# KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. Boyle s Law: At constant temperature volume of given mass of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure.

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. Boyle s Law: At constant temperature volume of given mass of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure."

## Transcription

1 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Boyle s Law: At constant temperature volume of given mass of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure. Charle s Law: At constant pressure volume of a given mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature. *For 1 rise in temp. V t = Vo(1 ) Gay Lussac s Law:At constant volume, pressure of a given mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temp. = constant. Ideal Gas Equation: for n mole of gas For 1 0 C rise in temperature P t = P o (1 ) PV=nRT, for 1 mole, PV=RT Universal gas constant: R = 8.31 J mol -1 K -1 Boltzmann constant: k B = where k B = Boltzmann constant, = Avogadro s no. Ideal gas: A gas which obeys gas law strictly is an ideal or perfect gas. The molecules of such a gas are of point size and there is no force of attraction between them. 173

2 Assumptions of Kinetic Theory of Gases 1. All gases consist of molecules which are rigid, elastic spheres identical in all respect for a given gas. 2. The size of a molecule is negligible as compared with the average distance between two molecules. 3. During the random motion, the molecules collide with one another and with the wall of the vessel.the collisions are almost instantaneous. 4. The molecular density remains uniform throughout the gas. 5. The collisions are perfectly elastic in nature and there are no forces of attraction or repulsion between them. Pressure exerted by gas: Where: n=no. of molecules per unit volume. m=mass of each molecule. =mean of square speed. V = Volume M = mass of gas Average Kinetic energy of a gas: If M is molecular mass and V is molecular volume and m is mass of each molecule. Then 1. Mean K.E per mole of a gas, 174

3 2. Mean K.E per molecule of a gas, = m = k B T 3. K.E of 1gram of gas, m Avogadro Law: Equal volume of all gases under similar condition of temp. and pressure contain equal number of molecules. Avogadro Number: N A = x mol -1 G f ff : r = rate of diffusion = density D law of partial pressure: Total pressure exerted by a mixture of nonreacting gases occupying a given volume is equal to the sum of partial pressures which gas would exert if it alone occupied the same volume at given temp. Average Speed :

4 = = Root mean square: Most probable speed: Relation between :v v rms v mp Degree of freedom: Therefore: f = 3N-k where, f = no. of degree of freedom. N = no. of of atoms in a molecule. k = no. of independent relation between the atoms. 1. Monoatomic gas 2 degree of freedom. 2. Diatomic gas 5 degree of freedom. Law of equipartion of energy: For any thermodynamical system in thermal equilibrium, the energy of the system is equally divided amongst its various degree of freedom and energy associated with each degree of freedom corresponding to 176

5 each molecule is, where is the Boltzmann s constant and T is absolute temperature. The law of equipartition of energy holds good for all degrees of freedom whether translational, rotational or vibrational. A monoatomic gas molecule has only translational kinetic energy 2 E t =1/2mV x 2 + 1/2mV y + 2 1/2mV z = 3/2K B T So a monoatomic gas molecule has only three (translational) degrees of freedom. In addition to translational kinetic energy, a diatomic molecule has two rotational Kinetic energies E t + E r = 1/2mV 2 x + 1/2mV 2 y + 1/2mV 2 z + 1/2I Y W 2 2 y + 1/2I z W z Here the line joining the two atoms has been taken as x-axis about which there is no rotation. So, the degree of freedom of a diatomic molecule is 5, it does not vibrate. At very high temperature, vibration is also activated due to which two extra degree of freedom emerge from vibrational energy. Hence at very high temperature degree of freedom of diatomic molecule is seven. *(Each translational and rotational degree of freedom corresponds to one mole of absorption of energy and has energy 1/2k B T). Internal Energies & specific heats of monoatomic, diatomic& polyatomic gases: 1. If f is degree of freedom then for a gas of polyatomic molecules energy associated with 1 mole of gas, 177

6 (1 ), 1 2. For a monoatomic gas f=3, 3. For a diatomic gas with no vibrational mode f=5, so 4. For a diatomic gas with vibrational mode f=7, so, Meanfree path: It is the average distance covered by a molecule between two successive collisions. It is given by, ( ) Where,n is no. density and d is diameter of the molecule. Brownian Equation :-The zig-zag motion of gas molecules is Brownian motion which occurs due to random collision of molecules. Memory Map Kinetic Theory of gases 178

7 1. V rms = p ρ 3. V rms = 2. E= 4. V α T Law of Equipartion of Energy m x = m mv = k P= PC λ f 1 π Specific Heats 1 where r= C p C v and f=degree of freedom (1 Marks Question) 1. What type of motion is associated with the molecules of a gas? 179

