# Magnetic Field Sensors (Hall Generators)

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1 54 Hall Sensors General Information Magnetic Field Sensors (Hall Generators) Hall generator theory A Hall generator is a solid state sensor which provides an output voltage proportional to magnetic flux density. As implied by its name, this device relies on the Hall effect. The Hall effect is the development of a voltage across a sheet of conductor when current is flowing and the conductor is placed in a magnetic field. Electrons (the majority carrier most often used in practice) drift in the conductor when under the influence of an externally produced electric field. These moving electrons experience a force proportional and perpendicular to the product of their velocity and the magnetic field vector. This force causes the charging of the edges of the conductor, one side positive with respect to the other, resulting in an internally generated transverse electric field which exerts a force on the moving electrons equal and opposite to that caused by the magneticfieldrelated Lorentz force. The resultant voltage potential across the width of the conductor is called the Hall voltage and can be measured by attaching two electrical contacts to the sides of the conductor. CAUTION: These sensors are sensitive to electrostatic discharge (ESD). Use ESD precautionary procedures when handling, or making mechanical or electrical connections to these devices in order to avoid performance degradation or loss of functionality. Transverse The Hall voltage can be given by the expression: V H = Y B B sinθ where V H = Hall voltage (mv) γ B = (mv per kg, at a fixed current) Axial B = Magnetic field flux density (kg) θ = Angle between magnetic flux vector and the plane of Hall generator Hall generators come in axial and transverse configurations. Transverse devices are generally thin and rectangular in shape. They are applied successfully in magnetic circuit gaps, surface measurements, and general open field measurements. As can be seen from the above formula, the Hall voltage varies with the angle of the sensed magnetic field, reaching a maximum when the field is perpendicular to the plane of the Hall generator. Axial sensors are mostly cylindrical in shape. Their applications include ring magnet center bore measurements, solenoids, surface field detection, and general field sensing. See the individual Hall generator illustrations for physical dimensions. A typical Hall effect measurement scheme I c Hall generator Model 121 CS Current source I c V H I c VH VH R L Digital voltimeter Load resistor required for optimum linearity (if specified) Active area The Hall generator assembly contains the sheet of semiconductor material to which the four contacts are made. This entity is normally called a Hall plate. The Hall plate is, in its simplest form, a rectangular shape of fixed length, width and thickness. Due to the shorting effect of the current supply contacts, most of the sensitivity to magnetic fields is contained in an area approximated by a circle, centered in the Hall plate, whose diameter is equal to the plate width. Thus, when the active area is given, the circle as described above is the common estimation.

