8.2: Sources of Evidence for Evolution pg

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "8.2: Sources of Evidence for Evolution pg"

Transcription

1 8.2: Sources of Evidence for Evolution pg Key Terms: fossil record, transitional fossil, vestigial structure, biogeography, homologous structures, analogous structures, embryology. Darwin was not the first person to conclude that life had changed over time. He was the first to publish (The Origins of Species) his theory, and support it with evidence (biologists, geologists, geographers, and paleontologists), the theory of evolution through natural selection. Fossils: Evidence for the History of Life Sedimentary rock with fossils showed evidence of species that lived in the past. Burgess Shale fossil beds in British Columbia sow fossil records dating back to the Cambrian period, 500 million years ago. Some of the fossils found are early ancestors of common animals of today. Fossil records are the remains and traces of past life that are found in sedimentary rock; it reveals the history of life on Earth and the kinds of organisms that were alive in the past.

2 Figure 8.5: This geological time scale illustrates the approximate appearance in the fossil record if various organisms during Earth s 4.6 billion year history.

3 Evidence from the Fossil Record 1. Fossils found in young, shallower layers of rock (closer to the surface) are much more similar to species alive today, than fossils of older, deeper layers. 2. Fossils appear in chronological order in the rock layers. 3. Not all organisms appear in the fossil record at the same time. (Fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, birds, order of vertebrate evolution). *changes were slow and took millions of years Figure 8.6: Paleontologists have used fossils to trace the evolution of the modern camel. The Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene epochs are subdivisions of the Cenozoic era. Evidence from Transitional Fossils Transitional fossils have helped scientists to better understand the evolutionary processes and relationships between groups of organisms, linking the past with the present. Transitional fossils is a fossil that shows intermediary links between groups of organisms and shares characteristics common to two separate groups.

4 Fossil of whales from 36 to 55 million years ago linked present day whales to terrestrial ancestors. Whales which had tiny hind limbs; Basilosaurus and Dorudon, but led aquatic lives, were useless and reduced forms of structures functional in terrestrial organisms. These features are called vestigial structures, and can be found in modern whales (Baleen Whales). e.g.: Whales and transitional forms. The link between; Pakicetus, Ambulocetus, Rodhocetus and modern whales is supported by Ambulocetus which is the transitional fossil, linking Pakicetus (terrestrial) to Rodhocetus (aquatic). Vestigial structure is a structure that is a reduced version of a structure that was functional in the organism s ancestors. Figure 8.7: Fossil evidence suggests that modern toothed whales evolved from a terrestrial ancestor, Pakicetus attocki. Basilosaurus and Dorudon, not shown in this illustration, appear more recently in the fossil record, after the appearance of Rodhocetus Archaeopteryx: A Transitional Fossil Archaeopteryx showed a transitional stage in the fossil record because this species had characteristics of both reptiles (teeth, claws, bony tail, and scales) and birds (feathers). The Archaeopteryx is a link between the Atrociraptor (dinosaur) and modern birds.

5 Evidence from Biogeography Darwin s and Wallace s observations used to support theories were based on biogeography. They hypothesized that species evolve in one location and then spread to other regions. a) Geographically close environments (desert and forest habitats of South America) are more likely to be populated by related species than are locations that are geographically separate but environmentally similar (deserts in Africa and Australia). b) Animals found on islands often closely resemble animals found on the closest continent. Therefore the animals on the island have evolved from the mainland animals, and the population becoming adapted over time to the island environment. c) Fossils of the same species can be found on the coastline of neighbouring continents. Therefore the continents are not in a fixed location, but are slowly moving away from each other. (Gondwana, 510 million years ago: South America, Africa, India, Antarctica, and Australia of today) d) Closely related species are almost never found in exactly the same location or habitat. Biogeography is the study of the past and present geographical distribution of species populations. Figure 8.8: As the southern supercontinent Gondwana broke apart about 150 million years ago, the land masses that became the current continents of Africa, Australia, South America, and Antarctica were isolated from each other Learning Check: questions 7 12 pg. 336

6 Evidence from Anatomy Homologous structures are structures that have similar structural elements and origin but have a different function. Analogous structures are structures of organisms that do not have a common evolutionary origin but perform similar functions. Figure 8.9: These vertebrates have the same basic arrangement of bones (as indicated by the colours), but the bones have different uses. Evidence from Embryology Embryos of different organisms, exhibit similar stages of embryonic development, can be used to determine evolutionary relationships. Similarities between embryos in related groups (such as vertebrates) point to a common ancestral origin. Embryology is the study of early, pre-birth stages of an organism s development. Figure 8.10: Similarities in the embryos of fish, birds, and mammals provide evidence of evolution of species from a common ancestor.