8 An s :- Brownian motion. 2. On which factors does the average kinetic energy of gas molecules depend? An s :- The average K.E. of a gas molecule depends only on the absolute temperature of the gas and is directly proportional to it. 3. Why do the gases at low temperature and high pressure, show large deviations from ideal behaviour? An s :- At low temperature and high pressure, the intermolecular attractions become appreciable. So, the volume occupied by the gas molecules cannot be neglected in comparison to the volume of the gas. Hence the real gases show large from ideal gas behaviour. 4. Following fig. shows the variation of the product PV with respect to the pressure (P) of given masses of three gases, A,B,C. The temperature is kept constant. State with proper arguments which of these gases is ideal. Ans:- Gas C is ideal because PV is constant for it. That is gas C obeys Boyle s law at all pressures. 5. When a gas is heated, its temperature increases. Explain it on the basis of kinetic theory of gases. 180

9 An s :- When a gas is heated, the root mean square velocity of its molecules increases. As V rms T so temperature of the gas increases. 6. The ratio of vapour densities of two gases at the same temperature is 8:9. Compare the rms. velocity of their molecules? ( Vrms)1 M An s :- 3 : 2 2 ( Vrms)2 M Cooking gas containers are kept in a lorry moving with uniform speed. What will be the effect on temperature of the gas molecules? Ans:- As the lorry is moving with a uniform speed, there will be no change in the translational motion or K.E. of the gas molecules. Hence the temperature of the gas will remain same. 8. What is the mean translational kinetic energy of a perfect gas molecule at temperature T? Ans:- A perfect gas molecule has only translational K.E. E = 3/2 k B T 9. Name two factors on which the degrees of freedom of a gas depend? Ans:- (i) Atomicity of the gas molecule. (ii) Shape of the molecule. (iii) Temperature of gas. 10. Define absolute zero, according to kinetic interpretation of temperature? An s :- Absolute zero is the temperature at which all molecular motion ceases. (2 Marks question) 181

10 1. Write the relation between the pressure and kinetic energy per unit volume of a gas. Water solidifies into ice at 273 K. What happens to the K.E. of water molecules? An s :- P = 2/3 E. The K.E. of water molecules gas partly converted into the binding energy of the ice. 2. The absolute temperature of a gas is increased 4 times its original value. What will be the change in r.m.s. velocity of its molecules? An s :- V rms T V rms 4T V rms/ V rms = 2 V rms = 2V rms Change in rms velocity of molecules = V rms - V rms = V rms 3.What will be the ratio of the root mean square speeds of the molecules of an ideal gas at 270K and 30K? An s :- V rms / V rms = T 270 = = 3 : 1 T ' 30 4.A mixture of Helium and Hydrogen gas is filled in a vessel at 30 degree Celsius. Compare the root mean square velocities of the molecules of these gases at this temperature. (atomic weight of Hydrogen is 4) An s :- (V rms )He/(V rms )H 2 = {(M H2 )/(M He )} 1/2 = 2 = 1 : The velocities of three molecules are 3V,4V and 5V.Determine the root mean square velocity. 182

11 An s :- V rms = 50 V 4. 08V 3 6.Write the equation of state for 16g of O 2. An s :- No. of moles in 32g of O 2 = 1 No. of moles in 16g of O 2 = 1/9 x 16 = ½ As pv = nrt and n=1/2 So, PV= 7.Should the specific heat of monoatomic gas be less than, equal to or greater than that of a diatomic gas at room temperature? Justify your answer. An s :- Specific heat of a gas at constant volume is equal to f/2r. For monoatomic gases f = 3 so C v = 3/2 R. For diatomic gases f = 5 so C v = 5/2 R. Hence the specific heat for monoatomic gas is less than that for a diatomic gas. 8. A gas in a closed vessel is at the pressure P o. If the masses of all the molecules be made half and their speeds be made double, then find the resultant pressure? An s :- P o = = ( ) = 2P 0 9. A box contains equal number of molecules of hydrogen and oxygen. If there is a fine hole in the box, which gas will leak rapidly? Why? An s :- V rms Hence hydrogen gas will leak more rapidly because of its smaller molecular mass. 10. When a gas filled in a closed vessel is heated through 1 0 C, its pressure increases by 0.4 %. What is the initial temperature of the gas? An s :- P` = P = 0.4/100. P, T` = T

