Grade 6 Book 3. Map Work

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1 Grade 6 Book 3 Map Work

2 1 Map Work I am my best work a series of road maps, reports, recipes, doodles, and prayers... Audre Lord

3 Book 3 - Map Work Grade 6 Term 1 (Social Science - Geography) Looking at Maps Finding Places on Maps Latitude and Longitude Scale Work THEMES ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS 1. How does our ability to read a map and find our location help us in everyday life? SKILLS Thinking and Reasoning - analysing sources and answering questions insightfully CONCEPTS Location - understanding location in relation to Cape Town, South Africa, the World ATTITUDES AND VALUES Empathy - listening with understanding, showing compassion, giving feedback Responsibility and Meeting Deadlines - tasks completed on time, group and peer respect Looking at Maps (10) South Africa (10) Hemispheres, Latitude and Longitude (20) Latitude and Longitude (30) Continents and Countries (20) Map Work Concepts (20) ASSESSMENTS, TASKS AND PROJECTS 2

4 Looking at Maps Maps are a good way of recording all sorts of different information about the Earth. Some maps give a general picture of the Earth s surface features - the hills and valleys, roads and rivers, towns and countries. Other maps contain much more specialised information. There are weather maps and street plans, charts plotting the courses of rivers and geological maps to show which kinds of rock lie beneath the soil. There are several different map types. Here are some of the most important ones: 1. Political Map A political map shows a province/country/continent, its borders and all the capital cities. A capital city is usually marked with a star. When drawing or colouring in a political map, there are a few rules to remember: A country s name should be in CAPITALS. As shown above, there are no specific colours used in a political map, BUT - a country near the ocean should not be blue AND two neighbouring countries cannot be the same colour. 3

5 2. Physical Map Physical maps illustrate the physical features of an area, such as the mountains, oceans, rivers, deserts and lakes. The water is usually shown in blue. Colours are used to show relief differences in land elevations. Green is typically used at lower elevations, and orange or brown indicate higher elevations. 3. Topographic Map A topographic map is similar to a physical map in that it shows different physical landscape features. They are different, however, because they use contour lines instead of colours to show changes in the landscape. Contour lines on topographic maps are normally spaced at regular intervals to show elevation changes. When lines are close together it shows that the terrain is steep. 4

6 4. Road Map A road map is one of the most widely used map types. These maps show major and minor highways and roads (depending on detail) as well as things like airports, city locations and points of interest like parks, campgrounds and monuments. Major highways on a road map are generally red or blue and larger than other roads, while minor roads are a lighter colour and a narrower line. 5. Thematic Map A thematic map is a map that focuses on a particular theme or special topic and they are different from the other maps because they do not just show natural features like rivers, cities, political subdivisions, elevation or artificial features such as highways. If these items are on a thematic map, they are background information and are used as reference points to enhance the map's theme. 5

7 Location Task - Looking at Maps Complete this political map of Africa (your teacher will give you a bigger copy): a. Colour in each country. Make sure that you follow all of the guidelines on page 2. (3) b. Label the following countries/towns (remember to use CAPITALS for labels): (7) - South Africa - Cape Town - Egypt - Democratic Republic of Congo - Tanzania - Zimbabwe Total: 10 6

8 Location/Thinking and Reasoning Task - South Africa Use the map above to answer the questions. Pay attention to the spelling of words! Non ipad users - your teacher will give you a paper based version of this activity. Total: 10 7

9 Revision task - can you name the map? Click on the icon below to launch the test. Why do we learn about different map types? How will we use this knowledge in the future? Did you know? The oldest map to ever have been discovered by archeologists was drawn some time around the 6th century B.C. It is called Imago Mundi. It was made on a small stone tablet and shows Babylon surrounded by oceans and the rest of the known world at that time. The Ancient Babylonians saw the rest of the world as islands and had names for them: The place of the rising sun" "The sun is hidden and nothing can be seen" "Beyond the flight of birds" 8

10 Finding Places on Maps Co-ordinates are made up of two measurements: degrees north or south of the equator and degrees east or west of the Prime (Greenwich) Meridian. If you take a map of the world and draw in the equator and Prime Meridian, you divide it into 4 sections. You will need to decide which of these blocks you are in when working with co-ordinates: northern and eastern northern and western southern and eastern southern and western When giving co-ordinates you must always give the north or south latitude first, and then the east or west longitude. Degrees Minutes Seconds Hemisphere Cape Town is 33º S and 18º 36 6 E In Grade 6 we round this off: Cape Town is 34º South (of the equator) and 18º East (of the Prime Meridian) 9

