OBJECTIVES: WHAT TO KNOW FOR PRACTICAL

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "OBJECTIVES: WHAT TO KNOW FOR PRACTICAL"

Transcription

1 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Individual bones are composed of bone, cartilage, and connective tissue; thus, they are organs, collectively comprising the skeletal system. Functions of the skeletal system are many, including: supporting your body; protection of internal organs; movement of specific body parts or entire body (locomotion); production of blood cells in red bone marrow; storage and release of minerals (esp. Ca and P that comprise the ground substance of bone); energy storage in yellow bone marrow of long bones (adipose tissue/lipids). There are 206 +/- bones that make up the human skeletal system. The actual number of bones for any individual can vary, usually as a result of incomplete fusion of fetal bones. During this lab, we will examine the gross anatomy of bones. For ease of description and discussion, the skeletal system is divided into two components: axial skeleton; appendicular skeleton, although both components act as a single system. OBJECTIVES: WHAT TO KNOW FOR PRACTICAL Identify human bones by their proper anatomical names. Identify structures (in anatomy, referred to as: bone markings) by their proper anatomical names on specific human bones.

2 Depending on your lab instructor, identify whether it is a right or left side bone. Identify sutures of adult and fetal skull. Identify fontanels ( soft spots ) of fetal skull KNOW FOR LAB PRACTICAL: AXIAL SKELETON ADULT SKULL: BONES; MARKINGS Cranial bones: must also identify in cranial cavity o markings: must identify those indicated in cranial cavity Frontal Parietal (pa-rie-e-tul) Occipital (ok-sip-it-ul) o foramen magnum; occipital condyles Temporal (TEM-por-ul) o external auditory meatus; mastoid process; zygomatic process Sphenoid (SFEE-noid) o sella turcica See Textbook (Superior view of floor of cranium), Atlas; located on cranial floor o Superior orbital fissure Ethmoid (ETH-moid) o cribriform plate; crista galli See Textbook (Superior view of floor of cranium), Atlas; both are located on cranial floor o perpendicular plate See Textbook (Anterior view of skull), Atlas; forms superior portion of bony nasal septum

3 o horizontal plate Facial bones o markings Nasal (NAYZ-ul) Vomer (VOE-mer) Maxilla (mak-sil-uh) o infraorbital foramen; palatine process Zygomatic (zie-go-mat-ik) o temporal process Palatine (PAL-uh-tine) BONE not labeled on website o horizontal plate Labeled on website; cursor over number, description box says part of the palatine bone Mandible (MAN-dib-ul) o mental foramen Lacrimal (LAK-rim-ul) ADULT SKULL: SUTURES o location Coronal (kuh-roe-null) o Between frontal and parietal bones Squamous (SKWAY-muss) o Between parietal and temporal bones Lambdoid (LAM-doid) o Between occipital bone and parietal bones

4 Sagittal (SAJ-it-ul) o Between left and right parietal bones FETAL SKULL: NOT on website; refer to Textbook, Atlas FETAL SKULL BONES same location as adult Frontal (2 bones; left and right usually fuse after birth) Occipital Parietal Temporal Sphenoid FETAL SKULL SUTURES same location as adult Coronal Lambdoid Sagittal Squamous FETAL SKULL FONTANELS: FETAL SKULL ONLY Fontanels are commonly referred to as soft spots Anterior Anterolateral Posterior Posterolateral STERNUM - 1 BONE WITH 3 COMPONENTS Component o markings Manubrium (man-oo-bree-um)

5 o clavicular notch; jugular notch See Textbook (Skeleton of the Thorax), Atlas Body Xiphoid process (ZIE-foid process) You do NOT need to know this for the lab practical; included for completeness, so you know the third component o smallest, inferior component o can be viewed on articulated full-skeletons only VERTEBRAE (# IN VERTEBRAL COLUMN) Abbreviation/Name o markings CERVICAL VERTEBRAE (7) C1-C7: C1; C2 are highly modified; given special names C1: Atlas o transverse process; transverse foramen; vertebral foramen [NOTE: The website line points to bone. It should continue to the large hole (=foramen) in the middle of the vertebra] C2: Axis o Lamina; spinous process; vertebral foramen; transverse foramen; transverse process; dens(found only on the Axis) C3-C7 o body; spinous process(usually bifid); transverse foramen; transverse process; vertebral foramen THORACIC VERTEBRAE (12) T1-T12 o body; superior articular facet; pedicle; lamina; spinous process; transverse process; vertebral foramen LUMBAR VERTEBRAE (5)

6 L1-L5 o body; lamina; pedicle; spinous process; transverse process; vertebral foramen; superior articular facet; inferior articular facet SACRUM (SAYK-rum) (1; 5 fused fetal vertebrae) S1-S5; corresponding to fetal vertebrae See Textbook o sacral foramina(=plural form of foramen); sacral canal; median sacral crest; superior articular facet (NOTE: typo on website reads articulating ) COCCYX (KOKS-iks) (1; 4 fused fetal vertebrae) Co1-Co4; corresponding to fetal vertebrae See Textbook APPENDICULAR SKELETON PECTORAL GIRDLE: BONES; MARKINGS Bone o marking Clavicle (KLAV-ik-ul) o acromial end/extremity; sternal end/extremity) Scapula (SKAP-you-luh) o acromion; coracoid process (NOTE: typo in one frame reads coranoid ); glenoid fossa/cavity; lateral (=axillary) border; medial (=vertebral) border; spine UPPER EXTREMITY: BONES; MARKINGS Bone o marking Humerus (HYOO-mer-us) o head; anatomical head/neck; surgical neck; greater tubercle; lesser tubercle; deltoid tuberosity; medial