12 By Gay Lussac s law P/T = (P + 0.4/100.P)/T + 1, ( ) ( 1) ( + ) + = ( ) + T+1= (1.004)T 1=.004T T=250K (3 Marks Questions) 1. Show that rms velocity of O 2 is times that of SO 2. Atomic wt. of Sulphur is 32 and that of oxygen is 16. Ans. V. V O2 V SO2 = = Or v = SO Calculate the temperature at which rms velocity of SO 2 is the same as that of Oxygen at. Ans. For O 2, V rms = = For SO 2, V rms = = As V 0 = V = = 600t = = Calculate the total no. of degrees of freedom possessed by the molecules in 1cm 3 of H 2 gas at NTP An s. No. of H 2 Molecules in 22.4 liters or cm 3 at NTP = 1. No. of H 2 Molecules in 1 cm 3 at NTP = = No. of degrees of freedom associated with each H 2 (a diatomic) molecule = 5 184

13 Total no. of degree of freedom associated with 1cm 3 gas = = Derive Boyle s law on the basis of Kinetic Theory of Gases. 5. Derive Charles s law on the basis of Kinetic Theory of Gases. 6. State Dalton s law of partial pressures. Deduce it from Kinetic Theory of Gases. 7. Using the expression for pressure exerted by a gas, deduce Avogadro s law and Graham s law of diffusion. 8. State the number of degree of freedom possessed by a monoatomic molecule in space. Also give the expression for total energy possessed by it at a given temperature. Hence give the total energy of the atom at 300 K. 9. At what temperature is the root mean square speed of an atom in an argon gas cylinder equal to the rms speed of helium gas atom at? Atomic mass of argon = 39.9 u and that of helium = 4.0 u. An s. Root mean square speed for argon at temperature T V = Root mean square speed for helium at temp. = is As V = so we have = = = or T = T = K 10. From a certain apparatus the diffusion rate of Hydrogen has an average value of 28.7 cm 3 s -1 ; the diffusion of another gas under the same conditions is measured to have an average rate of 7.2cm 3 s -1. Identify the gas. Ans. From Graham s law of diffusion, 185

14 = M 2 = ( ) M 1 = ( ) 2 = Thus the unknown gas is Oxygen. (Long Questions) 11. Prove that the pressure exerted by a gas is P = ρc 2 where ρ is the density and c is the root mean square velocity. 12.What are the basic assumptions of Kinetic Theory of Gases? On their basis derive an expression for the pressure exerted by an ideal gas. 186

### Kinetic Theory of Gases

Kinetic Theory of Gases Important Points:. Assumptions: a) Every gas consists of extremely small particles called molecules. b) The molecules of a gas are identical, spherical, rigid and perfectly elastic

### Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 13 KINETIC THEORY

1 P a g e Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 13 KINETIC THEORY Assumptions of Kinetic Theory of Gases 1. Every gas consists of extremely small particles known as molecules. The molecules of a given gas are

### KINETIC THEORY. 1.Name any one scientist who explained the behavior of gases considering it to be made up of tiny particles.

KINETIC THEORY ONE MARK OUESTION: 1.Name any one scientist who explained the behavior of gases considering it to be made up of tiny particles. 2.Based on which idea kinetic theory of gases explain the

### Kinetic Molecular Theory

Kinetic Molecular Theory Particle volume - The volume of an individual gas particle is small compaired to that of its container. Therefore, gas particles are considered to have mass, but no volume. There

### Gas Laws. The kinetic theory of matter states that particles which make up all types of matter are in constant motion.

Name Period Gas Laws Kinetic energy is the energy of motion of molecules. Gas state of matter made up of tiny particles (atoms or molecules). Each atom or molecule is very far from other atoms or molecules.

### Boyles Law. At constant temperature the volume occupied by a fixed amount of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure on the gas 1 P = P

Boyles Law At constant temperature the volume occupied by a fixed amount of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure on the gas 1 or k 1 Boyles Law Example ressure olume Initial 2.00 atm 100 cm 3

### 1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws. Heat and Temperature

1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws Heat and Temperature Often the concepts of heat and temperature are thought to be the same, but they are not. Perhaps the reason the two are incorrectly thought to be the same is because

### HEAT UNIT 1.1 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. 1.1.1 Introduction. 1.1.2 Postulates of Kinetic Theory of Gases

UNIT HEAT. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES.. Introduction Molecules have a diameter of the order of Å and the distance between them in a gas is 0 Å while the interaction distance in solids is very small. R. Clausius

### Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten. Chapter 10 Gases

Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 10 Gases A Gas Has neither a definite volume nor shape. Uniformly fills any container.

