lat/long/size&shape of Earth 1. Which statement provides the best evidence that Earth has a nearly spherical shape?

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1 Name: Tuesday, September 23, 2008 lat/long/size&shape of Earth 1. Which statement provides the best evidence that Earth has a nearly spherical shape? 1. The Sun has a spherical shape. 3. Star trails photographed over a period of time show a circular pattern. 2. The altitude of Polaris changes in a definite pattern as an 4. The lengths of noontime shadows change observer's latitude changes. throughout the year. 2. Figure 1 The diagram represents Earth at a specific position in its orbit. Arrows indicate radiation from the Sun. Points A through D are locations on Earth's surface. As an observer travels from position B to position D, the altitude of Polaris in the nighttime sky will 1. decrease, only 3. increase, then decrease 2. increase, only 4. remain the same 3. How does the position of Polaris appear to change as an observer travels due north form the Equator? 1. The angle of Polaris above the northern horizon decreases. 3. Polaris appears to move westward. 2. The angle of Polaris above the northern horizon increases. 4. Polaris appears to move eastward.

2 4. Precise measurements of Earth indicate that its polar diameter is 1. shorter than its equatorial diameter 2. longer than its equatorial diameter 3. the same length as its equatorial diameter 5. The best evidence that the Earth has a spherical shape is provided by 1. photographs of the Earth taken from space satellites 3. the changing orbital speed of the earth in its orbit around the Sun 2. the amount of daylight received at the North Pole on 4. the cyclic change of seasons June The approximate latitude of Utica, New York, is ' N ' E ' S ' W

3 7. Figure 2 The diagram shows a time zone map. The dashed boundaries between the time zones are how many degrees of longitude apart? ½

4 8. Figure 3 The map shows the location of major islands and coral reefs in the Hawaiian Island chain. Their ages are given in millions of years. What is the location of Lisianski Island? N 174 E S 174 E N 174 W S 174 W

5 9. The diagrams represent four systems of imaginary lines that could be used to locate positions on a planet. Which system is most similar to the latitude-longitude system used on the Earth?

6 10. Base your answer to the question on the world map below. Letters A through D represent locations on Earth's surface. Figure 4 At which location could an observer not see Polaris in the night sky at any time during the year? 1. A 3. C 2. B 4. D

7 11. Figure 5 Base your answer on the map, which shows the latitude and longitude of five observers, A, B, C, D, and E, on Earth. Which two observers would be experiencing the same apparent solar time? 1. A and C 3. B and E 2. B and C 4. D and E 12. [Refer to figure 1 in question 2] The diagram represents Earth at a specific position in its orbit. Arrows indicate radiation from the Sun. Points A through D are locations on Earth's surface. Locations A, B, C, and D all have the same 1. latitude 3. intensity of insolation 2. longitude 4. noontime altitude of the Sun

8 13. Letters A, B, C, D, and X on the map below represent locations on Earth. The map shows the latitude-longitude grid. Solar time is based on the position of the Sun. If the solar time is 1 p.m. at location X, at which location is the solar time 5 p.m.? 1. A 3. C 2. B 4. D

9 14. The diagram below shows an observer on Earth measuring the altitude of Polaris. What is the latitude of this observer? N N N N

10 15. Figure 6 The diagram illustrates the position of Earth in relation to the Sun on one particular day. Points A, B, C, and D are locations on Earth's surface. In which direction would an observer at point D look to find Polaris? 1. east 3. north 2. west 4. south

11 16. Base your answer to the question on the diagram, which represents a model of the sky (celestial sphere) for an observer in New York State. The curved arrow represents the Sun's apparent path for part of one day. The altitude of Polaris is also indicated. Where is this observer most likely located? Figure 7 1. Massena 3. Slide Mountain 2. Oswego 4. Mt. Marcy 17. [Refer to figure 6 in question 15] The diagram illustrates the position of Earth in relation to the Sun on one particular day. Points A, B, C, and D are locations on Earth's surface. What is the latitude of point A? N N 2. 23½ N 4. 0

12 18. Which diagram represents the approximate altitude of Polaris as seen by an observer located in Syracuse, New York? 19.

13 Base your answer to the question on the map and data tables below. The map shows the location of Birdsville and Bundaberg in Australia. Data table 1 shows the average monthly high temperatures for Birdsville. Data table 2 includes the latitude and longitude, elevation above sea level, and the average rainfall in January for Birdsville and Bundaberg. Which map properly shows the 30 S latitude line? Figure 8 1.

