Galaxy Clusters. Chiara Ferrari

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1 Galaxy Clusters Chiara Ferrari

2 Overview of the talk Introduction: what is a galaxy cluster? Different kinds of radio sources in galaxy clusters: Single galaxies Diffuse radio sources Why is it important to study radio emission from galaxy clusters? Galaxy evolution Non-thermal physics Open questions and perspectives

3 Introduction: what is a galaxy cluster?

4 From groups to rich clusters HGC 87 Abell 957 Abell 1689 M M Sun M M Sun M M Sun Most galaxies are not isolated in the Universe. They are bound together by their mutual gravity in structures containing from a few galaxies, to hundreds or even thousands galaxies Rich clusters are the largest gravitationally bound virialized systems in the Universe

5 Hierarchical structure formation Galaxy clusters form through merging of less massive clusters and/or accretion of field galaxies or small groups Huge gravitational binding energies ( ergs) are realised during major cluster mergers Complex evolutionary physics of clusters

6 Numerical Large Scale Simulations Structure of of the Large Universe Scale Structure Formation 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey Kapferer et al., Innsbruck University

7 Numerical Simulations of Large Scale Structure Formation Kapferer et al., Innsbruck University

8 Not only galaxies in clusters! Zwicky 1933: using the virial theorem (2K + W = 0) Zwicky shows the existence of missing mass in clusters... actually not missing at all, just dark to our eyes!!! Uhuru 1970 s: the existence of an X-ray emitting intra-cluster gas is proven by observations of the first X-ray rockets and satellites

9 Not only galaxies in clusters! Zwicky 1933: using the virial theorem (2K + W = 0) Zwicky shows the existence of missing mass in clusters... actually not missing at all, just dark to our eyes!!! Is this gas the missing mass of clusters? The volume between cluster galaxies is filled with hot ( K) diffuse ( 10-3 cm -3 ) gas emitting in X-ray due to thermal bremsstrahlung Coma cluster: optical + X-ray image

10 Not only galaxies in clusters! Zwicky 1933: using the virial theorem (2K + W = 0) Zwicky shows the existence of missing mass in clusters... actually not missing at all, just dark to our eyes!!! Is this gas the missing mass of clusters? NO, it is not (or at least not all of it)!!!

11 The massive components of galaxy clusters Galaxies: 2-5% M Cluster Hot diffuse ICM: 10-15% M Cluster Dark Matter: 80-85% M Cluster

12 Different kinds of radio sources in galaxy clusters

13 Radio emission from galaxy clusters Different emission mechanisms: Continuum emission Line emission Different sources of radio emission: Galaxies Intra-cluster non-thermal component

14 Radio emission mechanisms in galaxy clusters Continuum Clarke & Enßlin 06 Line Bravo-Alfaro et al. 00 et al.

15 Radio sources in clusters Atomic gas in cluster galaxies Active galaxies: AGN Cluster galaxies Diffuse radio sources Mini-halos Halos Relics Starburst

16 Radio sources in clusters Atomic gas in cluster galaxies Cluster galaxies X-ray ICM emission + HI emission of Virgo galaxies Active galaxies: AGN Starburst Kenney et al.

17 Radio sources in clusters Atomic gas in cluster galaxies Cluster galaxies M82 = starburst Optical Dust Active galaxies: Optical + Radio Synchrotron Free-free AGN Starburst P.Challis, Whipple Obs, Mt. Hopkins The starburst galaxy M82 Radio Image courtesy of NRAO/AUI MERLIN & VLA

18 Radio sources in clusters intermediate extension ( 500 kpc) at the centre of clusters with AGN & cooling-core XMM + VLA: Gitti et al. 07 Diffuse radio sources Mini-halos Halos Relics extended ( 1 Mpc) cluster centre regular morphology ( X-rays) Chandra + VLA: Ferrari et al. 06 extended ( 1 Mpc) cluster outskirts elongated morphology XMM + VLA: Bourdin et al. in prep.+ Feretti et al. 01

19 Importance of radio observations of galaxy clusters

20 Why is it important to study radio emission from galaxy clusters? Cluster environment and galaxy activity (star formation and AGN) Distant cluster detection through galaxy radio emission Statistical studies of cluster extended radio sources: Origin of relativistic particles in clusters Non-thermal component vs. termo-dynamical evolution of clusters Characterization of intra-cluster magnetic fields