11 Latitude and Longitude Lines of Latitude wrap horizontally around the earth parallel to the equator. They are always the same distance apart and are listed as North or South based on their position relative to the equator. Lines of Longitude run vertically from the North Pole to the South Pole. They are closer together at the poles and furthest apart at the equator. They are listed as East or West based on their position relative to the Prime Meridian, which runs through London. Word Associations PRACTICAL CLASS TASK One trick to remember the difference between longitude and latitude is to use word associations. Think of the "long" in "longitude." Longitude lines run "long" from the North Pole to the South Pole. Think of "latitude" as "ladder"-tude. The east-west latitude lines are like the rungs of a ladder, creating horizontal lines around the earth. Your teacher will explore Google Earth (or Apple Maps) with you on the whiteboard in your class. You can also play with the ipad app in your free time or at home. Look at the lines of latitude and longitude. Try to find the seven continents. Find South Africa. Find Cape Town. Explore Cape Town in 3D view. Find Sun Valley. Find Sun Valley Primary. Try to view our school in Street View. 10

12 The most important line of latitude is the equator (0º). It divided the earth into two halves or hemispheres - the Northern Hemisphere to the north of the equator and the Southern Hemisphere to the south of the equator. The most important lines of longitude are the Prime Meridian (or Greenwich Meridian) (0º) and the International Date Line (180º). The Prime Meridian divides the earth into two halves - the Western Hemisphere and the Eastern Hemisphere. Other important lines of latitude are: The North Pole - 90º N The Tropic of Cancer º N The Antarctic Circle º S The Arctic Circle º N The Tropic of Capricorn º S The South Pole - 90º S Click on the link below to view a world map showing important lines of latitude: 11

13 Location Task - Hemispheres, Latitude and Longitude 1. Draw the following lines of latitude and longitude: (2) a. The Equator b. The Prime Meridian 2. Label the FOUR hemispheres. (4) 3. Label the SEVEN continents. (7) 4. Are these sentences true or false? (3) a. The continent of Africa is situated in all four hemispheres b. Egypt is in the northern hemisphere c. South Africa is in the southern hemisphere and the northern hemisphere 5. Name the TWO hemispheres that each of the following continents are in: (4) a. Australasia b. North America Total: 20 12

14 1 cm on the map = 1500km on the ground 13

15 Location Task - Latitude and Longitude How to read latitude and longitude on a map: You can read how far a place is to the north or south of the equator by looking at the lines of latitude. These are marked on the sides of a map. You can read how far a place is to the east or west of the Prime Meridian by looking at the lines of longitude. These are marked along the top and bottom of a map. Lines of latitude and longitude are like grid references. The difference is that they give an exact point and not only a square. This point is given in co-ordinates. Each line on the map on the previous page is drawn in 20 degree spaces. When giving co-ordinates you must always give the north or south latitude first, and then the east or west longitude. Use the map on the previous page to answer the following questions: 1. Name THREE countries that each of the following lines run through. (12) a. 40ºS b. 120ºE c. 70ºN d. 30ºE 2. Which countries have these co-ordinates? (4) a. 20ºN 80ºE b. 40ºN Oº c. 10ºS 50ºW d. 20ºN 50ºE 3. Which cities have these co-ordinates? (4) a. 30ºN 31ºE b. 43ºN 76ºW c. 34ºS 151ºE d. 23ºS 40ºW 4. Give co-ordinates for each of these countries (choose the midpoint): (10) a. South Africa b. Canada c. Brazil d. Australia e. China Total: 30 14

16 The points where the lines of latitude and longitude cross each other are called co-ordinates, Co-ordinates help us find places on maps. Location Task - Finding Places on Maps Remember, to locate co-ordinates on a map, you must do the following: With the index finger of your left hand, follow the line of latitude. With the index finger of your right hand, follow the line of longitude. Always give the north or south latitude first, and then the east or west longitude. GREENLAND JAPAN ECUADOR MALI KENYA SRI LANKA AUSTRALIA HELP! Our ship is in trouble. Position 40 S, 80 E. Read the radio message from the ship. Follow the lines of latitude and longitude on the map to find the place where the sinking ship is located in the Indian Ocean. Use the map above to answer the questions. Discuss the work with your partner and then write your answers in your Thematic book. 1. In what ocean do the equator and the Prime Meridian meet? 2. Name the country where the 40 N line of latitude and the 140 E line of longitude meet. 3. Give the co-ordinates for the following places: a. Kenya b. Mali c. the southern part of Greenland d. Ecuador e. the island of Sri Lanka 15