7 Evidence from DNA Evolutionary relationships between species are reflected in their DNA. Scientists can determine how closely related two organisms are by comparing their DNA sequences. The more similar the sequences are the greater the opportunity that they came from a common ancestor. Darwin s theory of natural selection is supported by genetic evidence and our understanding of genetic inheritance. Figure 8.11: DNA evidence supports conclusions about relationships and common ancestry provided by other areas of evidence. Review Questions: questions 1 17 pg. 340 Activity 8.2: Homologies of Hair 1 3 pg. 337 Study Guide: Evidence for Evolution: Fossils and Biogeography (8.2) questions 1 3, SG More Evidence for Evolution: Anatomy, Embryology, and DNA (8.2) questions 1 4, SG Bringing It All Together, SG. 127 Practice Test questions 1 14, SG

Evidence for evolution factsheet

Evidence for evolution factsheet The theory of evolution by natural selection is supported by a great deal of evidence. Fossils Fossils are formed when organisms become buried in sediments, causing little decomposition of the organism.

More information

Developing a Theory of Evolution

Developing a Theory of Evolution CHAPTER 8 Developing a Theory of Evolution Specific Expectations In this chapter, you will learn how to... C2.1 use appropriate terminology related to evolution (8.1, 8.2) C2.3 analyze, on the basis of

More information

Ch. 6 Change Over Time

Ch. 6 Change Over Time Ch. 6 Change Over Time What Evolution is NOT! A theory that describes the origin of life on Earth. A theory that is just a theory. A theory that say that organisms TRY to adapt to their environment. A

More information

Evidence for Evolution

Evidence for Evolution Evidence for Evolution Evidence for evolution 1. Fossil record and age of the earth (using radioactive dating) 2. Biogeography 3. Homologous structures and vestigial organs 4. Embryology 5. Cellular and

More information

Geologic Time Scale and Change Over Time. Module 1.4

Geologic Time Scale and Change Over Time. Module 1.4 Geologic Time Scale and Change Over Time Module 1.4 Geologic Time Scale Geologic time Earth s history is divided into time units that make up a geologic time scale. Time units on the scale are based on

More information

Chapter 9: Earth s Past

Chapter 9: Earth s Past Chapter 9: Earth s Past Vocabulary 1. Geologic column 2. Era 3. Period 4. Epoch 5. Evolution 6. Precambrian time 7. Paleozoic era 8. Shield 9. Stromatolite 10. Invertebrate 11. Trilobite 12. Index fossil

More information

CH. 15: Darwin s Theory of Evolution. Directions: READ ch. 15 in your textbook and use the note outline to help you answer the questions below.

CH. 15: Darwin s Theory of Evolution. Directions: READ ch. 15 in your textbook and use the note outline to help you answer the questions below. CH. 15: Darwin s Theory of Evolution Directions: READ ch. 15 in your textbook and use the note outline to help you answer the questions below. 1. What is a theory? 2. Describe some of the ideas that influenced

More information

How Populations Evolve

How Populations Evolve How Populations Evolve Darwin and the Origin of the Species Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, November 24, 1859. Darwin presented two main concepts: Life

More information

Section 10.1. KEY CONCEPT There were theories of biological and geologic change before Darwin.

Section 10.1. KEY CONCEPT There were theories of biological and geologic change before Darwin. Section 10.1 KEY CONCEPT There were theories of biological and geologic change before Darwin. Early scientists proposed ideas about evolution. Evolution is the biological change process by which descendants

More information

Whale Adaptations. WHALES: Giants of the Deep Activities for Grades 6-8. Overview. Background for Educators. Before Your Visit

Whale Adaptations. WHALES: Giants of the Deep Activities for Grades 6-8. Overview. Background for Educators. Before Your Visit Whale Adaptations Overview Before Your Visit: Students will read and discuss an informational text on whale evolution. During Your Visit: Students will observe the materials in the Whales: Giants of the

More information

Fossil Timeline. Cenozoic Era MODERN MAMMALS MONKEYS AND APES EARLY MAMMALS. UKS2 Topic: Dinosaurs and Fossils Block A: Fossils and Rocks Session 2

Fossil Timeline. Cenozoic Era MODERN MAMMALS MONKEYS AND APES EARLY MAMMALS. UKS2 Topic: Dinosaurs and Fossils Block A: Fossils and Rocks Session 2 Hamilton Trust. This activity may be adapted for use by a teacher in his/her own class. It may not be reproduced for any other purpose. MODERN MAMMALS MONKEYS AND APES EARLY MAMMALS Fossil Timeline Cenozoic

More information

3 The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras

3 The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras CHAPTER 9 3 The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras SECTION A View of Earth s Past KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What were the periods of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras? What

More information

GEOS 2900 Sample Activity

GEOS 2900 Sample Activity GEOS 2900 Sample Activity 3.3 GEOLOGIC TIME Introduction: Now that we understand how fossils and rocks are used to interpret past events and to put relative and absolute ages on these events, we can begin

More information

What two Assumptions did Darwin have to arrive at BEFORE he could form his theories of evolution?