2 Hall Sensors General Information Magnetic Field Introduction Technology 55 5 Using a Hall generator A Hall generator is a 4lead device. The control current (I c ) leads are normally attached to a current source such as the Lake Shore Model 121. The Model 121 provides several fixed current values compatible with various Hall generators. B V F I C () (red) conventional current Attaching discrete Hall generators to Lake Shore gaussmeters Lake Shore provides cable assemblies containing the electronic memory (EEPROM) to interface a Hall generator to a gaussmeter. This allows users to assemble a Hall sensor into a difficult to access area prior to gaussmeter attachment. The figure below shows the general cable configuration. While convenient, this method provides less than optimum performance. Because of the intricacies involved with proper calibration, the user is responsible for the measurement accuracy. A probe fully calibrated by Lake Shore is always suggested. Special probe mechanical configurations are also available. F = e(v B) (force on electron) V H () (blue) V H () (clear or yellow) 1.8 m (6 ft) or 6.1 m (20 ft) v e High mobility IIIV semiconductor a) Indium arsenide b) Gallium arsenide I C () (green or black) Caution: Do not exceed the maximum continuous control current given in the specifications. The Hall voltage leads may be connected directly to a readout instrument, such as a high impedance voltmeter, or can be attached to electronic circuitry for amplification or conditioning. Device signal levels will be in the range of microvolts to hundreds of millivolts. The Hall generator input is not isolated from its output. In fact, impedance levels on the order of the input resistance are all that generally exist between the two ports. To prevent erroneous current paths, which can cause large error voltages, the current supply must be isolated from the output display or the down stream electronics. MCBL6 1.8 m (6 ft) long cable for Model 460, 450, and 421 MCBL m (20 ft) long cable for Model 460, 450, and 421 HMCBL6 1.8 m (6 ft) long cable for Model 475 and 455 HMCBL m (20 ft) long cable for Model 475 and 455 Certain Hall generator sensitivity constraints are applicable: Sensitivities between 5.5 and 10.5 mv/kg at 100 ma control current. Sensitivities between 0.55 and 1.05 mv/kgat 100 ma control current. For the Model 475 and 455 gaussmeters 2 m (6 ft) and 6.1 m (20 ft) cables are available. The Model 475 and Model 455 offer the convenience of front panel programming. No external computer is required. The Hall generator serial number and singlepoint sensitivity are directly entered using the keypad. For the Model 460, 450, and 421 gaussmeters 2 m (6 ft) and 6.1 m (20 ft) cables are available. The cable is shipped with a disk containing the small program Hallcal.exe, which is used to transfer the Hall generator singlepoint sensitivity data to the cable EEPROM through the gaussmeter serial port. This program must be installed on a computer. (A null modem cable or adapter is required).

3 56 Hall Sensors Specifications Axial Hall generators Lead colors: Red I C Green I C Blue V H Clear V H HGA mm (0.195 in) diameter 3.18 mm (0.125 in) HGA mm (0.130 in) 4.45 mm (0.175 in) diameter 4.06 mm (0.16 in) 4.24 mm (0.167 in) diameter 2.79 mm (0.11 in) diameter HGA mm (0.075 in) 2.29 mm (0.09 in) active area mm (1.25 in) 127 ±12.7 mm (5±0.5 in) HGA3010*, HGA3030* 6.35 mm (0.25 in) diameter 5.08 mm (0.20 in) 5.08 mm (0.20 in) diameter *The active area is symmetrical with the center line of the assembly and is located approximately in behind the front surface of the assembly HGA2010 HGA2302 HGA2303 HGA3010 HGA3030 Instrumentation quality axial; low temperature coefficient; 4.95 mm (0.195 in) diameter phenolic package high sensitivity mm (0.005 in in) square 3.30 mm (0.13 