14 2. 3.

15 From which New York State location would Polaris be observed to have an altitude closest to 43 above the northern horizon? 1. Binghamton 3. Watertown 2. Utica 4. New York City

16 21. Base your answer to the question on the diagram below which shows the latitude-longitude grid on a model of Earth. Points W, X, Y, and Z arelocations on Earth's surface. Figure 9 Which point on the diagram correctly locates 15 S 30 W? 1. W 3. Y 2. X 4. Z 22. [Refer to figure 5 in question 11] Base your answer on the map, which shows the latitude and longitude of five observers, A, B, C, D, and E, on Earth. What is the altitude of Polaris (the North Star) above the northern horizon for observer A?

17 23. Figure 10 The map shows a portion of the eastern United States with New York State shaded. The isolines on the map indicate the average yearly total snowfall, in inches, recorded over a 20-year period. Points A through D are locations on Earth's surface. Latitude and longitude coordinates are shown along the border of the map. The latitude and longitude coordinates indicate that this map covers an area that is located 1. south of the Equator and west of the Prime Meridian 3. north of the Equator and west of the Prime Meridian 2. south of the Equator and east of the Prime Meridian 4. north of the Equator and east of the Prime Meridian

18 24. When the time of day for a certain ship at sea is 12 noon, the time of day at the Prime Meridian (0 longitude) is 5 p.m. What is the ship's longitude? W W E E 25. Figure 11 The map shows the location and diameter, in kilometers, of four meteorite impact craters, A, B, C, and D, found in the United States. What is the approximate latitude and longitude of the largest crater? N 111 W N 90 W N 83 W N 104 W 26. Base your answer to this question on the passage below and on the map. The passage describes the Gakkel Ridge found at the bottom of the Arctic Ocean. The map shows the location of the Gakkel Ridge. Locations A, B, C, and D are labeled.

19 The Gakkel Ridge In the summer of 2001, scientists aboard the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Healy visited one of the least explored places on Earth. The scientists studied the 1800-kilometer-long Gakkel Ridge at the bottom of the Arctic Ocean near the North Pole. The Gakkel Ridge is a section of the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge and extends from the northern end of Greenland across the Arctic Ocean floor toward Russia. At a depth of about 5 kilometers below the ocean surface, the Gakkel Ridge is one of the deepest mid-ocean ridges in the world. The ridge is believed to extend down to Earth's mantle, and the new seafloor being formed at the ridge is most likely composed of huge slabs of mantle rock. Bedrock samples taken from the seafloor at the ridge were determined to be the igneous rock peridotite. The Gakkel Ridge is also the slowest moving mid-ocean ridge. Some ridge systems, like the East Pacific Ridge, are rifting at a rate of about 20 centimeters per year. The Gakkel Ridge is rifting at an average rate of less than 1 centimeter per year. This slow rate of movement means that there is less volcanic activity along the Gakkel Ridge than along other ridge systems. However, heat from the underground magma slowly seeps up through cracks in the rocks of the ridge at structures scientists call hydrothermal (hot water) vents. During the 2001 cruise, a major hydrothermal vent was discovered at 87 N latitude 45 E longitude.

20 Figure 12 Which location on the map is the proper location of the major hydrothermal vent described in the passage? 1. A 3. C 2. B 4. D 27. The lines on which set of views best represent Earth's latitude system? 28. As a ship crosses the Prime Meridian, an observer on the ship measures the altitude of Polaris at 60. What is the ship's location? south latitude and 0 longitude 3. 0 latitude and 60 east longitude north latitude and 0 longitude 4. 0 latitude and 60 west longitude

21 29. [Refer to figure 6 in question 15] The diagram illustrates the position of Earth in relation to the Sun on one particular day. Points A, B, C, and D are locations on Earth's surface. During the day represented in the diagram, how would the number of daylight hours for point A compare to the number of daylight hours for point B? 1. Point A has fewer daylight hours than point B. 2. Point A has more daylight hours than point B. 3. Point A has the same number of daylight hours as point B. 30. Figure 13 The diagram shows a planet, Y, and several measurements that were made to determine the circumference of the planet. What is the circumference of planet Y? 1. 9,000 km 3. 16,000 km 2. 12,000 km 4. 24,000 km

22 Answer Key for lat/long/size&shape of Earth

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