7 epicondyle; lateral epicondyle; capitulum; trochlea; olecranon fossa Radius (RAY-dee-us) o head; neck; radial tuberosity; styloid process Ulna (ULL-nuh) o olecranon process; styloid process; o trochlear notch (NOT on website SEE: Textbook) Carpals (KARP-ulls) ; identify as carpal bone Metacarpals 1-5 (met-uh-karp-ulls); numbered consecutively o 1 = thumb side; 5 = little finger side; no markings Phalanges (fuh-lan-jees); must reference to metacarpal (e.g. proximal phalange 1) o Fingers; proximal; medial (middle); distal; except thumb: proximal and distal only; no markings PELVIC GIRDLE: BONE; MARKINGS Bone o marking Os coxa (OZ KOKS-uh) o ilium; iliac crest; acetabulum; greater sciatic notch; lesser sciatic notch; pubis; obturator foramen; ischium; ischial tuberosity; posterior inferior spine LOWER EXTREMITY: BONES; MARKINGS Bone o marking Femur (FEEM-ur) o head; neck; greater trochanter; lesser trochanter; linea aspera; medial epicondyle; lateral epicondyle; medial condyle; lateral condyle Tibia (TIB-ee-uh)

8 o lateral condyle; medial condyle; tibial tuberosity; o anterior crest; medial malleolus Fibula (FIB-you-luh) Patella (puh-tell-uh) Tarsals (TARS-ulls) o calcaneus; talus; no markings; identify others as tarsal bone Metatarsals 1-5; numbered consecutively o 1 = big toe side; 5 = little toe side; no markings Phalanges ); must reference to metatarsal (e.g. proximal phalange 1) o Toes; proximal; medial (middle); distal; except big toe : proximal and distal only; no markings PROCEDURE Before coming to the first lab: o Read the table in your text listing bone markings and know, in general, their definition (e.g. foramen is a hole in a bone; process is a structure that projects outward from the bone). o Consult the glossary in your text for pronunciation of markings. I have provided pronunciation guides for bones only. Correct pronunciation will lead to correct spelling. Don t be lazy; look it up! Follow the link below to: 2651 Laboratory Page

9 On the drop-down menu to the left entitled Lab Study Aids, CLICK: Bone Review. o There are two illustrations of a fully articulated skeleton; one shown in anterior view and the other in posterior view. Axial skeleton bones are blue; appendicular skeleton bones are brown. There two fully articulated real human skeletons in the lab. Use these and the illustration mentioned above to reference: articulations (i.e. what bones connect with each other); orientation of specific bones to identify left vs. right, and bone markings. REMEMBER: Always reference and orient bones in relation to the ANATOMICAL POSITION. Bring the: ATLAS OF THE HUMAN SKELETON with you to lab if it was bundled with your text when purchased. The Atlas has excellent photos of real bones. It is a valuable resource. Also, your text has very good drawings of bones, adult articulated skulls with each bone disarticulated, and a lateral view of a fetal skull. In many (most) cases, the Atlas, text, and website provide either a right or left bone to view, but seldom both. Nonetheless, you must identify bones, and their markings from either the right or left side of a skeleton for the lab practical. This situation applies to appendicular bones, and some skull bones. Real-bone and vinyl-cast disarticulated half-skeletons are also in the lab for you to study. All skulls are fully articulated with removable mandible and superior cranial bones to view inside the cranial cavity. These

10 skulls are used for the practical; therefore, individual skull bones (with the exception of the mandible) will not be used. Individual bones, such as: appendicular bones (exception: wrist/hand; ankle/foot); vertebrae; sternum components, etc. are used. Return to the 2651 lab home page. On the drop-down menu to the left, CLICK: Bone Quizzes. Read the instructions at the top of the page. The illustrations are looped and in random order; they are not grouped into particular categories such as axial skeleton, appendicular skeleton, cranial bones, facial bones, etc. Illustrations of individual bones and articulated skulls are provided with numbered labels. Black numbers and lines refer to names of bones; red numbers and lines refer to names of markings and sutures. Cursor over the number. The name of the bone, bone markings, or sutures will appear. In many cases, but not all, a box will appear below the name giving you more specific information. You will be tested on those bones, sutures and markings that appear on the screens, and what I have listed in this text. In addition, you must refer to your Textbook, Atlas, and information given on these pages for some markings, the fetal skull and certain other aspects not covered on the website. CARE, USE, AND STUDY OF BONES

11 Take only one bone, skull, or group of articulated bones (e.g. hand, foot, vertebral column) to your table at a time. Use care in transporting the bone to the lab table. DO NOT DROP THE BONE. This is especially important for the real bones. NEVER grab or carry real-bone skulls by the eye sockets. Put the bone down gently, and only on the rubberized mats at your lab table and when returning it to its original location. When pointing at bones or markings, NEVER use a pen, pencil, or any implement that will leave a mark; it is difficult or impossible to remove these from the bones. Return the bone to its original location when you are finished.

Lab 6, 7, 8: Skeletal System

Lab 6, 7, 8: Skeletal System 107 Lab 6, 7, 8: Skeletal System Adult Skull Bony orbit (FLEZMS) Frontal bone supraorbital foramen frontal sinus Lacrimal bone Ethmoid bone perpendicular plate of ethmoid middle nasal conchae cribriform

More information

Chapter 7: Skeletal System: Gross Anatomy

Chapter 7: Skeletal System: Gross Anatomy I. General Considerations A. How many bones in an average adult skeleton? B. Anatomic features of bones are based on II. Axial Skeleton A. Skull 1. Functionally the skull or cranium: a. Protects the b.