What two Assumptions did Darwin have to arrive at BEFORE he could form his theories of evolution? Influences on Darwin s Thinking: What ideas did each of the listed names below contribute to Darwin s thinking about evolution? (very brief) Georges Buffon: Jean Baptiste Lamarck: Charles Lyell: Thomas

More information

Evolution (18%) 11 Items Sample Test Prep Questions

Evolution (18%) 11 Items Sample Test Prep Questions Evolution (18%) 11 Items Sample Test Prep Questions Grade 7 (Evolution) 3.a Students know both genetic variation and environmental factors are causes of evolution and diversity of organisms. (pg. 109 Science

More information

Name: DUE: May 2, 2013 Ms. Galaydick. Geologic Time Scale Era Period End date (in millions of years) Cenozoic Quaternary present

Name: DUE: May 2, 2013 Ms. Galaydick. Geologic Time Scale Era Period End date (in millions of years) Cenozoic Quaternary present Name: DUE: May 2, 2013 Ms. Galaydick Objective: Use the diagrams to answer the questions for each set: USING SCIENCE SKILLS PART #1 Geologic Time Scale Era Period End date (in millions of years) Cenozoic

More information

Population Genetics and Evolution - Practice

Population Genetics and Evolution - Practice Name: Period: Date: Population Genetics and Evolution - Practice Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Indicate your answer choice with an UPPER

More information

CCR Biology - Chapter 10 Practice Test - Summer 2012

CCR Biology - Chapter 10 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Name: Class: Date: CCR Biology - Chapter 10 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the term for a feature

More information

Big Idea: The types and characteristics of organisms change over time.

Big Idea: The types and characteristics of organisms change over time. Big Idea: The types and characteristics of organisms change over time. Unit 1 Lesson 4 The History of Life on Earth Essential Question: How has life on Earth changed over time? Copyright Houghton Mifflin

More information

-most form when things die and are buried by sediments. -sediments slowly harden into rock and preserve the shapes or organisms

-most form when things die and are buried by sediments. -sediments slowly harden into rock and preserve the shapes or organisms Fossils -preserved remains or traces of living things -most form when things die and are buried by sediments -sediments slowly harden into rock and preserve the shapes or organisms -found in sedimentary

More information

Unit 5: Formation of the Earth

Unit 5: Formation of the Earth Unit 5: Formation of the Earth Objectives: E5.3B - Explain the process of radioactive decay and explain how radioactive elements are used to date the rocks that contain them. E5.3C - Relate major events

More information

Name Date Class. Geologic Time. The largest division of the geologic time scale is the. the most recent of which is the. which is divided into three

Name Date Class. Geologic Time. The largest division of the geologic time scale is the. the most recent of which is the. which is divided into three Chapter Content Mastery Geologic Time LESSON 1 Directions: Use the following terms to complete the concept map below. Cenozoic eon eras Mesozoic Paleozoic Phanerozoic The largest division of the geologic

More information

The Geological Time Scale. Geological time scaled to a cross-country tour of Canada.

The Geological Time Scale. Geological time scaled to a cross-country tour of Canada. Dryden The Geological Time Scale Geological time scaled to a cross-country tour of Canada. The universe came into existence about 14 billion years ago, through an explosion known as the "big bang". ur

More information

This is a series of skulls and front leg fossils of organisms believed to be ancestors of the modern-day horse.

This is a series of skulls and front leg fossils of organisms believed to be ancestors of the modern-day horse. Evidence of Evolution Background When Charles Darwin first proposed the idea that all new species descend from an ancestor, he performed an exhaustive amount of research to provide as much evidence as

More information

Animal Evolution and Diversity

Animal Evolution and Diversity Animal Evolution and Diversity Evolution Q: How have animals descended from earlier forms through the process of evolution? WHAT I KNOW WHAT I LEARNED 26.1 How did invertebrates evolve? SAMPLE ANSWER:

More information

Life History. Precambrian Time 4.6 BYA MYA 7/24/2009

Life History. Precambrian Time 4.6 BYA MYA 7/24/2009 Life History Scientists have developed a model of the history of life on Earth called the geologic time scale. Significant developments and extinctions of plant and animal life can be explained on the

More information

Darwin s Theory of Evolution

Darwin s Theory of Evolution Darwin s Theory of Evolution Evolution Q: What is natural selection? 16.1 What patterns of biodiversity did Darwin observe aboard the Beagle? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER: On each island that Darwin visited,

More information

Evolution and Darwin

Evolution and Darwin Evolution and Darwin Evolution The processes that have transformed life on earth from it s earliest forms to the vast diversity that characterizes it today. A change in the genes!!!!!!!! Old Theories of

More information

Interest Grabber. Half of a Half of a Half...

