinal insulation of high voltage CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION The bias voltage test recommended by IEC as a method of testing of the longitudinal insulation of high voltage switchgear permits to test the longitudinal insulation as per conditions

More information

Ulf Åkesson, ABB AB, Power Products, Circuit Breakers, Cigré Chile, Experience and considerations for substation equipment seismic design

Ulf Åkesson, ABB AB, Power Products, Circuit Breakers, Cigré Chile, Experience and considerations for substation equipment seismic design Ulf Åkesson, ABB AB, Power Products, Circuit Breakers, Cigré Chile, 2010-10-19 Experience and considerations for substation equipment seismic design October 18, 2010 Slide 1 Agenda ABB experience of substation

More information

SECTION A. UL rd Edition (2009 Revision effective 9/29/2009).

SECTION A. UL rd Edition (2009 Revision effective 9/29/2009). SECTION 16289 TRANSIENT VOLTAGE SURGE SUPPRESSION PART 1 - GENERAL 1.1 DESCRIPTION A. This section describes the materials and installation requirements for Surge Protective Devices (SPDs) and includes

More information

2.4 The Surge Protection Device (SPD)

2.4 The Surge Protection Device (SPD) Surge Protection Devices () are used for electric power supply networks, telephone networks, and communication and automatic control buses. 2.4 The Surge Protection Device () The Surge Protection Device

More information

IEC Series Standards for MV-Switchgear IEC High-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 1: Common specifications

IEC Series Standards for MV-Switchgear IEC High-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 1: Common specifications IEC 62271 Series Standards for MV-Switchgear IEC 62271-1 High-voltage switchgear and controlgear Part 1: Common specifications Olaf Bischur Siemens AG IC LMV MS R&D GIS TD 1PG Topics 1. Standards Group

More information

DC POWER TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGY 1.1 INTRODUCTION

DC POWER TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGY 1.1 INTRODUCTION DC POWER TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGY 1.1 INTRODUCTION The industrial growth of a nation requires increased consumption of energy, particularly electrical energy. This has led to increase in the generation

More information

CHAPTER 27 GROUNDING SYSTEMS

CHAPTER 27 GROUNDING SYSTEMS TM 5-692-2 CHAPTER 27 GROUNDING SYSTEMS 27-1. General grounding systems Reasons for grounding include human and equipment safety, effective lightning protection, diminishing electromagnetic coupling (EMC),

More information

Gas-insulated circuit breaker switchgear

Gas-insulated circuit breaker switchgear Gas-insulated circuit breaker switchgear Make the most of your energy SM GHA Gas-insulated Circuit Breaker Switchgear Unit up to 38 kv Energy Supply Reliability is our challenge At Schneider Electric,

More information

Transmission Silicone Insulators Line Post 69 kv to 161 kv

Transmission Silicone Insulators Line Post 69 kv to 161 kv K-LINE INSULATORS LIMITED Catalogue T-LP Transmission Silicone Insulators Line Post 69 kv to 161 kv ISO9001 SAI GLOBAL FILE No. 000117 Transmission Silicone Insulators Line Post Today transmission lines

More information

Guide to Surge Protection Devices

Guide to Surge Protection Devices Guide to Surge Protection Devices Introduction The whole nature of how electrical equipment is used in homes and at work has evolved; with everyday activities relying on electronic equipment. Products

More information

2a. IEM Indoor Metal Clad Medium Voltage Switchgear 15KV 16346-1. 2a. Section 16346 INDOOR METAL CLAD MEDIUM VOLTAGE SWTICHGEAR (Std.

2a. IEM Indoor Metal Clad Medium Voltage Switchgear 15KV 16346-1. 2a. Section 16346 INDOOR METAL CLAD MEDIUM VOLTAGE SWTICHGEAR (Std. 2a. IEM Indoor Metal Clad Medium Voltage Switchgear 15KV 16346-1 2a. Section 16346 INDOOR METAL CLAD MEDIUM VOLTAGE SWTICHGEAR (Std. Relays) Part 1 General 1.1 CONDITIONS AND REQUIREMENTS: A. Refer to

More information

Capacitor Bank Switching with Vacuum Circuit Breakers

Capacitor Bank Switching with Vacuum Circuit Breakers Technical collection Capacitor Bank Switching with Vacuum Circuit Breakers 2008 - Conferences publications H. Schellekens ISBN XXIII rd Int. Symp. on Discharges and Electrical Insulation in Vacuum-Bucharest-2008

More information

MEDIUM AND HIGH VOLTAGE CAPACITORS, CAPACITOR BANKS AND SYSTEMS

MEDIUM AND HIGH VOLTAGE CAPACITORS, CAPACITOR BANKS AND SYSTEMS MEDIUM AND HIGH VOLTAGE CAPACITORS, CAPACITOR BANKS AND SYSTEMS Meher Capacitors offers reliable and innovative products and solutions in the fields of Reactive Power Compensation, Power Quality and Energy

More information

Transformer Bushings for GIS

Transformer Bushings for GIS Transformer Bushings for GIS Oil to SF6 Connections GARIP RTKG 725-55 kv SQS certified ISO 91 / ISO 141 Bushings RIP - Technology for SF6 / Oil - Bushings In modern metal enclosed switchgear SF6 -gas is

More information

Gas-insulated medium-voltage switchgear. For the oil and gas industry. Answers for energy.

Gas-insulated medium-voltage switchgear. For the oil and gas industry. Answers for energy. Gas-insulated medium-voltage switchgear For the oil and gas industry Answers for energy. Full power even under extreme conditions The worldwide demand for energy is still rising, and fossil energy sources

More information