More information

II. Axial Skeleton (Skull, Thoracic Cage, and Vertebral Column)

II. Axial Skeleton (Skull, Thoracic Cage, and Vertebral Column) THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Lab Objectives Students should be able to: 1. Recognize bones and bone markings for the axial and appendicular skeleton 2. Recognize bones disarticulated and/or articulated 3. Identify

More information

LABORATORY EXERCISE 12 BONE STRUCTURE AND CLASSIFICATION

LABORATORY EXERCISE 12 BONE STRUCTURE AND CLASSIFICATION LABORATORY EXERCISE 12 BONE STRUCTURE AND CLASSIFICATION FIG. 12.1 1. Articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage) 6. Periosteum 2. Spongy bone (red marrow) 7. Proximal epiphysis 3. Medullary cavity 8. Diaphysis

More information

GROSS ANATOMY OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

GROSS ANATOMY OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Biology 201 Human Anatomy Fall Semester 2009 GROSS ANATOMY OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM References: Marieb, Mallatt, Wilhelm Human Anatomy, 5th ed. (2008) Marieb, Human Anatomy Laboratory Manual with Cat Dissections

More information

Lab 6, 7, 8: Skeletal System

Lab 6, 7, 8: Skeletal System 107 Lab 6, 7, 8: Skeletal System Adult Skull Bony orbit (FLEZMS) Frontal bone supraorbital foramen frontal sinus Lacrimal bone Ethmoid bone perpendicular plate of ethmoid middle nasal conchae cribriform

More information

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM. Introduction: Bone Markings Overview: Divisions of the skeleton:

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM. Introduction: Bone Markings Overview: Divisions of the skeleton: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Introduction: The skeleton is the body s structural framework and is composed of two of the supportive tissues studied earlier; bone and cartilage. The main functions of the skeleton

More information

Human Anatomy Manual The Skeleton. Carolina Biological Supply company 2700 York Road, Burlington, North Carolina HUMAN SKELETON 1 Survey

Human Anatomy Manual The Skeleton. Carolina Biological Supply company 2700 York Road, Burlington, North Carolina HUMAN SKELETON 1 Survey Carolina Biological Supply company 2700 York Road, Burlington, North Carolina 27215 HUMAN SKELETON 1 Survey 2, 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27.

More information

Labs 6, 7, 8: Skeletal System

Labs 6, 7, 8: Skeletal System 153 Labs 6, 7, 8: Skeletal System Unit 6: Skeletal System: Bone tissue, Bones and Joints (p. 105-152) Ex. 6-1: Histology of Osseous Tissue, p. Model: Osteon 1 Lamella Osteocyte Lacunae Canaliculi Central

More information

THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON BIO 137 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I

THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON BIO 137 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON BIO 137 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I MARY CATHERINE FLATH, Ph.D. Dr. Mary Cat Flath, Copyright 2015 AXIAL SKELETON SKULL (all flat bones) Cranium = 8 bones Facial Skeleton with Mandible

More information

The Skeletal System. Skull, Vertebral Column and Girdles Pages 27-29

The Skeletal System. Skull, Vertebral Column and Girdles Pages 27-29 The Skeletal System Skull, Vertebral Column and Girdles Pages 27-29 Vertebral column Skull Thoracic cage (ribs and sternum) Sacrum Cranium Facial bones Clavicle Scapula Sternum Rib Humerus Vertebra Radius

More information

UNIT 4 - SKELETAL SYSTEM

UNIT 4 - SKELETAL SYSTEM UNIT 4 - SKELETAL SYSTEM BIOL& 251 - Page 1 LAB EQUIPMENT: The bones that are available for study in the lab are human bones and must be treated with the greatest amount of care and respect. Please protect

More information

Riverside Community College Anatomy & Physiology 2B SPRING 2012 EXAM #1-ABC (Nervous System)

Riverside Community College Anatomy & Physiology 2B SPRING 2012 EXAM #1-ABC (Nervous System) Riverside Community College Anatomy & Physiology 2B SPRING 2012 EXAM #1-ABC (Nervous System) Name: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

More information

SKELETAL SYSTEM An Introduction to the Human Adult and Fetal Skeletal System

SKELETAL SYSTEM An Introduction to the Human Adult and Fetal Skeletal System SKELETAL SYSTEM An Introduction to the Human Adult and Fetal Skeletal System Introduction: There are 206 bones that make up the organs of the skeletal system in an adult human. These bones are connected

More information

Chapter 7: Skeletal System. I. Introduction (Outcome 7.1.1) 1. Bones include active, living tissues:

Chapter 7: Skeletal System. I. Introduction (Outcome 7.1.1) 1. Bones include active, living tissues: Shier, Butler, and Lewis: Hole s Human Anatomy and Physiology, 13 th ed. Chapter 7: Skeletal System Chapter 7: Skeletal System I. Introduction (Outcome 7.1.1) 1. Bones include active, living tissues: (Outcome

More information

Unit 4: The Axial Skeleton Bone Packet

Unit 4: The Axial Skeleton Bone Packet (8 th edition) 1 Instructions: Unit 4: The Axial Skeleton Bone Packet 1. Label all of the required (the ones I want you to know) bones and structures of the bones on the pictures shown on the following

More information

Biology 218 Human Anatomy

Biology 218 Human Anatomy Chapter 7 LECTURE OUTLINE A. Divisions of the Skeletal System (p. 164) 1. The 206 named bones in the adult skeleton are grouped in two major divisions (see Table 7.1): i. axial skeleton consists of the

More information

The Skeletal System: Appendicular Division Pearson Education, Inc.

The Skeletal System: Appendicular Division Pearson Education, Inc. 7 The Skeletal System: Appendicular Division Objectives: Distinguish between Left & Right bones Bone markings How they fit together Introduction The appendicular skeleton includes: Pectoral girdle Shoulder

More information

Short Bones < carpals, tarsals. Irregular Bones < facial bones, vertebrae. Flat Bones < cranial bones, ribs, sternum, scapula

Short Bones < carpals, tarsals. Irregular Bones < facial bones, vertebrae. Flat Bones < cranial bones, ribs, sternum, scapula LAB: SKELETAL SYSTEM All the bones of the skeleton can be placed into one of four categories based on the specific morphology of the bone. Long Bones < humerus, ulna, radius, femur < tibia, fibula, phalanges

More information

The Skeletal System: Axial Division Pearson Education, Inc.