Interest Grabber. Half of a Half of a Half... Interest Grabber Section 17-1 Half of a Half of a Half... Some forms of chemical elements are unstable that is, they break down into other substances. Like the decay of leftovers in your refrigerator,

More information

Placing rocks in their proper sequence or formation. Doesn t give us the date of when something occurred.

Placing rocks in their proper sequence or formation. Doesn t give us the date of when something occurred. Placing rocks in their proper sequence or formation. Doesn t give us the date of when something occurred. With layers of undeformed sedimentary rocks, a layer of rock that below another is older than the

More information

Name Class Date WHAT I KNOW. about how organisms have changed. grown in complexity over time.

Name Class Date WHAT I KNOW. about how organisms have changed. grown in complexity over time. History of Life Evolution Q: How do fossils help biologists understand the history of life on Earth? 19.1 How do scientists use fossils to study Earth s history? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER: Fossils give

More information

UKS2 Topic: Dinosaurs and Fossils Block F : Dinosaur Species Session 3. Dino dictionary. Ecosystem

UKS2 Topic: Dinosaurs and Fossils Block F : Dinosaur Species Session 3. Dino dictionary. Ecosystem Dino dictionary Ecosystem a collection of organisms (plant, animal and other living organisms) living together with their environment and functioning together, and needing each other for different reasons.

More information

8.1: Scientific Contributions to a Theory of Evolution pg

8.1: Scientific Contributions to a Theory of Evolution pg 8.1: Scientific Contributions to a Theory of Evolution pg. 326-331 Key Terms: paleontology, catastrophism, uniformitarianism, inheritance of acquired characteristics, theory of evolution by natural selection,

More information

Unit 2 Lesson 4 The Geologic Time Scale. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 2 Lesson 4 The Geologic Time Scale. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Once Upon a Time How have geologists described the rate of geologic change? Geology is the scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of Earth and the processes that shape it. Early geologists

More information

not to be republished NCERT Heredity and Evolution CHAPTER 9 Multiple Choice Questions

not to be republished NCERT Heredity and Evolution CHAPTER 9 Multiple Choice Questions CHAPTER 9 Heredity and Evolution Multiple Choice Questions 1. Exchange of genetic material takes place in (a) vegetative reproduction (b) asexual reproduction (c) sexual reproduction (d) budding 2. Two

More information

Chapter 10. The Theory of Evolution Worksheets. (Opening image copyright Daniel Korzeniewski, Used under license from Shutterstock.com.

Chapter 10. The Theory of Evolution Worksheets. (Opening image copyright Daniel Korzeniewski, Used under license from Shutterstock.com. Chapter 10 The Theory of Evolution Worksheets (Opening image copyright Daniel Korzeniewski, 2010. Used under license from Shutterstock.com.) Lesson 10.1: Darwin and the Theory of Evolution Lesson 10.2:

More information

6 th Grade PSI. Evidence of Common Ancestry and Diversity. Fossils. Slide 2 / 106. Slide 1 / 106. Slide 3 / 106. Slide 4 / 106.

6 th Grade PSI. Evidence of Common Ancestry and Diversity. Fossils. Slide 2 / 106. Slide 1 / 106. Slide 3 / 106. Slide 4 / 106. Slide 1 / 106 Slide 2 / 106 New Jersey Center for Teaching and Learning Progressive Science Initiative This material is made freely available www.njctl.org at and is intended for the non-commercial use

More information

Practice Questions 1: Evolution

Practice Questions 1: Evolution Practice Questions 1: Evolution 1. Which concept is best illustrated in the flowchart below? A. natural selection B. genetic manipulation C. dynamic equilibrium D. material cycles 2. The diagram below

More information

Geologic Time. Life and Geologic Time

Geologic Time. Life and Geologic Time chapter 10 3 Geologic Time section 1 Life and Geologic Time Before You Read Think about a giraffe you have seen. On the lines below, describe the giraffe and tell why you think it has a long neck. What

More information

Geologic Time. Middle and Recent Earth History. Before You Read. Read to Learn

Geologic Time. Middle and Recent Earth History. Before You Read. Read to Learn chapter 10 3 Geologic Time section 3 Middle and Recent Earth History What You ll Learn about Mesozoic and Cenozoic life-forms how plate tectonics affected organisms during the Mesozoic Era when humans