21 Cluster environment hostile to galaxy star formation Metevier et al. 00 Blue galaxies Star forming galaxies W 0 (Hα)>4 A Star forming galaxies Balogh et al. 04

22 Effects of the environment on galaxy evolution: some radio results Metevier et al. 00 HI deficiency in cluster galaxies compared to the field (e.g. Chamaraux et al. 80; Haynes et al. 84; Cayatte et al. 90; Bravo-Alfaro et al. 00)

23 Effects of the environment on galaxy evolution: some radio results Metevier et al. 00 Owen et al. 99 Paris, 26/08/2009 Science Highlights of the SKA - Galaxy Clusters Chiara Ferrari

24 Effects of the environment on galaxy evolution: galaxy-galaxy interactions and merging Braine et al. 01 Optical + HI contours

25 Effects of the environment on galaxy evolution: ram-pressure due to the ICM Ram-pressure ( ICM v 2 ) Gas stripping Kenney et al. 04 Gas compression Cortese et al. 07 Kapferer et al. 09 Newly formed stars Stripped Interstellar Medium

26 Environment & radio galaxies Image courtesy of NRAO/AUI and C. O'Dea & F. Owen Wide and Narrow Angle Tail (WAT & NAT) radio galaxies Radio Luminosity Function in clusters see Feretti & Giovannini 07 for a review Image courtesy of NRAO/AUI and Neal Miller, Jansky Fellow of the NRAO

27 Environment & radio galaxies Wide and Narrow Angle Tail (WAT & NAT) radio galaxies Radio Luminosity Function in clusters Statistically similar for sources outside and inside rich clusters (Fanti 84; Ledlow & Owen 96) Owen et al. 99 Branchesi et al. 06 Higher number of radio galaxies in merging / high-z clusters? (Owen et al. 99; Branchesi et al. 06) see Feretti & Giovannini 07 for a review X Distant clusters Nearby clusters

28 Why is it important to study radio emission from galaxy clusters? Cluster environment and galaxy activity (star formation and AGN) Distant cluster detection through galaxy radio emission Statistical studies of cluster extended radio sources: Origin of relativistic particles in clusters Non-thermal component vs. termo-dynamical evolution of clusters Characterization of intra-cluster magnetic fields

29 Optical +Radio contours Optical + X-ray + Radio contours VLA observations Resolution: 10 arcsec (left) Blanton et al z 0.96 Optical +cluster members Smolcic et al z arcsec (right) Cluster detection WAT or NAT radio sources

30 Why is it important to study radio emission from galaxy clusters? Cluster environment and galaxy activity (star formation and AGN) Distant cluster detection through galaxy radio emission Statistical studies of cluster extended radio sources: Origin of relativistic particles in clusters Non-thermal component vs. termo-dynamical evolution of clusters Characterization of intra-cluster magnetic fields

31 Origin of relativistic particles in clusters 1 Mpc ( m) A2163: radio halo Feretti et al. 01 A1914 Bacchi et al. 03 Dimensions: ~ 1 Mpc Crossing time of e - : ~9.5 Gyr Life time of e - : ~ 0.1 Gyr In situ acceleration of relativistic electrons

32 Acceleration mechanisms Primary models: (re-)acceleration due to shocks/turbulence Secondary models: hadronic collisions of relativistic p + with the ICM see Ferrari et al. 08 for a review

33 Acceleration mechanisms Primary models: (re-)acceleration due to shocks/turbulence Secondary models: hadronic collisions of relativistic p + with the ICM credits: C. Pfrommer see Ferrari et al. 08 for a review

34 Acceleration mechanisms Halos & Relics detected only in the brightest merging clusters Primary models: (re-)acceleration due to shocks/turbulence Secondary models: hadronic collisions of relativistic p + with the ICM Mini-halos detected in clusters with AGNs and strong cooling cores see Ferrari et al. 08 for a review

35 Halos, relics and mini-halos Halos ICM turbulence due to cluster merging Govoni et al. 04 Mini-halos Cooling core turbulence & AGN emission Relics: ICM shocks due to cluster merging Old relativistic plasma