The Skeletal System: Axial Division Pearson Education, Inc. 6 The Skeletal System: Axial Division Figure 6.1a The Axial Skeleton SKELETAL SYSTEM 206 AXIAL SKELETON 80 Skull and associated bones 29 Skull Associated bones Cranium Face Auditory ossicles Hyoid 8 14

More information

Anatomy & Physiology 120. Lab 5: Skeletal Lab

Anatomy & Physiology 120. Lab 5: Skeletal Lab Anatomy & Physiology 120 Lab 5: Skeletal Lab What you Need to Know Structure of the bone Identify bones of the articulated skull Articulating surfaces of the bones Bone surface markings Bone organization

More information

Laerdal' Human Anatomy Manual The Skeleton

Laerdal' Human Anatomy Manual The Skeleton Human Anatomy Manual The Skeleton Laerdal Texas P.O. Box 38.226 EM. 116 Gatesville,Texas U.S.A.76528 U.S.A.1-800-433-5539 IntemationaI1-254-865-7221 24 Hour Fax 254-865-8011 ~ Laerdal' TABLE OF CONTENTS

More information

Student Learning Objectives: Structures to be identified:

Student Learning Objectives: Structures to be identified: Skeletal System Student Learning Objectives: Identify the major bones of the skeleton Identify the major landmark structures found on bones of the skeleton Identify the major types of articulations of

More information

Lab Exercise 6. Axial Skeleton. What you need to be able to do on the exam after completing this lab exercise:

Lab Exercise 6. Axial Skeleton. What you need to be able to do on the exam after completing this lab exercise: Lab Exercise 6 Axial Skeleton Textbook Reference: See Chapter 7 What you need to be able to do on the exam after completing this lab exercise: Be able to name all the listed bone and bone features on the

More information

Human Anatomy Study Guide The Skeletal System: Chapter 6

Human Anatomy Study Guide The Skeletal System: Chapter 6 Human Anatomy Study Guide The Skeletal System: Chapter 6 Name Unit Objectives At the end of this unit, you should be able to 1) List the functions of the skeletal system. 2) Describe the anatomy of a long

More information

Vertebral Column and Upper Appendicular Skeleton

Vertebral Column and Upper Appendicular Skeleton Vertebral Column and Upper Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton consists of 80 bones in the head and trunk of the human body. In this lab you will look at the vertebral column, just one part of that

More information

AXIAL SKELETON. I. Skull - two sets of bones, cranial and facial bones

AXIAL SKELETON. I. Skull - two sets of bones, cranial and facial bones AXIAL SKELETON The skeleton can be divided into two parts: the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. -axial: bones of the skull, vertebral column, and bony thorax. -appendicular: bones of the pectoral

More information

Anatomy Lecture Notes Chapters 7 and 8

Anatomy Lecture Notes Chapters 7 and 8 I. axial vs appendicular axial skeleton forms long axis of body: skull, vertebral column, rib cage appendicular - bones of upper and lower limbs including girdles that attach limbs to axial skeleton II.

More information

repetitio est mater studiorum

repetitio est mater studiorum repetitio est mater studiorum repetition is the mother of learning Superficial, big, important Goal: Learn and locate the bones and markings of the axial skeleton Chapter 7, Bones, Part 1: The Axial Skeleton

More information

Anatomy Lab: The skeletal system. Part I: Vertebrae and Thoracic cage

Anatomy Lab: The skeletal system. Part I: Vertebrae and Thoracic cage ANA Lab: Bone 1 Anatomy Lab: The skeletal system Part I: Vertebrae and Thoracic cage Spine (Vertebrae) Body Vertebral arch Vertebral canal Pedicle Lamina Spinous process Transverse process Sup. articular

More information

BONE IDENTIFICATION STATION #1: THE SKULL OBJECTIVE: Skeletal System Activity #4 page 1 SKELETAL SYSTEM

BONE IDENTIFICATION STATION #1: THE SKULL OBJECTIVE: Skeletal System Activity #4 page 1 SKELETAL SYSTEM BIOLOGY II SKELETAL SYSTEM ACTIVITY #3 NAME DATE HOUR BONE IDENTIFICATION OBJECTIVE: 5. Identify the bones in the human skeleton. (pp. 130 149) STATION #1: THE SKULL 1. Color the following bones on the

More information

Skeletal System 2. The Axial Skeleton Consists of bones Three major regions Skull column cage

Skeletal System 2. The Axial Skeleton Consists of bones Three major regions Skull column cage Skeletal System 2 The Axial Skeleton Consists of bones Three major regions Skull column cage The Skull Two sets of bones 1. bones Enclose the brain in the cranial cavity Cranial (calvaria) Cranial : anterior,

More information

ACTIVITY 3: AXIAL SKELETON AND LONG BONE DISSECTION COW BONE DISSECTION

ACTIVITY 3: AXIAL SKELETON AND LONG BONE DISSECTION COW BONE DISSECTION ACTIVITY 3: AXIAL SKELETON AND LONG BONE DISSECTION Objectives: 1) How to get ready: Read Chapter 7, McKinley et al., Human Anatomy, 4e. All text references are for this textbook. Learning the meanings

More information

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I Laboratory Version A Name Section. REVIEW SHEET Exercise 10 Axial Skeleton

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I Laboratory Version A Name Section. REVIEW SHEET Exercise 10 Axial Skeleton ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I Laboratory Version A Name Section REVIEW SHEET Exercise 10 Axial Skeleton 1 POINT EACH. THE SKULL MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The major components of the axial skeleton include the 7. The

More information

Chapter 2 Skeletal System. Copyright 2001, F. A. Davis Company

Chapter 2 Skeletal System. Copyright 2001, F. A. Davis Company Chapter 2 Skeletal System Objectives Describe the functions of the skeleton Differentiate axial and appendicular skeleton Recognize and describe the composition of bone Identify and explain the structure

More information

Biology 2401 A&P I - Notes exam 2 - Skeletal System Ch. 7. Functions of skeletal system : support of body. production of blood cells