More information

The Geologic Time Scale

The Geologic Time Scale The Geologic Time Scale Months, years, or even centuries aren't very helpful for thinking about Earth's long history. Because the time span of Earth's past is so great, geologists use the geologic time

More information

Directed Reading. Section: The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras

Directed Reading. Section: The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras Skills Worksheet Directed Reading Section: The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras 1. How many marine organisms died at the end of the Permian Period? a. 50% b. 78% c. 90% d. 100% 2. How many land organisms died

More information

The Secrets of Fossils Lesson by Tucker Hirsch

The Secrets of Fossils Lesson by Tucker Hirsch The Secrets of Fossils Lesson by Tucker Hirsch Video Titles: Introduction: A New view of the Evolution of Animals Cambrian Explosion Jenny Clack, Paleontologist: The First Vertebrate Walks on Land Des

More information

Darwin & His Theories

Darwin & His Theories Darwin & His Theories The Origin of Species In 1859, Darwin publish his ideas in a book, The Origin of Species Stated animals and plants changed gradually over time; still changing. Animals living today

More information

evolutionary biologists

evolutionary biologists 1 evolution 2 Darwin On November 24, 1859, Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Darwin made two points in The Origin of Species: Today s organisms descended

More information

7 N + e + ν e. (1) P(t)dt = e t/t 0

7 N + e + ν e. (1) P(t)dt = e t/t 0 Evidence for evolution from fossils For a much more detailed discussion of evidence for evolution, see http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/comdesc/ Our second lecture on evidence for evolution will concentrate

More information

Geologic Time Scale Notes

Geologic Time Scale Notes Name: Date: Period: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Notes Essential Question: What is the geologic time scale? Vocabulary: Geology: the scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of Earth and the processes that

More information

Cenozoic Oceans Much cooler in general One reason in moving of Australia away from Antarctica, allowing a circumpolar current Animals without much fat

Cenozoic Oceans Much cooler in general One reason in moving of Australia away from Antarctica, allowing a circumpolar current Animals without much fat Cenozoic Marine Predators Cenozoic Oceans Much cooler in general One reason in moving of Australia away from Antarctica, allowing a circumpolar current Animals without much fat or a high metabolism tend

More information

In this session we will focus on summarising what you need to know about:

In this session we will focus on summarising what you need to know about: SESSION 15: HISTORY OF LIFE ON EARTH KEY CONCEPTS In this session we will focus on summarising what you need to know about: Terminology and Definitions Life's History Mass Extinctions Key Events in the

More information

Birds and Reptiles: Similarities

Birds and Reptiles: Similarities Origins of Birds Birds and Dinosaurs? It s hard to imagine, but scientist believe that birds are most closely related to a type of dinosaur! Does that mean that birds are reptiles? No, but they do have

More information

Understanding Geologic Time from the Texas Memorial Museum

Understanding Geologic Time from the Texas Memorial Museum Understanding Geologic Time from the Texas Memorial Museum Objective To gain a better understanding of the geologic time scale. Materials Activity 1: Geologic Time Geologic Time Activity Worksheet (included)

More information

1. Geological time. James Hutton. Charles Lyell. Thomas Malthus. I.A. Darwin s evidence. 2. Population growth & struggle for existence

1. Geological time. James Hutton. Charles Lyell. Thomas Malthus. I.A. Darwin s evidence. 2. Population growth & struggle for existence Evolution by Natural Selection (Ch. 24) I. Introduction: Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection A. Darwin s evidence B. Darwin s theory I.A. Darwin s evidence II. The Patterns of Evolution A. Have species

More information

Worksheet: The geological time scale

Worksheet: The geological time scale Worksheet: The geological time scale Senior Phase Grade 7-9 Learning area: Natural Science Strand: Life and living Theme: Biodiversity, change and continuity Specific Aim 1: Acquiring knowledge of natural

More information

NOTES: CH 19 - The Fossil Record; History of Life; Macroevolution

NOTES: CH 19 - The Fossil Record; History of Life; Macroevolution NOTES: CH 19 - The Fossil Record; History of Life; Macroevolution Vocabulary: Paleontologist Fossil record extinct Relative dating Absolute dating Geologic time scale Objectives: What are fossils? How

More information

The Fossil Record. MasterFoods Fossil Gallery Year Name

The Fossil Record. MasterFoods Fossil Gallery Year Name The Fossil Record MasterFoods Fossil Gallery Year 7-10 At School Discuss why you think fossils are useful and what they teach us about life on Earth In the Museum go to the MasterFoods Fossil Gallery.