### Gas - a substance that is characterized by widely separated molecules in rapid motion.

Chapter 10 - Gases Gas - a substance that is characterized by widely separated molecules in rapid motion. Mixtures of gases are uniform. Gases will expand to fill containers (compare with solids and liquids

### CHEMISTRY. Matter and Change. Section 13.1 Section 13.2 Section 13.3. The Gas Laws The Ideal Gas Law Gas Stoichiometry

CHEMISTRY Matter and Change 13 Table Of Contents Chapter 13: Gases Section 13.1 Section 13.2 Section 13.3 The Gas Laws The Ideal Gas Law Gas Stoichiometry State the relationships among pressure, temperature,

### Chapter 5 The Gaseous State

Chapter 5 The Gaseous State I) Pressure Pressure is the force exerted per unit area. A) Devices used to measure pressure 1) barometer used to measure the atmospheric pressure at seal level and 0 o C, P

### THE IDEAL GAS LAW AND KINETIC THEORY

Chapter 14 he Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic heory Chapter 14 HE IDEAL GAS LAW AND KINEIC HEORY REIEW Kinetic molecular theory involves the study of matter, particularly gases, as very small particles in constant

### The Gas Laws. The effect of adding gas. 4 things. Pressure and the number of molecules are directly related. Page 1

The Gas Laws Describe HOW gases behave. Can be predicted by the theory. The Kinetic Theory Amount of change can be calculated with mathematical equations. The effect of adding gas. When we blow up a balloon

### Type: Double Date: Kinetic Energy of an Ideal Gas II. Homework: Read 14.3, Do Concept Q. # (15), Do Problems # (28, 29, 31, 37)

Type: Double Date: Objective: Kinetic Energy of an Ideal Gas I Kinetic Energy of an Ideal Gas II Homework: Read 14.3, Do Concept Q. # (15), Do Problems # (8, 9, 31, 37) AP Physics Mr. Mirro Kinetic Energy

### THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES

Chapter 19: THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 1. Evidence that a gas consists mostly of empty space is the fact that: A. the density of a gas becomes much greater when it is liquefied B. gases exert pressure

### Boltzmann Distribution Law

Boltzmann Distribution Law The motion of molecules is extremely chaotic Any individual molecule is colliding with others at an enormous rate Typically at a rate of a billion times per second We introduce

### Statistical Mechanics, Kinetic Theory Ideal Gas. 8.01t Nov 22, 2004

Statistical Mechanics, Kinetic Theory Ideal Gas 8.01t Nov 22, 2004 Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics Thermodynamics Old & Fundamental Understanding of Heat (I.e. Steam) Engines Part of Physics Einstein

### Gas particles move in straight line paths. As they collide, they create a force, pressure.

#28 notes Unit 4: Gases Ch. Gases I. Pressure and Manometers Gas particles move in straight line paths. As they collide, they create a force, pressure. Pressure = Force / Area Standard Atmospheric Pressure

### Chapter 18 The Micro/Macro Connection

Chapter 18 The Micro/Macro Connection Chapter Goal: To understand a macroscopic system in terms of the microscopic behavior of its molecules. Slide 18-2 Announcements Chapter 18 Preview Slide 18-3 Chapter

### Lecture Notes: Gas Laws and Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT).

CHEM110 Week 9 Notes (Gas Laws) Page 1 of 7 Lecture Notes: Gas Laws and Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT). Gases Are mostly empty space Occupy containers uniformly and completely Expand infinitely Diffuse

### CHAPTER 12. Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory

CHAPTER 12 Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory 1 Gases vs. Liquids & Solids Gases Weak interactions between molecules Molecules move rapidly Fast diffusion rates Low densities Easy to compress Liquids

### Thermodynamics: The Kinetic Theory of Gases

Thermodynamics: The Kinetic Theory of Gases Resources: Serway The Kinetic Theory of Gases: 10.6 AP Physics B Videos Physics B Lesson 5: Mechanical Equivalent of Heat Physics B Lesson 6: Specific and Latent

### An increase in temperature causes an increase in pressure due to more collisions.

SESSION 7: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Key Concepts In this session we will focus on summarising what you need to know about: Kinetic molecular theory Pressure, volume and temperature relationships Properties

### Chapter 13 Gases. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop

Chapter 13 Gases An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter Map Gas Gas Model Gases are composed of tiny, widely-spaced particles. For a typical gas, the average distance between particles is

### Figure 10.3 A mercury manometer. This device is sometimes employed in the laboratory to measure gas pressures near atmospheric pressure.