Biology 2401 A&P I - Notes exam 2 - Skeletal System Ch. 7. Functions of skeletal system : support of body. production of blood cells Biology 2401 A&P I - Notes exam 2 - Skeletal System Ch. 7 Functions of skeletal system : support of body protection of soft organs production of blood cells movement (as levers) storage of minerals and

More information

Practical 3 Worksheet

Practical 3 Worksheet Anatomical Terms Practical 3 Worksheet Head, Neck, & Spine 1. The frontal bone is rostral /caudal to the occipital bone. 2. The temporal bone is rostral/caudal to the zygomatic bone. 3. The sacrum is rostral/caudal

More information

The Skeleton. Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi. ebneshahidi

The Skeleton. Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi. ebneshahidi The Skeleton Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi Axial Skeleton Skull 22 bones 8 cranial bones Frontal 1 Parietal 2 Occipital 1 Temporal 2 Sphenoid 1 Ethmoid 1 14 facial bones Maxilla 2 Palatine 2 Zygomatic 2 Lacrimal

More information

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM - THE AXIAL SKELETON

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM - THE AXIAL SKELETON THE SKELETAL SYSTEM - THE AXIAL SKELETON Chapter 7 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture 1 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM THE AXIAL SKELETON Skeletal System forms the framework of the body. TYPES OF BONES: FOUR PRINCIPAL

More information

The Skeletal System PART A. PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College

The Skeletal System PART A. PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College The Skeletal System 5 PART A The Axial Skeleton Forms the longitudinal axis of the body Divided into

More information

The Axial Skeleton. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations prepared by Jason LaPres. Lone Star College North Harris Pearson Education, Inc.

The Axial Skeleton. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations prepared by Jason LaPres. Lone Star College North Harris Pearson Education, Inc. 7 The Axial Skeleton PowerPoint Lecture Presentations prepared by Jason LaPres Lone Star College North Harris An Introduction to the Axial Skeleton Learning Outcomes 7-1 Identify the bones of the axial

More information

Human Anatomy Lab #4: Human Anatomy in Perspective

Human Anatomy Lab #4: Human Anatomy in Perspective Human Anatomy Lab #4: Human Anatomy in Perspective Lab #4Table of Contents: Expected Learning Outcomes... 1 Introduction...... 2 Part A: Functions of the Skull... 2 Part B: The Cranium...... 2 Part C:

More information

Axial Skeletal Markings

Axial Skeletal Markings Axial Skeletal Markings AAIMT 0 Revised: October 11, 2006 Axial Skeletal Markings I. Bones A. Classification 1. Long Greatest length in one dimension (Figure 1) Examples: Humerus, Femur 2. Short Cube-like

More information

Ch.7 Anatomy of Bones and Joints

Ch.7 Anatomy of Bones and Joints Ch.7 Anatomy of Bones and Joints General Considerations of Bones 206 bones in adult skeleton 270 at birth, bones fuse over time Terminology Articulate-bones joined or connected together Paired bones Of

More information

The Axial Skeleton I

The Axial Skeleton I Anatomy lecture 2 The Axial Skeleton I Morphological Classification of the Bones According to shape, bones of the body can be classified into: a. Long bones: Have greater length than width. Each consists

More information

Anatomy of Skeletal System

Anatomy of Skeletal System Anatomy of Skeletal System two main subdivisions of skeletal system: axial : skull, vertebral column, rib cage appendicular: arms and legs and girdles Bone Markings: Foramen: opening in bone passageway

More information

Objectives AXIAL SKELETON. 1. Frontal Bone. 2. Parietal Bones. 3. Temporal Bones. CRANIAL BONES (8 total flat bones w/ 2 paired)

Objectives AXIAL SKELETON. 1. Frontal Bone. 2. Parietal Bones. 3. Temporal Bones. CRANIAL BONES (8 total flat bones w/ 2 paired) Objectives AXIAL SKELETON SKULL 1. On a skull or diagram, identify and name the bones of the skull 2. Identify the structure and function of the bones of the skull 3. Describe how a fetal skull differs

More information

Chapter 08 Lecture Outline

Chapter 08 Lecture Outline Chapter 08 Lecture Outline See separate PowerPoint slides for all figures and tables preinserted into PowerPoint without notes. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or

More information

BLUE SKY SCHOOL OF PROFESSIONAL MASSAGE AND THERAPEUTIC BODYWORK. Musculoskeletal Anatomy & Kinesiology AXIAL SKELETON

BLUE SKY SCHOOL OF PROFESSIONAL MASSAGE AND THERAPEUTIC BODYWORK. Musculoskeletal Anatomy & Kinesiology AXIAL SKELETON BLUE SKY SCHOOL OF PROFESSIONAL MASSAGE AND THERAPEUTIC BODYWORK Musculoskeletal Anatomy & Kinesiology AXIAL SKELETON MSAK101-I Session 2 Learning Objectives: 1. List the bones and structures of the Axial

More information

2 Axial skeleton: skull, vertebral column, thoracic cage

2 Axial skeleton: skull, vertebral column, thoracic cage CHAPTER 7-SKELTON FILL-IN NOTES 2 Axial skeleton: skull, vertebral column, thoracic cage 3 Fig. 7.1 pg. 199 4 I. Skull:two parts A. Cranium: Encloses and protects the brain - 8 bones B. Facial bones: 14

More information

Avian Skeletal Morphology

Avian Skeletal Morphology Avian Skeletal Morphology To Know Skull/Face Trunk and Limbs Cranium Vertebral ribs Occipital Sternal ribs Parietal Uncinate processes Frontal Sternum and keel Squamosal Pectoral Girdle Jugal (zygomatic

More information

Unit 4: Skeletal System Test Review Test Review

Unit 4: Skeletal System Test Review Test Review Name: Period: Unit 4: Skeletal System Test Review Test Review 1. List four functions of the skeletal system: a. b. c. d. 2. Define ossification and identify the roles of the osteoblasts, osteocytes, and

