GRAMMAR. Eight Parts of Speech. Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Conjunction Preposition Interjection

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1 1 GRAMMAR Eight Parts of Speech Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Conjunction Preposition Interjection Noun Name or classify persons, places, things, and concepts 1. Proper Nouns: Name particular people, places, or things: Dorothy, Kansas, Toto capitalized 2. Common Nouns name general groups, people, places, or things: girl, state, dog capitalized 3. Concrete Nouns name things perceived by the five senses: sky, book, teacher 4. Abstract Nouns name intangible qualities, conditions, or ideas: justice, freedom, peace 5. Nouns of Direct Address When we address someone by name in a sentence: Trevor, I'm here. 6. Collective Nouns A noun which names a group: flock, committee, family, class, team Pronoun Words that can replace or refer to nouns Help make language fast and prevent it from being repetitive The noun that a pronoun replaces is called its antecedent Jen watched a football game. She watched a football game. Mike likes apples. He likes them.

2 2 1. Personal Pronouns refer to specific persons or things have different forms depending on their function in the sentence Singular: I, me, you, she, her, he, him, it Plural: we, us, you, they, them 2. Indefinite Pronouns do not refer to specific persons or things do not require antecedents Common Indefinite Pronouns: all both many one another each most some any everyone none someone anyone everybody no one somebody anybody everything nobody something anything few nothing 3. Relative Pronouns introduce subordinate clauses and refer to a noun or pronoun that the clause modifies Relative Pronouns: that, who, whom, whose, which 4. Interrogative Pronouns introduces questions Interrogative Pronouns: what, who, whom, whose, which 5. Demonstrative Pronouns identify particular people or things Singular: this, that Plural: these, those 6. Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns have the same forms but perform different function Intensive pronouns emphasize their antecedents Reflexive pronouns refer to a receiver of an action who is the same as the doer of an action Singular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself

3 3 Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves 7. Reciprocal Pronouns Refer to the separate parts of a plural antecedent each other, one another Adjective An adjective is a word that modifies a noun or pronoun. We came in a red car. The swim was good. Three (3) degrees of adjectives: Adjectives can change degree of intensity Positive (good) Comparitive (better) Superlative (best) hot, hotter, hottest cold, colder, coldest Modify: Adjectives can modify (change) nouns of the mind. Imagine a racing car... Imagine a junk car... Parallel Construction in lists and compounds: A strong writer will keep lists and compounds grammatically parallel. Adam was adjective and adjective. Adam was tall and skinny. Articles: The three adjectives are: a an the (indefinite) (indefinite) (definite) May I have a book?

4 4 May I have the book? Good or well? Good is an adjective that may modify a noun or pronoun. Well is usually an adverb that may modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. The good athlete runs well. Transitive Verb: an action verb that acts on a direct object (We call them transitive because of the transit of action or energy which takes place when the subject acts on the object.) Rocks hit Sue. Intransitive Verb: an action verb that does not act on a direct object Rocks flew. Active Voice Verb: -an action verb that shows the subject actually acting Joey discussed the problem. Passive Voice Verb: -an action verb that shows the subject only being acted upon The problem was discussed. Active Voice: The meteor struck the ship. Passive Voice: The ship was struck by the meteor. Six Verb Tenses 1. Present 2. Past 3. Future 4. Present Perfect 5. Past Perfect 6. Future Perfect

5 5 Perfect tenses are tenses of things which are finished. Present Perfect = finished now Past Perfect = finished then Future Perfect = will be finished in the future I have munched. I had munched. I shall have munched. Modifies a verb, adjective, or adverb. Adverb - be sure you are not using too many modifiers - very, very, very, weak Preposition A word that shows a relationship between its object (the object of the preposition) and another word in the sentence. Prepositions show... relationships of time (before, during, after) relationships of space (in, on, beside, around) relationships of direction (to, from, toward) Conjunction - A word that joins two words or two groups of words (such as two phrases or clauses) together. Coordinating Conjunction Join two words or groups of words of similar importance (equals). "FANBOYS"

6 6 Subordinating Conjunctions Join something of lesser importance to something of greater importance (unequals). Correlative Conjunctions Multiple word conjunctions such as: either/or and neither/nor Either you or I will arrive. Conjunctive Adverbs Act both as adverbs and conjunction and are commonly such as... used to begin clauses however, furthermore, moreover, nevertheless, accordingly, therefore Conjunctions coordinating conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so subordinating conjunctions: if, as, since, when, etc. correlative conjunctions: either/or, neither/nor, etc. conjunctive adverbs: however, furthermore therefore, etc. Interjections - A word which shows emotion but which has no grammatical purpose oh, wow, yes, no, oops, etc.

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