Characteristics of Gases Practice Problems A. Section 10.2 Pressure Pressure Conversions: 1 ATM = 101.3 kpa = 760 mm Hg (torr) SAMPLE EXERCISE 10.1 Converting Units of Pressure (a) Convert 0.357 atm to

### Gases. Gas: fluid, occupies all available volume Liquid: fluid, fixed volume Solid: fixed volume, fixed shape Others?

CHAPTER 5: Gases Chemistry of Gases Pressure and Boyle s Law Temperature and Charles Law The Ideal Gas Law Chemical Calculations of Gases Mixtures of Gases Kinetic Theory of Gases Real Gases Gases The

### CHEMISTRY GAS LAW S WORKSHEET

Boyle s Law Charles Law Guy-Lassac's Law Combined Gas Law For a given mass of gas at constant temperature, the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure PV = k The volume of a fixed mass of gas is

### Wed Sep 12, 2007 THE GASEOUS STATE

Chapter 5: Gases Gas Stoichiometry Partial Pressure Kinetic Theory Effusion and Diffusion Wed Sep 12, 2007 Exam #1 - Friday, Sep 14 Attendance is mandatory! Practice exam today in recitation Week 3 CHEM

### Properties of gases. Properties of gases. Learning Resources. Classical Mechanics & Properties of Gases.

Classical Mechanics & Properties of Gases Properties of gases The gas phase differs from the other phases in that there are only weak interactions between particles Relatively simple models can be used

### The Gas, Liquid, and Solid Phase

The Gas, Liquid, and Solid Phase When are interparticle forces important? Ron Robertson Kinetic Theory A. Principles Matter is composed of particles in constant, random, motion Particles collide elastically

### The Gas Laws. Our Atmosphere. Pressure = Units of Pressure. Barometer. Chapter 10

Our Atmosphere The Gas Laws 99% N 2 and O 2 78% N 2 80 70 Nitrogen Chapter 10 21% O 2 1% CO 2 and the Noble Gases 60 50 40 Oxygen 30 20 10 0 Gas Carbon dioxide and Noble Gases Pressure Pressure = Force

### CLASSICAL CONCEPT REVIEW 8

CLASSICAL CONCEPT REVIEW 8 Kinetic Theory Information concerning the initial motions of each of the atoms of macroscopic systems is not accessible, nor do we have the computational capability even with

### Final Exam Review Questions PHY Final Chapters

Final Exam Review Questions PHY 2425 - Final Chapters Section: 17 1 Topic: Thermal Equilibrium and Temperature Type: Numerical 12 A temperature of 14ºF is equivalent to A) 10ºC B) 7.77ºC C) 25.5ºC D) 26.7ºC

### NAME: DATE: PHYSICS. Useful Data: Molar gas constant R = J mol -1 K HL Ideal Gas Law Questions

NAME: DATE: PHYSICS Useful Data: Molar gas constant R = 8.314 J mol -1 K -1 10.1 HL Ideal Gas Law Questions Avogadro s constant = 6.02 x 10 23 mol -1 Density of water = 1000.0 kg m -3 g = 9.81 N/kg 1)

### Chapter 17 Temperature, Thermal Expansion, and the Ideal Gas Law. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 17 Temperature, Thermal Expansion, and the Ideal Gas Law Units of Chapter 17 Atomic Theory of Matter Temperature and Thermometers Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics Thermal

### Gas Density. Lift GOODYEAR. Goodyear blimp filled with He gas BADYEAR. Weight. Badyear blimp filled with Cl 2 gas

Gas Density Lift GOODYEAR Goodyear blimp filled with He gas BADYEAR Weight Badyear blimp filled with Cl 2 gas At STP( 1.00 atm, 273 K) 1.00 mole gas = 22.4 L Gas density: d = mass/volume = molar mass/molar

### Chapter 4 The Properties of Gases

Chapter 4 The Properties of Gases Significant Figure Convention At least one extra significant figure is displayed in all intermediate calculations. The final answer is expressed with the correct number

### 1.23 Gas Calculations

1.23 Gas Calculations Gas calculations at A-level are done in two different ways although both link the volumes of a gas to the amount in moles of the gas. The same amount in moles of any gas will have

### The Kinetic Theory of Gases Sections Covered in the Text: Chapter 18

The Kinetic Theory of Gases Sections Covered in the Text: Chapter 18 In Note 15 we reviewed macroscopic properties of matter, in particular, temperature and pressure. Here we see how the temperature and

### CHEMISTRY. Stoichiometry

Stoichiometry 1gram molecular mass 6.022 x 10 23 molecules Avagadro No of particles 6.022 x 10 23 particles MOLE 1 gram atomic mass 6.022 x 10 23 atoms Molar volume 22.4dm 3 at STP Equivalent mass of an

