A. Homologous chromosomes divide in Meiosis l and sister. B. Homologous chromosomes divide in Meiosis ll and sister

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1 SC.912.L ) Somatic cells undergo mitosis whereas gamete cells undergo meiosis. Mitosis takes place throughout the lifetime of an organism. What is the biggest difference between these processes? A. Mitosis undergoes reduction division to produce diploid cells B. Meiosis undergoes reduction division to produce diploid cells C. Mitosis undergoes reduction division to produce haploid cells D. Meiosis undergoes reduction division to produce haploid cells

2 SC.912.L ) Abscisic acid (ABA) is a naturally occurring hormone in plants whose production is increased in the winter months. It has been found to disrupt the cell cycle, keeping the cells in the G1 stage. If ABA production stops, what would be the immediate effect on the plant? A. It would continue to grow in the winter and eventually die from exposure to cold temperatures. B. It would lose its leaves in the winter and be protected from exposure to cold temperatures. C. It would continue to grow in the winter and evolve to thrive in cold temperatures. D. It would cease production of fruits so none could be harvested for the winter.

3 SC.912.L ) Homologous chromosomes are very similar but not duplicates. Sister chromatids on the other hand are duplicate halves of a chromosome. What happens to homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids during Meiosis l and Meiosis ll? A. Homologous chromosomes divide in Meiosis l and sister chromatids divide in Meiosis ll B. Homologous chromosomes divide in Meiosis ll and sister chromatids divide in Meiosis l C. Homologous chromosomes become haploid in Meiosis l and sister chromatids produce 4-diploid cells D. Homologous chromosomes become diploid in Meiosis l and sister chromatids produce 2-haploid cells

4 SC.912.L ) The diagram below represents a cell which has gone through the process of meiosis and produced two daughter cells. Which statement correctly describes the daughter cells? A. They will not pass on any of the genes that they received from the original cell. B. They will pass half of the genetic information they received from the original cell. C. They will undergo the same mutations as the original cell after reproduction has occurred. D. They will produce offspring that will have the same genetic information as the original cell.

5 SC.912.L ) The human body has 23 pairs of chromosomes, one set from your mother and one set from your father. Why are the pairs referred to as homologous chromosomes? A. The chromosome pairs are identical B. The chromosome pairs are not identical C. The chromosomes in a pair have the same alleles in opposite order of arrangement D. The chromosomes in a pair have the same alleles in the same order of arrangement

6 SC.912.N.1.1 6) A laboratory technique is represented in the diagram below. What knowledge was needed to develop this technique? A. Knowledge of the development of bacterial embryos B. Knowledge of the structure of starch molecules C. Knowledge of the structure of a DNA molecule D. Knowledge of sexual reproduction in cells

7 SC.912.N.1.1 7) In 1987, British researchers demonstrated that a human gene, which controlled cell division, could function properly when inserted into a yeast cell. This was considered a landmark experiment based on the fact that yeast and the distant ancestors of humans diverged about 1 million years ago. Considering what you know about genes, what conclusion can be made based on the findings of these researchers? A. Yeast cells and human cells contain the same proteins. B. Yeast cells and human cells contain all of the same genes. C. Yeast cells and human cells contain all of the same genes, but different proteins. D. Yeast cells and human cells contain the same types of nucleotides in their genes.

8 SC.912.L ) The green pepper plant has proteins that control the process of making glucose. How does the plant obtain these proteins? A. The proteins are all present in the seed before germination occurs. B. The light energy changes molecules in the plant cell into proteins. C. The proteins are absorbed from the soil by the roots of the plant. D. The plant makes the proteins using the instructions in DNA.

9 SC.912.L ) A process, which occurs in the nucleus of a cell and is important in the transmission of genetic material, is shown in the illustration below. The process shown in the illustration above is dependent upon which molecule? A. DNA polymerase B. RNA polymerase C. ribosome D. helicase

10 SC.912.L ) Insulin is a protein needed by the body for proper carbohydrate digestion. It is composed of two polypeptide chains: one consisting of 20 amino acids and the other consisting of 31 amino acids. What is the minimum number of base pairs of DNA required to code for this molecule? A. 200 B. 153 C. 66 D. 51

11 SC.912.L ) The mold Aspergillus flavus grows on grain. A. flavus produces a toxin that binds to DNA in the bodies of animals that eat the grain. The binding of the toxin to DNA blocks translation, so it directly interferes with the ability of an animal cell to do which of the following? A. The conversion of genetic code into a protein. B. The production of genetic material used by ribosomes to create proteins. C. The production of genetic material that is identical to a template molecule. D. The transfer of protein-building instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.