in) diameter mm ( in) rectangle mm ( in) rectangle 0.76 mm (0.030 in) diameter circle Instrumentation quality axial; phenolic package 0.76 mm (0.030 in) Input resistance 450 Ω to 900 Ω 2 Ω 2 Ω 1 Ω 2 Ω Output resistance 550 Ω to 1350 Ω 2 Ω 2 Ω 1 Ω 2 Ω Nominal control current (I CN ) 1 ma 100 ma (nonheat sinked, 25 C) 10 ma 150 ma 200 ma 300 ma 11 mv/kg to 28 mv/kg 5.5 mv/kg to 11.0 mv/kg 5.5 mv/kg to 11.0 mv/kg 0.55 mv/kg to 1.05 mv/kg 6.0 mv/kg to 10.0 mv/kg ±1 (10 kg to 10 kg) ±1 (30 kg to 30 kg) ±0.30 (10 kg to 10 kg) ±1 (10 kg to 10 kg) (sensitivity vs. field, % rdg) ±2 (20 kg to 20 kg) ±1.5 (100 kg to 100 kg) ±1.25 (30 kg to 30 kg) ±2.8 mv ±100 µv ±50 µv ±75 µv Operating temperature range 40 C to 100 C Temperature coefficient of magnetic sensitivity 0.06%/ C 0.08%/ C 0.005%/ C 0.04%/ C Temperature coefficient of offset ±1.2 µv/ C ±1 µv/ C ±0.4 µv/ C ±0.3 µv/ C Temperature coefficient of resistance 0.15%/ C 0.18%/ C 0.18%/ C 0.15%/ C 0.18%/ C with 36 AWG copper with with with polynylon with polynylon polynylon polynylon polynylon Single sensitivity value at Single sensitivity value at Single sensitivity value at I C = 1 ma I C = 100 ma I C = 100 ma Compatible with Lake Shore Model 410 gaussmeter only Part number HGA2010 HGA2302 HGA2303 HGA3010 HGA3030 General purpose axial Hall generator; plastic package General purpose axial Hall sensor; phenolic shoulder General purpose axial Hall sensor; phenolic shoulder Instrumentation quality axial Hall generator; phenolic package Instrumentation quality axial Hall generator; phenolic package Accessories available CAL1XDATA 1axis Hall generator recalibration with certificate and data

4 Hall Sensors Specifications Magnetic Field Introduction Technology 57 Transverse Hall generators Lead Colors Red I C Green I C (1070 black) Blue V H Clear V H (1070 yellow) HGT mm (0.065 in) C L active area 2.16 mm (0.085 in) 12.7 mm (0.50 in) HGT mm 6.73 mm (0.080 in) (0.265 in) C L active area 3.18 mm (0.125 in) 0.51 mm (0.020 in) over Hall plate 0.64 mm (0.025 in) over leads 0.51 mm (0.020 in) over active area and leads blue epoxy encapsulation HGT mm (0.125 in) 12.7 mm (0.50 in) HGT2101 I c V H 1.65 mm (0.065 in) 0.9 mm (0.035 in) HGT mm (0.175 in) mm (1.25 in) 127 ±12.7 mm (5 ±0.5 in) 3.30 mm (0.130 in) 1.65 mm (0.065 in) 2.5 mm (0.098 in) 1.14 mm (0.045 in) center of active area 1.52 mm (0.060 in) V H I C 0.51 mm (0.020 in) over Hall plate 0.71 mm (0.028 in) over leads 0.76 mm (0.030 in) HGT ± 0.08 mm (0.082 ±0.003 in) 5.21 mm (0.205 in) 5.21 mm (0.205 in) ±12.7 mm (7.5 ±0.5 in) BLACK (34GA Teflon, typ) YELLOW BLUE RED 0.30 mm (0.012 in) (typical) 0.6 ± 0.08 mm (0.024 ±0.003 in) HGT3010, HGT mm (0.240 in) mm (0.63 in) 1.09 mm (0.043 in) 4.57 mm (0.180 in) lead length center of active area protective ceramic case HGT1010 HGT1020 HGT1050 HGT1070* HGT2010** HGT2101** HGT3010 HGT3030 General purpose Low field for General purpose Low cost; Instrumentation quality Instrumentation quality General purpose transverse transverse; magnetic circuit transverse; high sensitivity; transverse; low temp transverse ceramic package flat mount applications high sensitivity surface mount coefficient; ceramic package 1.02 mm (0.040 in) 0.76 mm (0.030 in) mm ( in) rectangle mm (0.005 in) square 1.02 mm (0.040 in) Input resistance 2 Ω 4 Ω 450 Ω to 900 Ω 1 Ω 2 Ω Output resistance 2 Ω 4 Ω 550 Ω to 1350 Ω 600 Ω to 2000 Ω 1 Ω 2 Ω Nominal control current (I CN ) 100 ma 200 ma 1 ma 100 ma (nonheat sinked, 25 C) 250 ma 200 ma 250 ma 300 ma 10 ma 300 ma 8 mv at 100 Oe 0.55 mv/kg to 