### General Properties of Gases. Properties of Gases. K is for Kelvin. C is for degrees Celsius. F is for degrees Fahrenheit PROPERTIES OF GASES GAS LAWS

PROPERTIES OF GASES or GAS LAWS 1 General Properties of Gases There is a lot of empty space in a gas. Gases can be expanded infinitely. Gases fill containers uniformly and completely. Gases diffuse and

### Chemistry 13: States of Matter

Chemistry 13: States of Matter Name: Period: Date: Chemistry Content Standard: Gases and Their Properties The kinetic molecular theory describes the motion of atoms and molecules and explains the properties

### Major chemistry laws. Mole and Avogadro s number. Calculating concentrations.

Major chemistry laws. Mole and Avogadro s number. Calculating concentrations. Major chemistry laws Avogadro's Law Equal volumes of gases under identical temperature and pressure conditions will contain

### HW#13a Note: numbers used in solution steps are different from your WebAssign values. Page 1 of 8

Note: numbers used in solution steps are different from your WebAssign values. Page 1 of 8 Note: numbers used in solution steps are different from your WebAssign values. 1. Walker3 17.P.003. [565748] Show

### 1. Which graph shows the pressure-temperature relationship expected for an ideal gas? 1) 3)

1. Which graph shows the pressure-temperature relationship expected for an ideal gas? 2. Under which conditions does a real gas behave most like an ideal gas? 1) at low temperatures and high pressures

### (1) The size of a gas particle is negligible as compared to the volume of the container in which the gas is placed.

Gas Laws and Kinetic Molecular Theory The Gas Laws are based on experiments, and they describe how a gas behaves under certain conditions. However, Gas Laws do not attempt to explain the behavior of gases.

### THE BEHAVIOR OF GASES

12 THE BEHAVIOR OF GASES Conceptual Curriculum Concrete concepts More abstract concepts or math/problem-solving Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics Honors Curriculum Core honors content Options

### Kinetic Theory of Gases. Chapter 33. Kinetic Theory of Gases

Kinetic Theory of Gases Kinetic Theory of Gases Chapter 33 Kinetic theory of gases envisions gases as a collection of atoms or molecules. Atoms or molecules are considered as particles. This is based on

### Kinetic Theory of Gases A2 level notes LOJ

Data Sheet Extract The theory for ideal gases makes the following assumptions: The gas consists of very small atoms or molecules (spoken of as particles), each of which has an identical mass and are perfectly

### Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter

Kinetic Molecular Theor of Matter Heat capacit of gases and metals Pressure of gas Average speed of electrons in semiconductors Electron noise in resistors Positive metal ion cores Free valence electrons

### Exam 4 Practice Problems false false

Exam 4 Practice Problems 1 1. Which of the following statements is false? a. Condensed states have much higher densities than gases. b. Molecules are very far apart in gases and closer together in liquids

### Temperature. Number of moles. Constant Terms. Pressure. Answers Additional Questions 12.1

Answers Additional Questions 12.1 1. A gas collected over water has a total pressure equal to the pressure of the dry gas plus the pressure of the water vapor. If the partial pressure of water at 25.0

### WebAssign Problem 1: When the temperature of a coin is raised by 75 C, the coin s. , find the coefficient of linear expansion.

Week 10 homework IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT WEBASSIGN: In the WebAssign versions of these problems, various details have been changed, so that the answers will come out differently. The method to find the solution

### Gases. States of Matter. Molecular Arrangement Solid Small Small Ordered Liquid Unity Unity Local Order Gas High Large Chaotic (random)

Gases States of Matter States of Matter Kinetic E (motion) Potential E(interaction) Distance Between (size) Molecular Arrangement Solid Small Small Ordered Liquid Unity Unity Local Order Gas High Large

### Chapter 18. The Micro/Macro Connection

Chapter 18. The Micro/Macro Connection Heating the air in a hot-air balloon increases the thermal energy of the air molecules. This causes the gas to expand, lowering its density and allowing the balloon

### Sample Exercise 10.1 Converting Pressure Units

Sample Exercise 10.1 Converting Pressure Units (a) Convert 0.357 atm to torr. (b) Convert 6.6 10 2 torr to atmospheres. (c) Convert 147.2 kpa to torr. Solution Analyze In each case we are given the pressure

### IT IS THEREFORE A SCIENTIFIC LAW.

361 Lec 4 Fri 2sep16 Now we talk about heat: Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: (inserted after the 1 st 3 Laws, and often not mentioned) If two objects are in thermal equilibrium with a third object, they

### MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. What are standard temperature and pressure conditions for gases?