36 Halos, relics and mini-halos Halos ICM turbulence due to cluster merging Gitti et al. 07 Mini-halos Cooling core turbulence & AGN emission Relics: ICM shocks due to cluster merging Old relativistic plasma

37 Halos, relics and mini-halos Halos ICM turbulence due to cluster merging Mini-halos Cooling core turbulence & AGN emission Relics: ICM shocks due to cluster merging Old relativistic plasma Ferrari et al. 08

38 ICM cavities AGN feedback

39 Why is it important to study radio emission from galaxy clusters? Cluster environment and galaxy activity (star formation and AGN) Distant cluster detection through galaxy radio emission Statistical studies of cluster extended radio sources: Origin of relativistic particles in clusters Non-thermal component vs. termo-dynamical evolution of clusters Characterization of intra-cluster magnetic fields

40 Intra-cluster magnetic fields Equipartition assumption Compton scattering of CMB photons Faraday rotation measure X-ray analysis of cold fronts see reviews by Govoni & Feretti 04 and Ferrari et al. 08

41 Intra-cluster magnetic fields - Compton Scattering of CMB photons

42 Intra-cluster magnetic fields - Compton Scattering of CMB photons γ ~ Hard X-ray Gamma photons Electron energy density Ferrari, Govoni et al Synchrotron spectral index

43 Faraday rotation measure 6 cm 3.6 cm Govoni et al. 06

44 Intra-cluster magnetic field intensity: discrepant results Faraday rotation measure: ~1-10 μg (e.g. Feretti et al. 95, 99; Govoni et al. 01, 06; Guidetti et al. 07; Taylor et al. 93, 01, 07) Equipartition assumption: ~0.1 1 μg (e.g. Giovannnini et al. 93; Kim 99; Pfrommer & Enßlin 04; Tierbach et al. 03) Compton scattering: ~ μg (e.g. Fusco-Femiano et al. 99, 00, 01; X-ray analysis of cold fronts: ~10 μg (Vikhlinin et al. 01) Rephaeli et al. 99, 03, 06)

45 Some perspectives

46 Why studying the non-thermal intra-cluster component? Test current theories on the origin of relativistic particles Cosmological studies Measure of cosmic magnetic fields Brunetti et al. 07 Bacchi et al. 2003

47 Why studying the non-thermal intra-cluster component? Test current theories on the origin of relativistic particles Cosmological studies Measure of cosmic magnetic fields Bacchi et al. 2003

48 Diffuse radio sources with LOFAR All-Sky Survey Resolution = 20 arcsec 10 σ detection Ferrari et al. 09

49 Diffuse radio sources with LOFAR L X All-Sky (top) and Deep (bottom) Surveys Resolution = 20 arcsec z 10 σ detection Courtesy: A. Chamballu Ferrari et al. 09

50 Diffuse radio sources with SKA Feretti et al SKA Science Book ROSAT All Sky Survey XLF Tb (K) z = 1.5 z = 1.0 z = 0.5 z = 0.1 De ~ 2 Grandi W/Hz et al z

51 Magnetic fields with LOFAR Govoni et al. 07 Radio galaxies detected by current radio telescopes Radio galaxies detected by LOFAR Govoni et al. 06

52 Magnetic fields with SKA Top: Derived distribution of cosmological rotation measures on the sky due to galaxy clusters. Bottom: Recovered RM-sky due to background radio sources for a 100 h SKA observation. Krause et al. 09

53 Magnetic fields with SKA Huge spectral range: GHz Sub-arcsec angular resolution Polarization signal down to sub-mjy intensity + MHD numerical simulations Govoni et al intensity, structure and origin of intra-cluster magnetic fields B k 2 k -n with n=2 in the centre n=4 in the periphery

54 Multi-wavelength follow-up credits: C. Pfrommer

55 Multi-wavelength follow-up Simbol-X A2256 NuStar Fusco-Femiano et al. 00; Rephaeli & Gruber 03; Clarke & Ensslin 06

56 Steep-spectrum radio sources

57 Evolution of galaxy properties Abell 370: z 0.37 Coma: z 0.02 Measurements of gas content of galaxies: Now: z SKA: z 2.5 Lah et al. 09 van der Hulst et al. 04 van der Hulst et al. 04

58 A lot of work for us (and not only)...

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