More information

Cervical Vertebrae. Seven vertebrae (C 1 -C 7 ) are the smallest, lightest vertebrae C1 & C2 are atypical C 3 -C 7 are typical

Cervical Vertebrae. Seven vertebrae (C 1 -C 7 ) are the smallest, lightest vertebrae C1 & C2 are atypical C 3 -C 7 are typical Cervical Vertebrae Seven vertebrae (C 1 -C 7 ) are the smallest, lightest vertebrae C1 & C2 are atypical C 3 -C 7 are typical Oval body & wider side to side short spinous processes (except C7) and is bifid

More information

Anatomy & Physiology I Self Quiz (Skeletal System Part I)

Anatomy & Physiology I Self Quiz (Skeletal System Part I) Pro: Manhal Chbat Anatomy & Physiology I Self Quiz (Skeletal System Part I) 1. The skeleton does all of the following EXCEPT: A) supports soft tissues. B) provides attachment points for tendons of skeletal

More information

relating to head, neck, and trunk 206 bones organized into structural framework Skeleton relating to limbs and their attachments to the axis

relating to head, neck, and trunk 206 bones organized into structural framework Skeleton relating to limbs and their attachments to the axis Axial relating to head, neck, and trunk Skeleton 206 bones organized into structural framework Appendicular relating to limbs and their attachments to the axis Function of Skeletal System 1. Movement 2.

More information

Human Functional Anatomy Musculoskeletal Lab Notes and Guide

Human Functional Anatomy Musculoskeletal Lab Notes and Guide Human Functional Anatomy Musculoskeletal Lab Notes and Guide Station #1 Vertebral Column Objectives: 1. Identify the parts of a typical vertebrae 2. Identify cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal

More information

Introduction to Human Osteology Chapter 4: Vertebral Column and Thorax

Introduction to Human Osteology Chapter 4: Vertebral Column and Thorax Introduction to Human Osteology Chapter 4: Vertebral Column and Thorax Roberta Hall Kenneth Beals Holm Neumann Georg Neumann Gwyn Madden Revised in 1978, 1984, and 2008 The Vertebral Column and Thorax

More information

ANATOMICAL CHECKLIST FOR SKELETAL SYSTEM

ANATOMICAL CHECKLIST FOR SKELETAL SYSTEM ANATOMICAL CHECKLIST FOR SKELETAL SYSTEM I. AXIAL SKELETON A. CRANIAL BONES (8) 1. Frontal Bone (1) a. supraorbital margin b. supraorbital foramen c. frontal sinuses 2. Parietal Bones (pa-ri-i-tal) (2)

More information

SKELETAL SYSTEM (APPENDICULAR SKELETON) AND ARTICULATIONS

SKELETAL SYSTEM (APPENDICULAR SKELETON) AND ARTICULATIONS 5-1 LAB 5: SKELETAL SYSTEM (APPENDICULAR SKELETON) AND ARTICULATIONS In this lab you will continue to study the skeletal system. appendicular skeleton and associated articulations (joints) The focus of

More information

Biology 13A Lab #5: Skeletal System

Biology 13A Lab #5: Skeletal System Biology 13A Lab #5: Skeletal System Lab #5 Table of Contents: Expected Learning Outcomes... 43 Introduction..... 44 Activity 1: Getting Wired... 44 Activity 2: Variation due to Sex and Age. 47 Expected

More information

Bones and Features of the Skull - Cranium and Face Sheri Amsel

Bones and Features of the Skull - Cranium and Face Sheri Amsel Bones and Features of the Skull - Cranium and Face Bones of the Cranium The cranium is made up of 8 s: 2 (paired) parietal s 2 (paired) s occipital sphenoid ethmoid The is located on the anterior cranium

More information

Bones of the Lower Extremity

Bones of the Lower Extremity Bones of the Lower Extremity Bones of the Pelvic Girdle The pelvic (or hip) girdle: Attaches the lower limbs to the axial skeleton Transmits the weight of the upper body to the lower limbs Supports the

More information

Internal obliques External obliques Rectus abdominus. Masseter (arch) Inserts at hyoid bone. Sternohyoid

Internal obliques External obliques Rectus abdominus. Masseter (arch) Inserts at hyoid bone. Sternohyoid Compresses Abdomen Originates at zygomatic area Inserts at hyoid bone Originates at iliac crest Medially rotates shoulder Elevates ribs Originates at mastoid process Inserts at skin/muscles at corner of

More information

Classification of bones Any bone may be classified into one of the following groups:

Classification of bones Any bone may be classified into one of the following groups: Skeletal system This system is made up of hard tissues like bone and cartilages. This system gives form and shape to animal body The skeleton of a living animal is made up living structures of bones. The

More information

INTRODUCTION TO ADJUSTIVE TECHNIQUE: Body Planes:

INTRODUCTION TO ADJUSTIVE TECHNIQUE: Body Planes: INTRODUCTION TO ADJUSTIVE TECHNIQUE: Body Planes: In order to describe the direction of movement, the body is divided into planes. The body is positioned in the anatomical position, which means the body

More information

Ch. 5 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Ch. 5 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Ch. 5 THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Functions of Bones Support For the body and soft organs Protection For brain, spinal cord, and vital organs Movement Levers for muscle action Functions of Bones Storage Minerals

More information

The Skeletal System Musculo-Skeletal System

The Skeletal System Musculo-Skeletal System The Skeletal System The skeletal system includes connective tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments. These tissues are combined with the various types of muscle tissue to form the Musculo-Skeletal

More information

Introduction. I. Objectives. II. Introduction. A. To become familiar with the terms of direction and location.