Gas Laws MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. What are standard temperature and pressure conditions for gases? a. 0 C and 0 torr b. 0 K and 760 torr c. -273 C and 1 atm d. 0 C and 760 torr e. 0 C and 1 torr 2. If the volume

### 2. If pressure is constant, the relationship between temperature and volume is a. direct b. Inverse

Name Unit 11 Review: Gas Laws and Intermolecular Forces Date Block 1. If temperature is constant, the relationship between pressure and volume is a. direct b. inverse 2. If pressure is constant, the relationship

### PHYS-2010: General Physics I Course Lecture Notes Section XIII

PHYS-2010: General Physics I Course Lecture Notes Section XIII Dr. Donald G. Luttermoser East Tennessee State University Edition 2.5 Abstract These class notes are designed for use of the instructor and

### CHM1045 Practice Test 3 v.1 - Answers Name Fall 2013 & 2011 (Ch. 5, 6, 7, & part 11) Revised April 10, 2014

CHM1045 Practice Test 3 v.1 - Answers Name Fall 013 & 011 (Ch. 5, 6, 7, & part 11) Revised April 10, 014 Given: Speed of light in a vacuum = 3.00 x 10 8 m/s Planck s constant = 6.66 x 10 34 J s E (-.18x10

### Thermal Properties of Matter

Chapter 18 Thermal Properties of Matter PowerPoint Lectures for University Physics, Thirteenth Edition Hugh D. Young and Roger A. Freedman Lectures by Wayne Anderson Goals for Chapter 18 To relate the

### Use each of the terms below to complete the passage. Each term may be used more than once.

Gases Section 13.1 The Gas Laws In your textbook, read about the basic concepts of the three gas laws. Use each of the terms below to complete the passage. Each term may be used more than once. pressure

### AP Chemistry ( MCSEMENICK2015 ) My Courses Course Settings Chemistry: The Central Science, 12e Brown/LeMay/Bursten/Murphy/Woodward

Signed in as Daniel Semenick, Instructor Help Sign Out AP Chemistry ( MCSEMENICK2015 ) My Courses Course Settings Chemistry: The Central Science, 12e Brown/LeMay/Bursten/Murphy/Woodward Instructor Resources

### Thermodynamics AP Physics B. Multiple Choice Questions

Thermodynamics AP Physics B Name Multiple Choice Questions 1. What is the name of the following statement: When two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, then they are in thermal equilibrium

### 10.7 Kinetic Molecular Theory. 10.7 Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory

The first scheduled quiz will be given next Tuesday during Lecture. It will last 5 minutes. Bring pencil, calculator, and your book. The coverage will be pp 364-44, i.e. Sections 0.0 through.4. 0.7 Theory

### Physics Courseware Physics I Ideal Gases

Physics Courseware Physics I Ideal Gases Problem 1.- How much mass of helium is contained in a 0.0 L cylinder at a pressure of.0 atm and a temperature of.0 C? [The atomic mass of helium is 4 amu] PV (

### CHEM 120 Online Chapter 7

CHEM 120 Online Chapter 7 Date: 1. Which of the following statements is not a part of kinetic molecular theory? A) Matter is composed of particles that are in constant motion. B) Particle velocity increases

### Unit G484: The Newtonian World

Define linear momentum (and appreciate the vector nature of momentum) net force on a body impulse of a force a perfectly elastic collision an inelastic collision the radian gravitational field strength

### Page 1. Set of values that describe the current condition of a system, usually in equilibrium. What is a state?

What is a state? Set of values that describe the current condition of a system, usually in equilibrium Is this physics different than what we have learned? Why do we learn it? How do we make the connection

### Gases and Kinetic-Molecular Theory: Chapter 12. Chapter Outline. Chapter Outline

Gases and Kinetic-Molecular heory: Chapter Chapter Outline Comparison of Solids, Liquids, and Gases Composition of the Atmosphere and Some Common Properties of Gases Pressure Boyle s Law: he Volume-Pressure

### Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten. Chapter 10 Gases.

Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 10 The things we will cover in this chapter: How differ from solids and liquids Pressure,

### not to be republished NCERT KINETIC THEORY CHAPTER THIRTEEN

CHAPTER THIRTEEN 13.1 Introduction 13. Molecular nature of matter 13.3 Behaviour of gases 13.4 Kinetic theory of an ideal gas 13.5 Law of equipartition of energy 13.6 Specific heat capacity 13.7 Mean free

### Study the following diagrams of the States of Matter. Label the names of the Changes of State between the different states.