6.0 mv/kg to 7.5 mv/kg to 12.5 mv/kg 11 mv/kg to 28 mv/kg (min) 1.05 mv/kg 10.0 mv/kg (sensitivity versus field) ±1.0% rdg (10 to 10 kg) Operating temperature range 40 C to 100 C Temperature coefficient of magnetic sensitivity Temperature coefficient of offset Temperature coefficient of resistance with polynylon ±1.0% rdg (0 to 10 kg) ±1% rdg (10 to 10 kg) ±2% rdg (20 to 20 kg) ±2.0% rdg (10 to 10 kg) ±1% rdg (30 to 30 kg) ±1.5% rdg (100 to 100 kg) ±0.30% rdg (10 to 10 kg) ±1.25% rdg (30 to 30 kg) ±100 µv 150 µv ±2.8 mv ±50 µv ±75 µv 0.08%/ C ±1 µv/ C 65 C to 100 C 0.18%/ C 36 AWG copper with poly nylon with poly nylon Single sensitivity value at I C = 100 ma 0.15%/ C ±3 µv/ C with Teflon Single sensitivity value at H = 100 Oe *Cannot be used with Lake Shore gaussmeters. **Compatible with Lake Shore Model 410 gaussmeter only. The Model 2101 is a replacement for the Model 2100; consult Lake Shore for comparison. 40 C to 100 C ±1.2 µv/ C 0.15%/ C with poly nylon Single sensitivity value at I C = 1 ma 40 C to 125 C 40 C to 100 C 0.06%/ C 0.005%/ C max 0.04%/ C ±6 µv/ C 0.3%/ C NA Uncalibrated ±0.4 µv/ C ±0.3 µv/ C 0.15%/ C 0.18%/ C with poly nylon

5 58 Hall Sensors Specifications Cryogenic Hall generators Lead Colors: Red I C Green I C Blue V H Clear V H HGCA3020 HGCT mm (0.25 in) diameter 5.08 mm (0.20 in) 6.10 mm (0.240 in) 16 mm (0.63 in) lead length center active area 5.08 mm (0.20 in) diameter 1.14 mm (0.045 in) protective ceramic case 4.57 mm (0.180 in) Input resistance Output resistance Nominal control current (I CN ) (nonheat sinked, 25 C) (sensitivity vs field) Operating temperature range of magnetic sensitivity of offset of resistance HGCA3020 HGCT3020 Cryogenic axial; Cryogenic transverse; phenolic package ceramic package 0.76 mm (0.030 in) 1.02 mm (0.040 in) 1 Ω 1 Ω 100 ma 300 ma 0.55 mv/kg to 1.05 mv/kg ±1.0% rdg (30 kg to 30 kg) ±2.0% rdg (150 kg to 150 kg) ±200 µv 1.5 K to 375 K see temperature error table below ±0.4 µv/k 0.6%/K with Teflon Temperature error table The magnetic sensitivity generally increases as the temperature drops below 300 K. However, this trend reverses between 200 K and 100 K, and the sensitivity decreases at an increasing rate as the temperature cools. The sensitivity increase versus room temperature is as follows: Axial Hall generators HGA2010 General purpose axial Hall generator; plastic package HGA2302 General purpose axial Hall sensor; phenolic shoulder HGA2303 General purpose axial Hall sensor; phenolic shoulder HGA3010 Instrumentation quality axial Hall generator; phenolic package HGA3030 Instrumentation quality axial Hall generator; phenolic package Transverse Hall generators HGT1010 General purpose transverse Hall generator HGT1020 General purpose transverse Hall generator HGT1050 General purpose transverse Hall generator; flat mount HGT1070 Ferrite embedded transverse Hall generator HGT2010 General purpose transverse Hall generator HGT2101 Surface mount transverse Hall generator HGT3010 Instrumentation quality transverse Hall generator; ceramic package HGT3030 Instrumentation quality transverse Hall generator; ceramic package Cryogenic Hall generators HGCA3020 Cryogenic axial Hall generator; phenolic package HGCT3020 Cryogenic transverse Hall generator; ceramic package Accessories available CAL1XDATA 1axis Hall generator recalibration with certificate and data Change in Magnetic Sensitivity (approximate) Room Temp Ref 200 K 0.05% 100 K 0.04% 80 K 0.09% 20 K 0.4% 4 K 0.7% 1.5 K 1.05%

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