More information

BIO 1: Review: Evolution

BIO 1: Review: Evolution Name: Class: Date: ID: A BIO 1: Review: Evolution True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. Radiometric dating measures the age of an object by measuring the proportions of radioactive

More information

Unit 2 Lesson 4 The Geologic Time Scale. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 2 Lesson 4 The Geologic Time Scale. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Once Upon a Time How have geologists described the rate of geologic change? Geology is the scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of Earth and the processes that shape it. Early geologists

More information

EVOLUTION I: EVIDENCES OF EVOLUTION

EVOLUTION I: EVIDENCES OF EVOLUTION EVOLUTION I: EVIDENCES OF EVOLUTION Evolution, an important biological principle, is frequently misunderstood by layman, as well as quite a few scientists. Theologians often attack the concept as being

More information

Timeline (Triassic-Jurassic-Cretaceous)

Timeline (Triassic-Jurassic-Cretaceous) Timeline (Triassic-Jurassic-Cretaceous) Dinosaurs existed long ago during the Mesozoic ( middle life ) era. This was between the Palaeozoic ( old life ) era and the Cenozoic ( new life ) era. We are still

More information

Evolution Unit Plan. Stage 1: Identify Desired Results Title: Evolution of Life

Evolution Unit Plan. Stage 1: Identify Desired Results Title: Evolution of Life Evolution Unit Plan Stage 1: Identify Desired Results Title: Evolution of Life Unit Description: Evolution is a topic that is fundamental to the study of Biology, linking areas such as genetics, molecular

More information

Theory of Evolution. A. the beginning of life B. the evolution of eukaryotes C. the evolution of archaebacteria D. the beginning of terrestrial life

Theory of Evolution. A. the beginning of life B. the evolution of eukaryotes C. the evolution of archaebacteria D. the beginning of terrestrial life Theory of Evolution 1. In 1966, American biologist Lynn Margulis proposed the theory of endosymbiosis, or the idea that mitochondria are the descendents of symbiotic, aerobic eubacteria. What does the

More information

AP BIOLOGY 2013 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP BIOLOGY 2013 SCORING GUIDELINES AP BIOLOGY 2013 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 Fossils of lobe-finned fishes, which are ancestors of amphibians, are found in rocks that are at least 380 million years old. Fossils of the oldest amphibian-like

More information

II. Grade 7, A Trip Through TIME! 2006 Colorado Unit Writing Project 1

II. Grade 7, A Trip Through TIME! 2006 Colorado Unit Writing Project 1 A Trip Through TIME! Grade Level or Special Area: 7 th Grade Science Written by: Beth Spencer, Aurora Academy Charter School, Aurora, Colorado Length of Unit: 5 lessons (approximately 8 days long; one

More information

Evidence for Evolution The Fossil Record

Evidence for Evolution The Fossil Record Evidence for Evolution The Fossil Record 1 Outline Conditions for fossilization Relative and absolute dating of fossils The story of life on Earth Missing links? NOTE: many slides in the four evolution

More information

Geologic Time Scale Newcomer Academy Visualization Three

Geologic Time Scale Newcomer Academy Visualization Three Geologic Time Newcomer Academy Visualization Three Chapter Subtopic/Media Key Points of Discussion Notes/Vocabulary Introduction Title NA NA Various Pictures of Geologic Time It s About Time Personal Timeline

More information

Classification and Evolution

Classification and Evolution Classification and Evolution Starter: How many different ways could I split these objects into 2 groups? Classification All living things can also be grouped how do we decide which groups to put them into?

More information

Exploring Geologic Time Poster Illustrated Teacher's Guide

Exploring Geologic Time Poster Illustrated Teacher's Guide Exploring Geologic Time Poster Illustrated Teacher's Guide #35-1145 Paper #35-1146 Laminated Background Geologic Time Scale Basics The history of the Earth covers a vast expanse of time, so scientists

More information

1. Over the past century, several scientists around the world have made the following observations:

1. Over the past century, several scientists around the world have made the following observations: Evolution Keystone Review 1. Over the past century, several scientists around the world have made the following observations: New mitochondria and plastids can only be generated by old mitochondria and

More information

Name Class Date. 7. What happened to Pangaea during the Mesozoic Era? 8. What caused mountain ranges to form during the Mesozoic Era?

Name Class Date. 7. What happened to Pangaea during the Mesozoic Era? 8. What caused mountain ranges to form during the Mesozoic Era? Skills Worksheet 9-3 Directed Reading Section: The Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras 1. How many marine organisms died at the end of the Permian Period? a. 50% c. 90% b. 70% d. 100% 2. How many land organisms

More information

Principles of Evolution - Origin of Species

Principles of Evolution - Origin of Species Theories of Organic Evolution X Multiple Centers of Creation (de Buffon) developed the concept of "centers of creation throughout the world organisms had arisen, which other species had evolved from X

More information

A BRIEF HISTORY OF LIFE ON EARTH. Objectives. The Ever- Changing Earth

A BRIEF HISTORY OF LIFE ON EARTH. Objectives. The Ever- Changing Earth A BRIEF HISTORY OF LIFE ON EARTH Objectives Describe how Earth s environment has changed over the past 4 billion years. Identify the minimum requirements for life. Describe the difference between prokaryotic

More information

Fossils have been found in Precambrian rocks 3.5 billion years old.

