Welcome to the World of Chemistry

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1 Welcome to the World of Chemistry The Language of Chemistry CHEMICAL ELEMENTS - pure substances that cannot be decomposed by ordinary means to other substances. Aluminum Bromine Sodium The Language of Chemistry The elements, their names, and symbols are given on the PERIODIC TABLE How many elements are there? The Periodic Table Glenn Seaborg ( ) Discovered 8 new elements. Only living person for whom an element was named. An atom is the smallest particle of an element that has the chemical properties of the element. Copper atoms on silica surface. See CD- ROM Screen 1.4 Dmitri Mendeleev ( ) Distance across = 1.8 nanometer (1.8 x 10-9 m) Page 1

2 The Atom An atom consists of a nucleus (of protons and neutrons) electrons in space about the nucleus. Electron cloud Nucleus CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS are composed of atoms and so can be decomposed to those atoms. The red compound is composed of nickel (Ni) ) (silver) carbon (C) (black) hydrogen (H) (white) oxygen (O) (red) nitrogen (N) (blue) A MOLECULE is the smallest unit of a compound that retains the chemical characteristics of the compound. Composition of molecules is given by a MOLECULAR FORMULA H 2 O C 8 H 10 N 4 O 2 - caffeine Gold The Nature of Matter Mercury Chemists are interested in the nature of matter and how this is related to its atoms and molecules. Graphite layer structure of carbon atoms reflects physical properties. Chemistry & Matter We can explore the MACROSCOPIC world what we can see to understand the PARTICULATE worlds we cannot see. We write SYMBOLS to describe these worlds. Page 2

3 A Chemist s View of Water A Chemist s View Kinetic Nature of Matter Matter consists of atoms and molecules in motion. Macroscopic Macroscopic Particulate H 2 O (gas, liquid, solid) Symbolic Particulate 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) --> 2 H 2 O(g) Symbolic STATES OF MATTER SOLIDS have rigid shape, fixed volume. External shape can reflect the atomic and molecular arrangement. Reasonably well understood. LIQUIDS have no fixed shape and may not fill a container completely. Not well understood. GASES expand to fill their container. Good theoretical understanding. Physical Properties What are some physical properties? color melting and boiling point odor Physical Changes Some physical changes would be boiling of a liquid melting of a solid dissolving a solid in a liquid to give a homogeneous mixture a SOLUTION. Page 3

4 DENSITY - an important and useful physical property Density = Mercury mass (g) volume (cm3) Platinum Aluminum Relative Densities of the Elements Problem A piece of copper has a mass of g. It is 9.36 cm long, 7.23 cm wide, and 0.95 mm thick. Calculate density (g/cm 3 ). Density = mass (g) volume (cm3) 13.6 g/cm g/cm g/cm 3 Strategy 1. Get dimensions in common units. 2. Calculate volume in cubic centimeters. 3. Calculate the density. SOLUTION 1. Get dimensions in common units mm 1cm = cm 10 mm 2. Calculate volume in cubic centimeters. (9.36 cm)(7.23 cm)(0.095 cm) = 6.4 cm 3 Note only 2 significant figures in the answer! 3. Calculate the density g = 9.0 g/cm3 6.4 cm 3 Density is an INTENSIVE property of matter. does NOT depend on quantity of matter. temperature Contrast with EXTENSIVE depends on quantity of matter. mass and volume. DENSITY Styrofoam Brick Page 4

5 PROBLEM: Mercury (Hg) has a density of 13.6 g/cm 3. What is is the mass of 95 ml of Hg in grams? In pounds? Solve the problem using DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS. PROBLEM: Mercury (Hg) has a density of of 13.6 g/cm 3.. What is is the mass of of ml of of Hg? First, note that 1 cm 3 = 1 ml 1. Convert volume to mass Strategy 1. Use density to calc.. mass (g) from volume. 2. Convert mass (g) to mass (lb( lb) Need to know conversion factor = 454 g / 1 lb PROBLEM: Mercury (Hg) has a density of of 13.6 g/cm 3.. What is is the mass of of ml of of Hg? 95 cm g cm x 10 3 g 1 lb 454 g = 1.3 x 10 3 g 2. Convert mass (g) to mass (lb( lb) = 2.8 lb There s more? Observations! Chemical Properties and Chemical Change Burning hydrogen (H 2 ) in oxygen (O 2 ) gives H 2 O. Chemical change or chemical reaction transformation of one or more atoms or molecules into one or more different molecules. Types of Observations and Measurements We make QUALITATIVE observations of reactions changes in color and physical state. We also make QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENTS,, which involve numbers. Use SI units based on the metric system Page 5

6 UNITS OF MEASUREMENT Use SI units based on the metric system Length Mass Time Temperature Meter, m Kilogram, kg Seconds, s Celsius degrees, C kelvins,, K Units of Length 1 kilometer (km) =? meters (m) 1 meter (m) =? centimeters (cm) 1 centimeter (cm) =? millimeter (mm) 1 nanometer (nm)) = 1.0 x 10-9 meter O H distance = 9.4 x m 9.4 x cm nm Temperature Scales Fahrenheit Celsius Kelvin Anders Celsius Lord Kelvin (William Thomson) Boiling point of water Temperature Scales Freezing point of water Fahrenheit 212 F 180 F 32 F Celsius 100 C 100 C 0 C Kelvin 373 K 100 K 273 K Notice that 1 kelvin degree = 1 degree Celsius o F o C K Temperature Scales 100 o F 38 o C 311 K Calculations Using Temperature Generally require temp s in kelvins T (K) = t ( C) Body temp = 37 C = 310 K Liquid nitrogen = -196 C = 77 K Page 6

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