Introduction. I. Objectives. II. Introduction. A. To become familiar with the terms of direction and location. E X E R C I S E Introduction I. Objectives A. To become familiar with the terms of direction and location. B. To become familiar with different types of planes and sections. C. To learn the names and locations

More information

Figure ) The area that causes the lengthwise growth of a long bone is indicated by letter. Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref:

Figure ) The area that causes the lengthwise growth of a long bone is indicated by letter. Answer: E Diff: 2 Page Ref: Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, Chapter 5 The Skeletal System 9e (Marieb) Short Answer Figure 5.1 Using Figure 5.1, identify the following: 1) Spongy bone is indicated by letter. Answer: A Diff:

More information

its lifetime. The skeletal system is divided into: 1. Axial Division: bones of the body s axis (skulll, ribs, vertebrae)

its lifetime. The skeletal system is divided into: 1. Axial Division: bones of the body s axis (skulll, ribs, vertebrae) The Axial Skeleton The basic features of the human skeleton have been shaped by evolution, but the detailed characteristics of each bone reflect the stresses put on it. As a result, the skeleton changes

More information

SESSION 8: SUPPORT SYSTEMS IN ANIMALS PART 1

SESSION 8: SUPPORT SYSTEMS IN ANIMALS PART 1 SESSION 8: SUPPORT SYSTEMS IN ANIMALS PART 1 KEY CONCEPTS hydrostatic skeleton, exoskeleton, endoskeleton examples, advantages & disadvantages human skeleton parts of axial & appendicular skeleton functions

More information

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Upper Limb The upper limb consists of the arm (brachium), forearm (antebrachium), and hand (manus) Thirty-seven bones form the skeletal framework of each upper limb Arm Articulates with the scapula

More information

UNIT 4 - SKELETAL SYSTEM LECTURE NOTES

UNIT 4 - SKELETAL SYSTEM LECTURE NOTES UNIT 4 - SKELETAL SYSTEM LECTURE NOTES 4.01 FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM A. Support 1. Provides a framework for the body. 2. Supports soft tissue. 3. Serves as a point of attachment for ligaments,

More information

- the bones of your skeleton. OSSEUS TISSUE. - Bone tissue is a type of connective tissue. Your skeleton performs several important functions.

- the bones of your skeleton. OSSEUS TISSUE. - Bone tissue is a type of connective tissue. Your skeleton performs several important functions. SKELETAL SYSTEM - the bones of your skeleton. OSSEUS TISSUE. - Bone tissue is a type of connective tissue. Your skeleton performs several important functions. - support and protection - body movement -

More information

Skeletal System Review. 2. Define ossification and identify the roles of the osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts in the growth of bones.

Skeletal System Review. 2. Define ossification and identify the roles of the osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts in the growth of bones. Skeletal System Review 1. List four functions of the skeletal system: a. b. c. d. 2. Define ossification and identify the roles of the osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts in the growth of bones. 3.

More information

How many bones do humans have?

How many bones do humans have? How many bones do humans have? When you were born you had over 300 bones. As you grew, some of these bones began to fuse together. The result? An adult has only 206 bones! Factoids: The human hand has

More information

Radiographs of the Skeletal System. X-rays can locate metal objects your child has swallowed, such as this jack.

Radiographs of the Skeletal System. X-rays can locate metal objects your child has swallowed, such as this jack. Radiographs of the Skeletal System X-rays can locate metal objects your child has swallowed, such as this jack. Radiographs You should be able to identify the following fractures. You should be able to

More information

A&P 1 Skeletal Lab Guide #1 - Overview of the Skeleton Pre-lab Exercises

A&P 1 Skeletal Lab Guide #1 - Overview of the Skeleton Pre-lab Exercises A&P 1 Skeletal Lab Guide - Overview of the Skeleton Pre-lab Exercises 1 Have someone in your group read the following out loud, while the others read along: Skeletal Labs are commonly done over 2 weeks,

More information

Practical 2 Worksheet- KEY

Practical 2 Worksheet- KEY Practical 2 Worksheet- KEY Upper Extremity BONES 1. Which end of the clavicle is on the lateral side (acromial or sternal)? Acromial 2. Describe the difference in the appearance of the acromial and sternal

More information

The Axial Skeleton Eighty bones segregated into three regions

The Axial Skeleton Eighty bones segregated into three regions The Axial Skeleton Eighty bones segregated into three regions Skull Vertebral column Bony thorax Bones of the Axial Skeleton Figure 7.1 The Skull The skull, the body s most complex bony structure, is formed

More information

There are 24 movable vertebrae in the spine; 7 in the cervical curvature, 12 in the thoracic curvature, 5 in the lumbar curvature.

There are 24 movable vertebrae in the spine; 7 in the cervical curvature, 12 in the thoracic curvature, 5 in the lumbar curvature. 1 Vertebral Column and thoracic cage Danil Hammoudi.MD The spine, or vertebral column, is composed of 5 main segments: the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar curvatures, the sacrum, and the coccyx. Each of

More information

ANAT2111 Introductory Anatomy

ANAT2111 Introductory Anatomy ANAT2111 Introductory Anatomy Lecture 4 Articular System Structural Classes of Joints Based on the type of substance between articulating bones: Fibrous joints - least mobile Cartilaginous joints Synovial

More information

The human skeleton anterior view

The human skeleton anterior view 45 The human skeleton anterior view cranium clavicle mandible scapula sternum rib humerus vertebra radius innominate sacrum ulna carpals metacarpals phalanges femur patella tibia fibula tarsals metatarsals

More information

Axial Skeleton. Objectives. Pre-Lab Quiz. Materials EXERCISE

Axial Skeleton. Objectives. Pre-Lab Quiz. Materials EXERCISE EXERCISE The Axial Skeleton Objectives Name the three parts of the axial skeleton. Identify the s of the axial skeleton, either by examining isolated s or by pointing them out on an articulated skeleton

More information

Anatomy and Physiology Unit 4 Test Review Skeletal System (Chapter 5)

Anatomy and Physiology Unit 4 Test Review Skeletal System (Chapter 5) Anatomy and Physiology Unit 4 Test Review Skeletal System (Chapter 5) Name KEY Hour Date 1. What are the major organs/structures that comprise the skeletal system? Bones, Joints, Cartilages, and ligaments.