12 SC.912.L ) Wild type and mutant mrna sequences of fruit flies are shown in the illustration below. What type of mutation is shown in the illustration above? A. Point mutation B. Silent mutation C. Frameshift mutation D. Missense mutation

13 SC.912.L ) There are specific types of bases, called nucleotides, which comprise a DNA molecule. The number of adenine bases in a DNA molecule equals the number of thymine bases. Which statement best explains why this occurs? A. DNA contains equals numbers of all base types. B. DNA is made of alternating adenine and thymine bases. C. A thymine base always follows an adenine base on a single strand of DNA. D. An adenine base on one strand of DNA bonds to a thymine base on the other strand.

14 SC.912.L ) The table below gives the codons found in messenger RNA (mrna). A scientist extracted a protein fragment from a cell. The fragment had the amino acid sequence: Trp-Met. Which of the following is a possible DNA sequence that is associated with this protein fragment? A. UGGAUG B. ACCTAC C. GGUUGG D. CCTTAC

15 SC.912.N ) A research team at Rutgers University developed a new procedure which successfully extracts and counts the number of chromosomes in a cell. In a recent study this research team created the bar graph below showing the data they collected using this new procedure. A. Are potatoes more evolutionary enhanced because they have more chromosomes? B. What are the consequences of adding more chromosomes to a human cell? C. Do different species of porpoises have different number of chromosomes? D. Do the number of chromosomes vary between mammals and plants?

16 SC.912.N ) The bar graph below shows the number of homologous chromosomes in a cell of four different organisms. Using the bar graph, predict the number of chromosomes present in each daughter cell after a potato cell undergoes meiosis? A. 2 B. 4 C. 8 D. 16

17 SC.912.L ) Mitosis is a form of asexual reproduction. Which of the following statements would be considered a disadvantage of asexual reproduction? A. All cells can potentially reproduce. B. It produces genetically identical offspring. C. It is more efficient in favorable environment. D. The short amount of time it takes to complete the process.

18 SC.912.L ) Bacterial cells can reproduce by a process called binary fission. Binary fission produces two daughter cells that are genetically identical to the parent cell. Which of the following statements correctly describes binary fission? A. Binary fission is a type of mitosis. B. Binary fission is a type of meiosis. C. Binary fission is a type of sexual reproduction. D. Binary fission is a type of asexual reproduction.

19 SC.912.L ) The diagram shows two homologous chromosomes before and after meiosis occurs. What process caused the arms of the chromosomes to be in different places after meiosis? A. Co-dominance B. Crossing over C. Sex linkage D. Independent assortment

20 SC.912.L ) Mitosis and meiosis are two types of cell division that occur in most organisms. From the above chart, identify the row in which the cell type and cellular process are paired with the correct type of cell. A. A B. B C. C D. D

21 SC.912.L ) The diagram below represents a cell undergoing the process of mitosis. How would this diagram differ if this cell was undergoing the process of meiosis? A. 2 unique diploid cells would be produced instead of 4 diploid cells. B. 4 unique haploid cells would be produced instead of 2 diploid cells. C. 2 identical diploid cells would be produced instead of 4 haploid cells. D. 4 identical haploid cells would be produced instead of 2 haploid cells.

22 SC.912.L ) Some mutations are lethal to an organism and cause death. However, some mutations are non-lethal and the organism is able to survive and reproduce. In which situation would genetic variation increase due to a mutation? A. Human liver cells mutate, causing liver cancer. B. Human skin cells mutate, causing skin discoloration. C. Apple seed cells mutate, changing the sweetness of the apple. D. Apple stem cells mutate, changing the length of the apple stem.

23 SC.912.L ) The diagram below shows a process that can affect the transmission of genetic information during meiosis. This process leads to which outcome below? A. The production of offspring that are diploid daughter cells. B. The production of offspring with new genetic combinations of traits. C. The production of offspring that are genetically identical to each other. D. The production of offspring that are genetically identical to their parents.

24 SC.912.L ) There are many different types of cells and cellular reproduction. In a human, there are two main types of cells: sex cells and somatic cells, also known as body cells. Which statement correctly describes how sex cells and somatic cells reproduce? A. Cells that undergo mitosis increase the number of somatic cells; cells that undergo meiosis increase the number of sex cells. B. Cells that undergo mitosis keep the same number of somatic cells; cells that undergo meiosis decrease the number of sex cells by half. C. Cells that undergo mitosis increase the number of sex cells; cells that undergo meiosis increase the number of somatic cells. D. Cells that undergo mitosis decrease the number of sex cells by half; cells that undergo meiosis increase the same number of somatic cells.