Fossils have been found in Precambrian rocks 3.5 billion years old. 98 Family Histories i n v e s t i g at i o n Fossils have been found in Precambrian rocks 3.5 billion years old. But most have been found in rocks of the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic eras, which are

More information

THE HISTORY OF EARTH

THE HISTORY OF EARTH THE HISTORY OF EARTH The Age of the Earth 4.6 billion years old = 4,600,000,000 Image courtesy of NASA, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/image:the_earth_seen_from_apollo_17.jpg#file The earth s 4.6 billion

More information

Geologic Time The first geologic time scale was proposed in 1913 by the British geologist Arthur Holmes (1890-1965). This was soon after the discovery

Geologic Time The first geologic time scale was proposed in 1913 by the British geologist Arthur Holmes (1890-1965). This was soon after the discovery Geologic Time Geologic Time The first geologic time scale was proposed in 1913 by the British geologist Arthur Holmes (1890-1965). This was soon after the discovery of radioactivity, and using it, Holmes

More information

7.2 The Evolution of an Idea

7.2 The Evolution of an Idea immutable unable to change 7.2 The Evolution of an Idea Dating back at least as far as Aristotle (384 322 BCE), most Europeans accepted the idea that Earth and all living things had been created in their

More information

B2 6 Old and New Species

B2 6 Old and New Species B2 6 Old and New Species 62 minutes 62 marks Page of 22 Q. Fossils give us evidence for the theory of evolution. The diagrams show how a fish became a fossil. (a) In the sentences below, cross out the

More information

Ch. 13 How Populations Evolve Period. 4. Describe Lamarck s proposed theory of evolution, The Theory of Acquired Traits.

Ch. 13 How Populations Evolve Period. 4. Describe Lamarck s proposed theory of evolution, The Theory of Acquired Traits. Ch. 13 How Populations Evolve Name Period California State Standards covered by this chapter: Evolution 7. The frequency of an allele in a gene pool of a population depends on many factors and may be stable

More information

A photographic collage depicting the diversity and evolution of life on Earth through the last 600 million years. The oldest fossils are at the

A photographic collage depicting the diversity and evolution of life on Earth through the last 600 million years. The oldest fossils are at the A photographic collage depicting the diversity and evolution of life on Earth through the last 600 million years. The oldest fossils are at the bottom and youngest at the top. The size of each time interval

More information

Fossils. Beyond the Book. FOCUS Book

Fossils. Beyond the Book. FOCUS Book FOCUS Book Fossils Choose one type of fruit and collect two very similar samples of it. Design a test to see how one sample changes over two weeks when it is buried in soil (like a fossil). You might measure

More information

Taxonomy Five Kingdoms

Taxonomy Five Kingdoms Taxonomy Five Kingdoms R.H Whittaker 1969 Three Domains Evolutionary Trees Cladistics: Cladograms and molecular data What are the tools used by scientists to observe and understand evolutionary relationships?

More information

Name Date Per Integrated Science: Plate Tectonics. Geologic Time WebQuest

Name Date Per Integrated Science: Plate Tectonics. Geologic Time WebQuest Name Date Per Integrated Science: Plate Tectonics Geologic Time WebQuest If the age of the Earth were to be scaled to the length of the Golden Gate Bridge (about 6000 ft), then 600 years of civilization

More information

limestone sandstone fault

limestone sandstone fault ACTIVITY 1: SANDWICH STRATIGRAPHY Using a sandwich model, students will determine the relative ages of different sedimentary rock layers and experiment with folding and faulting. OBJECTIVES Students will

More information

Seventh Grade History of the Earth and Life Forms Assessment

Seventh Grade History of the Earth and Life Forms Assessment Seventh Grade History of the Earth and Life Forms Assessment 1a. Fossils can be thought of as a record of the: a. past b. present c. future 1b. What do we look at when we want to see a record of past life

More information

Prehistoric Earth: Teacher s Guide

Prehistoric Earth: Teacher s Guide Prehistoric Earth: Teacher s Guide Grade Level: 1-2 Curriculum Focus: Earth Science Lesson Duration: Two class periods Program Description How do geologists know what happened on Earth billions of years

More information

Earth Science Chapter 9 Section 1 Review

Earth Science Chapter 9 Section 1 Review Name: Class: Date: Earth Science Chapter 9 Section 1 Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Wegener s continental drift hypothesis stated