More information

Skeletal System. Overview and General Anatomy

Skeletal System. Overview and General Anatomy Skeletal System Overview and General Anatomy 1 Bone Functions Support Protection Movement Storage Fat, calcium, phosphorus Hemopoiesis While we usually think of the skeleton as just our support framework,

More information

Lab 5 Overview of the Skeleton: Classification and Structure of Bones and Cartilages Exercise 9 The Axial Skeleton Exercise 10

Lab 5 Overview of the Skeleton: Classification and Structure of Bones and Cartilages Exercise 9 The Axial Skeleton Exercise 10 Lab 5 Overview of the Skeleton: Classification and Structure of Bones and Cartilages Exercise 9 The Axial Skeleton Exercise 10 Overview of the Skeleton Locate the important cartilages in the human skeleton

More information

Chapter 5 - The Skeletal System

Chapter 5 - The Skeletal System Chapter 5 - The Skeletal System I. BONES: AN OVERVIEW - skeleton includes bone and articulations (joints). Each has bone tissue, cartilage, fibrous tissue in tendons and ligaments, and others. - ossification:

More information

Biology 105 Human Biology PRACTICE MIDTERM EXAM 1. Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 5e (Martini/Nath) Chapter 6 The Skeletal System

Biology 105 Human Biology PRACTICE MIDTERM EXAM 1. Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 5e (Martini/Nath) Chapter 6 The Skeletal System Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 5e (Martini/Nath) Chapter 6 The Skeletal System Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Functions of the skeletal system include A) support. B) storage. C) protection. D) blood

More information

HEAD ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

HEAD ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY HEAD ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY IDENTIFY FACTS AND FUNCTIONS OF HEAD ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY WITH 70% ACCURACY. TERMINOLOGY CRANIAL BONES FACIAL BONES TEMPORMANDIBULAR JOINT MUSCLES OF MASTICATION TERMINOLOGY

More information

Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, 4th Edition Martini / Bartholomew

Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, 4th Edition Martini / Bartholomew Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology, 4th Edition Martini / Bartholomew 6 The Skeletal System PowerPoint Lecture Outlines prepared by Alan Magid, Duke University Slides 1 to 137 The Skeletal System The skeletal

More information

Human Anatomy & Physiology

Human Anatomy & Physiology PowerPoint Lecture Slides prepared by Barbara Heard, Atlantic Cape Community College Ninth Edition Human Anatomy & Physiology C H A P T E R 7 The Skeleton: Part B Annie Leibovitz/Contact Press Images Vertebral

More information

There are approximately 206 bones in your body and 22* of them belong to your skull.

There are approximately 206 bones in your body and 22* of them belong to your skull. There are approximately 206 bones in your body and 22* of them belong to your skull. These bones, all irregular in shape, fit together like puzzle pieces. *Except your teeth. While teeth are bone-like

More information

Skeletal System: Axial and Appendicular Skeleton (Chapter 7 & 8)

Skeletal System: Axial and Appendicular Skeleton (Chapter 7 & 8) Skeletal System: Axial and Appendicular Skeleton (Chapter 7 & 8) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College Eastern Campus Primary Sources for figures and content:

More information

Skeletal system. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Skeletal system. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. NURS1004 Week 6 Part I Prepared by Didy Button Skeletal system An Introduction to the Skeletal System The Skeletal System Includes: Bones of the skeleton Cartilages, ligaments, and connective tissues 6-1

More information

UNIT 2 - CHAPTER 7: SKELETAL SYSTEM. 1. Classify bones according to their shapes, and name an example from each group. (p. 200)

UNIT 2 - CHAPTER 7: SKELETAL SYSTEM. 1. Classify bones according to their shapes, and name an example from each group. (p. 200) LEARNING OUTCOMES: 7.1 Bone Shape and Structure UNIT 2 - CHAPTER 7: SKELETAL SYSTEM 1. Classify bones according to their shapes, and name an example from each group. (p. 200) 2. Describe the macroscopic

More information

Unit 2. The skeletal system. In this unit. Warm-up. Listening. Bones of the human skeleton. Exercise 1 4

Unit 2. The skeletal system. In this unit. Warm-up. Listening. Bones of the human skeleton. Exercise 1 4 Unit 2 The skeletal system In this unit Bones of the human skeleton: medical and common names Plural nouns of Latin origin Describing bones Adjectives describing anatomical position Bone structure Osteoporosis

More information

There are approximately 206 bones in your body and 22* of them belong to your skull.

There are approximately 206 bones in your body and 22* of them belong to your skull. There are approximately 206 bones in your body and 22* of them belong to your skull. These bones, all irregular in shape, fit together like puzzle pieces. *Except your teeth. While teeth are bone-like

More information

Skeletal System Chapter 5. ii. Spongy Bone 1. Small needle-like pieces of bone 2. Many open spaces. o Contain mostly compact bone (Ex.

Skeletal System Chapter 5. ii. Spongy Bone 1. Small needle-like pieces of bone 2. Many open spaces. o Contain mostly compact bone (Ex. Skeletal System Chapter 5 i BNES: AN VERVIEW Parts of the Skeletal System 1. Bones 2. Joints 3. Cartilage 4. Ligaments Divided into Two Divisions 1. Axial 2. Appendicular Functions of the Bones: 1. Support

More information

Sports Medicine 15 Unit I: Anatomy Part 1 Anatomical Overview Bones, Joints, Anatomical positions

Sports Medicine 15 Unit I: Anatomy Part 1 Anatomical Overview Bones, Joints, Anatomical positions Sports Medicine 15 Unit I: Anatomy Part 1 Anatomical Overview Bones, Joints, Anatomical positions By Andrew Morgan BPE/Bed, c.2003 Anatomy deals with the structure of the human body, and includes a precise

More information