25 SC.912.N ) A team of students conducted an experiment to study the number of bacterial cells after a cycle of cell division. They observed the bacteria through ten cycles of cell division. The results are shown below. What conclusion can be made from their graphical data? A. Bacteria cells grow faster with each of cycle cell division. B. Bacteria cells grow slower with each cycle of cell division. C. More bacteria cells are present with each cycle of cell division. D. Fewer bacteria cells are present with each cycle of cell division.

26 SC.912.N ) Dr. Peyton observed that many of his chickens were dying. After dissecting the cadavers, he discovered many cancerous tumors in the chickens bodies. He set up an experiment to test how his chickens were contracting these deadly tumors. He selected 14 healthy chickens and divided them into two groups. The experimental group included chickens #8-#14. Every day for a month, Dr. Rous injected the experimental group with a solution of blood extracted from chickens with cancerous tumors. Chickens #1-#7 were used as a control group and were not injected with any solutions. For both groups, Dr. Rous observed whether the previously healthy chickens developed cancerous tumors. The data table is shown below. Using the data table and the reading what conclusion can be made from Dr. Rous experiment? A. The tumors are caused by genetic factors which predispose random chickens to cancerous tumors. B. The tumors are caused by an environmental factor to which all of his chickens are exposed. C. The tumors are caused by bacteria and the bacteria are not transmitted through blood. D. The tumors are caused by a virus and the virus is transmitted through blood.

27 27) A bicep muscle is made up of millions of muscle cells that work together to expand and contract causing movement of your arm. A muscle cell contraction would occur during which part of the cell cycle? A. Cytokinesis B. Interphase C. Meiosis D. Mitosis SC.912.L.16.14

28 SC.912.L ) Juan and Luann are conducting an experiment on the cell cycle. A diagram of the cell cycle is shown below. In their experiment they treated a cell with chemicals that blocked the Gap 2 phase (G2) of Interphase. What would most likely be the immediate result of Juan and Luann s experiment? A. Damaged DNA could be passed on to daughter cells. B. DNA will not be synthesized in the cell. C. Organelles would not be replicated. D. Cell division would not occur.

29 SC.912.L ) The following is a diagram of the major stages of a somatic cell during division. What is the correct sequence in which these stages of cell division occur? A. One, three, five, two, four B. One, three, two, five, four C. Three, one, two, five, four D. Three, one, five, two, four

30 SC.912.L ) During the cell cycle, sister chromatids separate from each other and the spindle fibers begin to shorten. In which phase would this occur? A. Prophase B. Metaphase C. Anaphase D. Telophase

31 SC.912.L ) The cell cycle consists of many phases in the life cycle of a cell. Two of these phases are prophase and telophase. Which statement describes a difference between prophase and telophase? A. Centrioles form in telophase but not in prophase. B. Chromosome coils tightly in prophase and loosens in telophase. C. The spindle fibers form in telophase and break down in prophase. D. The nuclear envelope forms in prophase and breaks down in telophase.

32 SC.912.L ) When a cell in your skin divides, each daughter cell contains organelles, including a nucleus. The nucleus contains a certain number of chromosomes. What would be the best statement about the number of chromosomes in a daughter cell in your skin? A. Each daughter cell has half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. B. Each daughter cell has twice the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. C. Each daughter cell has the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell. D. Each daughter cell has four times the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.

33 SC.912.L ) A micrograph and illustration are shown below for a portion of the cell cycle that produces two daughter cells. Which cell cycle process is shown in the above figure? A. Gap 1 B. Cytokinesis C. Anaphase D. Prophase

34 34) Cancerous lung cells do not respond to the signals that regulate normal growth. Which of the following processes does not function normally in cancerous lung cells? A. Meiosis B. Respiration C. Cell Cycle D. Transpiration SC.912.L.16.8

35 SC.912.L ) A particular species of shark normally reproduces sexually. In captivity, it was found that a female could also reproduce asexually. Which of the following is a negative result from asexual reproduction? A. Decreased number of eggs used B. Increased gene recombinations C. Increased number of males produced D. Decreased biodiversity within the species

36 Answer Key 1. D 21. B 2. A 22. C 3. C 23. B 4. B 24. A 5. D 25. C 6. C 26. D 7. D 27. B 8. D 28. D 9. A 29. D 10. B 30. C 11. A 31. B 12. C 32. C 13. D 33. B 14. B 34. C 15. D 35. D 16. C 17. B 18. D 19. B 20. D

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