Clusters of Galaxies with Athena

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1 Clusters of Galaxies with Athena Judith Croston University of Southampton & University of Cambridge Institute of Continuing Education On behalf of the Athena Hot Universe Science Working Group: Reiprich, Fabian, Ohashi, Pointecouteau, Allen, Ota, Ettori, Pratt, Eckert, Croston, Sanders, McNamara, Kaastra, Finoguenov + many topical panel members

2 Athena: the hot and energetic Universe How does ordinary matter assemble into the structures that we see today? How do black holes grow and shape the Universe?

3 The hot Universe How do baryons in groups and clusters accrete and dynamically evolve in dark matter haloes? What drives the chemical and thermodynamical evolution of the Universe s largest structures? What is the interplay of galaxy, supermassive black holes, and intergalactic gas evolution in groups and clusters? Where are the missing baryons at low redshift and what is their physical state?

4 Athena basics

5 Current generation X-ray mirrors

6 Silicon pore optics

7 X-IFU Large array of multiplexed Transition Edge Sensors (TES): 5 x5 FOV, 2.5 ev spectral resolution

8 WFI Array of DEFPET sensors, 40 x 40 FOV

9 From Ariel V to Athena Mitchell+ 1976

10 Croston, Sanders+ 2013

11

12 Evolution of galaxy groups and clusters (sub-panel led by Pointecouteau, Allen, Ota) How and when was the energy contained in the hot intracluster medium generated? When and how were the largest baryon reservoirs in galaxy clusters chemically enriched? When did the first collapsed haloes retain a hot gaseous atmosphere?z

13

14 How was the energy contained in the ICM at low z generated?

15 How was the energy contained in the ICM at low z generated?

16 How was the energy contained in the ICM at low z generated?

17 Evolution of chemical enrichment Courtesy J. de Plaa (in Pointecouteau, Reiprich+ 2013)

18 The earliest galaxy groups Fabian et al Distinguishing groups and Inverse Compton emission at high z sound familiar?

19 Astrophysics of galaxy groups and clusters (sub-panel led by Ettori, Pratt, Eckert) How do diffuse hot baryons accrete and dynamically evolve in the dark matter potential? How and when was the energy in the ICM generated and distributed? When are where are heavy elements produces and how are they circulated?

20 Bulk motions and gas turbulence Ettori, Pratt+ 2013

21 Thermodynamics of cluster outskirts 100ks WFI observation determines kt, Z to within 3% and 18%, respectively Ettori, Pratt+ 2013

22 Abundances and SNe yields

23 Abundances and SNe yields

24 AGN feedback in galaxy groups and clusters (sub-panel led by Croston, Sanders, McNamara) How is the energy from jets dissipated and distributed throughout cluster/group hot gas atmospheres? How does feedback operate to regulate gas cooling and AGN fuelling? What is the cumulative impact of powerful radio galaxies on the evolution of baryons from the cluster formation epoch to the present time?

25 How is the energy from jets dissipated & distributed? Measure temperature to <1.5% and velocity broadening measured to km/s on scales < 10 kpc in nearby systems, and scales of <50 kpc in hundreds of clusters and groups

26 250 ks X-IFU observations of Cygnus A- and Hydra A-like clusters (Heinz et al. 2010) Velocity, age and jet power can be measured from spatially resolved line structure across cavities and shells.

27 WFI-simulated core of a cluster at z=0.05, based on simulations of Morsony , applying unsharp masking. WFI capable of detecting and characterizing ripples and sound waves in several tens of groups and clusters over wide range of mass and jet power, allowing mechanical energy to be related to environment and AGN properties.

28 Quantifying feedback and cooling 20-ks X-IFU spectrum of the centre of Centaurus cluster. Cooling rate measurements below 4MK achievable with 500x greater efficiency than XMM-RGS (based on Sanders et al. 2008)

29 Assessing jet impact 50-ks WFI (l) and X-IFU observations of Centaurus A: dynamics of strong shocks in nearby objects can be measured for the first time (v s measured to <10% - properties based on Croston et al. 2009)

30 What is the cumulative impact of radio galaxies on hot gas atmospheres? Simulated WFI temperature map for a powerful radio galaxy driving a strong shocks in 2keV groups at z=0.1 (left, 20 ks) from simulations of Hardcastle & Krause (2013). Dynamics and energy input of large samples will test numerical models of source evolution, allowing impact on entropy distributions, scaling laws etc. to be determined.

31 Missing baryons and WHIM (sub-panel led by Kaastra, Finoguenov) Where are the baryons missing from the cosmic budget at z~0? Do they trace the filaments of the cosmic web? What is their physical state and composition? How does feedback by galaxy winds and AGN affect the location and physical state of these baryons?

32 Current picture Nicastro et al. 2013

33 Athena X-IFU simulation of a filalment seen in emission and absorption (1 Ms)Kaastra, Finoguenov+ 2013

34 Get involved! Applications for the Athena science working groups have been reopened: form4/index.html

35 WHIM observing strategies Detection of 200 filaments in absorption (150 from blazars, 50 from GRB). 15 GRB fields follow-up for emission. Comparison to SDSS density fields. Serendipitous detection of WHIM emission in every >100 ks XIFU observation 100 ks depth XIFU survey of 1 deg 2 (10 Ms) line profiles of halos Baryons in the calibrated LSS Statistical studies of WHIM kinematics Same strategy as in z~10 QSO Fe-line tomography. Identification of X-ray ghosts Missing metals at z~3 in absorption (GRBs)

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