More information

[chime plays] [music plays]

[chime plays] [music plays] [chime plays] [CLARKE (narration):] The animal kingdom is made up of major groups, recognized by key traits. Fish have fins. Some land animals have four legs, others six, and several different groups have

More information

Problem Set 5 BILD10 / Winter 2014 Chapters 8, 10-12

Problem Set 5 BILD10 / Winter 2014 Chapters 8, 10-12 Chapter 8: Evolution and Natural Selection 1) A population is: a) a group of species that shares the same habitat. b) a group of individuals of the same species that lives in the same general location

More information

Biogeography - the study of the geographic distribution of organisms. The current distribution of organisms can be explained by historical events and

Biogeography - the study of the geographic distribution of organisms. The current distribution of organisms can be explained by historical events and Geography of Evolution Biogeography - the study of the geographic distribution of organisms. The current distribution of organisms can be explained by historical events and current climatic patterns. Darwin

More information

Regents Earth Science - Earth History ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS

Regents Earth Science - Earth History ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS Name Date Regents Earth Science - Earth History ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 1. Geologic time is divided into units based upon 1 erosion rates 3 surface topography 2 rock types 4 fossil evidence As we have

More information

Point Lobos and geologic time

Point Lobos and geologic time Point Lobos and geologic time The rocks of Point Lobos carry much antiquity in terms of human experience. The oldest rock here, a granodiorite is about 80 million years ago. The sun has risen and set about

More information

Theories of evolution

Theories of evolution Theories of evolution 77 minutes 77 marks Page of 26 Q. The photographs show two varieties of moths, Xand Y. The moths belong to the same species. The moths are resting on a tree trunk in open countryside.

More information

The History of Geology and Life on Earth. Early Earth History. Name. Date

The History of Geology and Life on Earth. Early Earth History. Name. Date Name Date Use the TIMELINE OF LIFE ON EARTH in the Islands of Evolution exhibit to learn about the history of life on Earth. Then, continue to the Earthquake exhibit to answer questions on the geologic

More information

1. What is the best current estimate of the age of the Earth, and what is the evidence for that estimate?

1. What is the best current estimate of the age of the Earth, and what is the evidence for that estimate? Chapter 25: The Origin and Evolutionary History of Life on Earth 1. What is the best current estimate of the age of the Earth, and what is the evidence for that estimate? 2. What are considered to be the

More information

Name: LAB: The Geologic Time Scale

Name: LAB: The Geologic Time Scale Name: LAB: The Geologic Time Scale INTRODUCTION: It is difficult to comprehend the age of the Earth and the time that various geologic events occurred in the past. A model drawn to scale is often useful

More information

Wilmot Evolution Review

Wilmot Evolution Review Wilmot Evolution Review Name- 1. Define species- group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring 2. What was Jean Baptiste de Lamark s contribution to evolution? Theory of Acquired

More information

Fossils PART TWO MATERIALS PREPARATIONS: PROCEDURE: FOR EACH STUDENT: Analysis of Fossil Samples Chart (opt.) FOR CLASS:

Fossils PART TWO MATERIALS PREPARATIONS: PROCEDURE: FOR EACH STUDENT: Analysis of Fossil Samples Chart (opt.) FOR CLASS: PART TWO Fossils MATERIALS FOR EACH STUDENT: Student Fossils Analysis of Fossil Samples Chart (opt.) FOR CLASS: Fossil CD with PowerPoint Book: Fossils Tell of Long Ago by Aliki Student Science Notebooks

More information

Keys for Progression of Life worksheets

Keys for Progression of Life worksheets Don t forget the plants Don t forget this one Don t forget the plants? Ancient Vertebrates Answers left unshaded so you can see their numbers and look up their names on the poster or in the booklet if

More information

The Fossil Record and Geologic Time Scale

The Fossil Record and Geologic Time Scale Two Conceptions of Earth History: Catastrophism Assumption: Great Effects Require Great Causes Earth History Dominated by Violent Events Uniformitarianism Assumption: We Can Use Cause And Effect to Determine

More information

The Dawn of Diversity

The Dawn of Diversity LESSON #3: Age of Earth: Creating a Time Line Scaled to the Outline of a Human Body 34 Focus questions 1. How old is the Earth? 2. When did life evolve? 3. How can we create a time line to show the age

More information

GONDWANALAND AND CONTINENTAL DRIFT

GONDWANALAND AND CONTINENTAL DRIFT GONDWANALAND AND CONTINENTAL DRIFT 1) Begin the lesson by showing students a standard map of the world. 2) Ask students to look closely at the continents and pose the questions Do you think the world always

More information