17 Location Task - Where in the world? Read each pair of latitude and longitude co-ordinates. Then look at the world map on page 11 of your ibook. You can also use the Image Explorer widget below: Is the ipad screen not large enough to see the world map in detail? This widget lets you zoom in to explore a picture in detail. At the end of the activity you can check whether or not your answer to the riddle was correct: Which country do you find at each set of co-ordinates? Write the name of the country. Then rearrange the letters in the boxes to answer the riddle at the bottom of the page. 1. Latitude: 20 N, Longitude: 75 W 2. Latitude: 50 N, Longitude: 10 E 3. Latitude: 20 N, Longitude: 80 E 4. Latitude: 40 S, Longitude: 70 W 5. Latitude: 30 S, Longitude: 20 E 6. Latitude: 40 N, Longitude: 140 E 7. Latitude: 30 N, Longitude: 30 E 8. Latitude: 30 N, Longitude: 150 E Riddle: What has cities without houses, rivers with water and forests without trees? 16

18 Location Task - Continents and Countries Mark the position of the following cities in the map in red and write down the continent to which they belong. 1. Beijing 40 N, 116 E 2. Cairo 30 N, 31 E 3. Cape Town 33 S, 18 E 4. Hong Kong 22 N, 114 E 5. Jakarta 6 S, 106 E 6. Los Angeles 34 N, 118 W 7. Lima 12 S, 77 W 8. London 51 N, 0 W 9. Mexico 19 N, 99 W 10. Moscow 55 N, 37 E Total: 20 17

19 Scale Work Remember that a map is a visual representation of a much larger area of land. In order to be useful, a map must be small enough to be handled by an individual. A full-size map of the Earth would not only be too large to be useful, but it would also be impractical to make. Maps are scaled down so that they fit on the available paper or screen. When scaling down a map, every part of the map is scaled by the same amount. This ensures that every object on the map is the same proportion as everything else on the map. The Graphic Method A Graphic Scale depicts distance using a linear scale (or line scale) - it looks a lot like a ruler. It is used to change distances on the map to real world distances. The Verbal Method The verbal method of depicting scale simply uses words (also called a word scale) to describe the relationship between a map and the real world. For example, a map might say something like, one centimetre on the map equals eight kilometres on the ground. 18

20 Thinking and Reasoning/ Location Task - Map Work Concepts Complete the information below by filling in the missing words which have been given to you in the table below. Some of the words do not fit anywhere. west day landmarks location half borders countries mountains horizontal north vertical longitude seven south 180ºC Earth capital 0ºC equator latitude Physical Map: This type of map shows the of regions such as, rivers, lakes and oceans. Political Map: This type of map shows a country s and names the country s city. Continents: A continent is a piece of land that is sub-divided into. There are continents on our Earth: Asia, Africa, North-America, South America, Antartica, Europe and Australasia. Co-ordinates: By using co-ordinates you are able to find a specific on a map. Lines of Latitude and Longitude are used to determine co-ordinates. Lines of Latitude: These are imaginary lines that run from west to east and give the location of a place on that is north or south of the. 19

21 Lines of Longitude: These are imaginary lines that run from north to south and give the location of a place on Earth that is east or of the Prime Meridian. Hemisphere: A hemisphere refers to any of the Earth. For example, the Southern Hemisphere or Western Hemisphere. Prime Meridian: This is the main line of which is measured as and it divides the Earth into Eastern and Western Hemispheres. International Date Line: This is a line of longitude that is measured as and demarcates the change of one calendar to the next. This occurs as we travel from east to west. Equator: This is the main line of that is defined as 0º and divided the Earth into Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Tropic of Cancer: This line of latitude lies 23.5º of the equator. Tropic of Capricorn: This line of latitude lies 23.5º of the equator. Total: 20 20

22 Sun Valley Group of Schools 2015 xxi

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