The Civil War. Chapter 15

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1 The Civil War Chapter 15

2 The Anaconda Plan (Winfield Scott Essentially a siege Hoped for southern unionists to retake control of their governments Not practical because of lack of ships The war unfolded without following a strict plan

3 Advantages and Disadvantages the North Population Manufacturing Railroads Established political system Agricultural production The Burden of conquest Internal resistance Less competent military leadership

4 Advantages and Disadvantages the South the Cause Military Leadership Defense of their homeland Small population No navy a contentious political system Limited power of the national government Lack of Railroads availability of food

5 First Modern War? Use of rifles, more accurate and deadly Use of trenches Cavalry played a secondary role High casualties = replacement of soldiers Modern technology (Union) But, most battle still involved mass charges and hand-tohand combat

6 The Eastern Conflict Fort Sumter April 12, 1861 First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) July,1861 Confederate victory The Peninsula Campaign 1862 McClellan hesitates After Seven s Days Battle the Union withdrew Second Battle of Bull Run 1862 Confederate Victory

7 The Eastern Conflict Battle of Antietam: Sept. 17, 1862 Southern invasion of the North to influence Union politics to win recognition from Great Britain Obtain needed supplies A Union victory Lincoln decides to change the goals of the war

8 Emancipation Proclamation Drafted because of Antietam Ends slavery with a decree, Emancipation Proclamation Transformed war from just being a war to preserve the Union to a war of liberation

9 The Western Conflict 1862 led by U.S. Grant the Union Took control of the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers Admiral Farragut took control of the mouth of the Mississippi Union victory at Shiloh

10 1863 The Turning Point Chancellorsville Confederate victory Stonewall Jackson killed Grant began a siege of Vicksburg for control of the Mississippi Lee decided to invade the North Battle of Gettysburg (July 1-3) The Turning Point of the War

11 After Gettysburg... Vicksburg surrendered Union controlled the Mississippi Union gained control of all of Tennessee Grant earned a reputation of not quitting, aggressive U.S. Grant given control of all U.S. forces and directly takes control of the Army of the Potomac

12 Fall of Atlanta: 1864 After Union s capture of Chattanooga, Sherman s army captured toward Atlanta Sherman marched across Georgia, captured Savannah Dec. 21, 1864: March to the Sea

13 Sherman's March to the Sea an example of Total War Union troops ransacked houses, killed cattle, burned fields, and tore up railroads. Purpose: Destroy the Confederacy s ability to fight

14 Impact of Sherman s Tactics demoralized South destroyed the economy broke morale of civilians and soldiers Influenced the Presidential Election

15 Grant s Success vs. Lee Grant, the Butcher, fought a war of attrition for 10 months April 3, 1865 The Union captured Richmond and Petersburg

16 April 9, 1865 Lee Surrendered At the McLean home in the small village of Appomattox Courthouse, General Robert E. Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia. Grant provided food for the starving Southern army and allowed all its soldiers to return home with their horses and side arms

17 April 14, 1865 Lincoln Assassinated in Ford s Theatre John Wilkes Booth hoped the killing of Lincoln would help revive the Confederacy. He acted as part of a larger conspiracy that included attacks on William Stanton (Secretary of War) and a planned attack on Vice-President Johnson.

18

19 Battle Bull Run/Manassas: 1861 First battle with casualties Just outside of D.C. Thomas J. Jackson brought reinforcements and refused to retreat This earned him the name Stonewall Jackson Confederate army wins Lincoln/North realize this won t be a short war, needed a large, well-trained army

20 The Peninsula Campaign: McClellan hesitates and loses the opportunity for success. Lincoln replaces him with Burnside

21 1862- The War in the West: The Battle of Shiloh: enabled the Union to take control of most of the Mississippi River

22 Battle of Gettysburg: 1863 Lee launched an invasion in the North June 1863, Lee marches north into Pennsylvania Union general fails to stop Lee, is replaced by General George Meade Some of Lee s troops head to Gettysburg searching for shoes Encounter Union cavalry, eventually both armies meet to push one another out of town

23 The Turning Point After long bloody battle, Union wins, great cost of life on both sides Turning point of war, Confederates go on the defensive and slowly lose ground to Union Army

24 Battle of Vicksburg: 1863 Fighting in the West-Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant divided the Confederacy with the Battle of Vicksburg, 1863 (Mississippi) Union army now controls Mississippi River Grant earned a reputation of not quitting, aggressive

25 Gettysburg Address: Nov Dedicates portion of battlefield as a national military cemetery Lincoln s speech was given in honor of the more than 7,000 Union and Confederate soldiers who died at Gettysburg

26 Inroads to South After Gettysburg, Grant gained control of Tennessee Now has access to major railroad lines into Atlanta Prior to battle, Lincoln reorganizes military leadership, places Gen. Ulysses S. Grant in overall command of Union forces Grant clears way for invasion of Georgia Spring 1864, Grant, with Gen. William T. Sherman s help, march southward, attacking Lee s forces relentlessly until South surrenders

27 The Final Battle: 1865 Lee and Grant fight each other in Virginia Lee tried to retreat, growing desperate Grant s cavalry blocks Lee s escape at Appomattox Courthouse, Va Lee surrenders to Grant on April 9, 1865 Grants conditions of surrender very generous There is nothing left for me to do but go and see General Grant, and I would rather die a thousand deaths -General Robert E. Lee

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