Describe the strength of attractive forces between particles. Describe the amount of space between particles. Can the particles in this state be compressed? Do the particles in this state have a definite

### How many moles are in a breath of air whose volume is 2.32L at body temperature (37 C) and a pressure of 745 torr?

Lecture 9 State of gas described by (n,p,v,t) n # moles P pressure V volume T (absolute) temperature (K) Sample Problem A balloon filled with helium has a volume of 1.60 L at 1.00 atm and 25oC. What will

### Kinetic Theory of Gases

Kinetic Theory of Gases Physics 1425 Lecture 31 Michael Fowler, UVa Bernoulli s Picture Daniel Bernoulli, in 1738, was the first to understand air pressure in terms of molecules he visualized them shooting

### Chapter 5. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Class: Date: Chapter 5 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the pressure of the sample of gas trapped in the open-tube mercury manometer

### Course 2 Mathematical Tools and Unit Conversion Used in Thermodynamic Problem Solving

Course Mathematical Tools and Unit Conversion Used in Thermodynamic Problem Solving 1 Basic Algebra Computations 1st degree equations - =0 Collect numerical values on one side and unknown to the otherside

### The Kinetic Molecular Theory Guided Inquiry

Name Pd Date The Kinetic Molecular Theory Guided Inquiry Kinetic Molecular Theory The kinetic molecular theory (KMT) is based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion. In the late 19 th

### Temperature and Heat

Temperature and Heat Foundation Physics Lecture 2.4 26 Jan 10 Temperature, Internal Energy and Heat What is temperature? What is heat? What is internal energy? Temperature Does a glass of water sitting

### Abbreviations Conversions Standard Conditions Boyle s Law

Gas Law Problems Abbreviations Conversions atm - atmosphere K = C + 273 mmhg - millimeters of mercury 1 cm 3 (cubic centimeter) = 1 ml (milliliter) torr - another name for mmhg 1 dm 3 (cubic decimeter)

### CHM Kinetic Theory of Gases (r14) Charles Taylor 1/6

CHM 110 - Kinetic Theory of Gases (r14) - 2014 Charles Taylor 1/6 Introduction We've talked about the gas laws and how they were derived from experiment. As scientists, we would like to figure out why

### Physics 101: Lecture 23 Temperature and Ideal Gas

EXAM III Physics 101: Lecture 23 Temperature and Ideal Gas Today s lecture will cover Textbook Chapter 13.1-13.4 Temperature of Earth s surface/clouds from NASA/AIRS satellite Physics 101: Lecture 23,

### Boyle s law PV = K. (at a constant temperature) Definition of terms used. Units. Explanation. Clinical application/worked example

Boyle s law PV = K Or Vµ 1 P (at a constant temperature) Definition of terms used P = pressure V = volume K = constant Units None. Explanation Boyle s law (Robert Boyle, 1662) describes one of the characteristics

### Gases. Macroscopic Properties. Petrucci, Harwood and Herring: Chapter 6

Gases Petrucci, Harwood and Herring: Chapter 6 CHEM 1000A 3.0 Gases 1 We will be looking at Macroscopic and Microscopic properties: Macroscopic Properties of bulk gases Observable Pressure, volume, mass,

### CHAPTER 25 IDEAL GAS LAWS

EXERCISE 139, Page 303 CHAPTER 5 IDEAL GAS LAWS 1. The pressure of a mass of gas is increased from 150 kpa to 750 kpa at constant temperature. Determine the final volume of the gas, if its initial volume

### Assignment 6 Solutions. Chapter 6, #6.4, 6.12, 6.32, 6.36, 6.43, 6.60, 6.70, 6.80, 6.88, 6.90, 6.100, 6.104,

Assignment 6 Solutions Chapter 6, #6.4, 6.12, 6.32, 6.36, 6.43, 6.60, 6.70, 6.80, 6.88, 6.90, 6.100, 6.104, 6.108. 6.4. Collect and Organize When the temperature of the balloon Figure P6.3 increases, does

### Overview of Physical Properties of Gases. Gas Pressure

Overview of Physical Properties of Gases! volume changes with pressure! volume changes with temperature! completely miscible! low density gases: < 2 g/l liquids and solids: 1000 g/l Gas Pressure force

### Honors Chemistry. Chapter 11: Gas Law Worksheet Answer Key Date / / Period

Honors Chemistry Name Chapter 11: Gas Law Worksheet Answer Key Date / / Period Complete the following calculation by list the given information, rewriting the formula to solve for the unknown, and plugging

### The Equipartition Theorem

The Equipartition Theorem Degrees of freedom are associated with the kinetic energy of translations, rotation, vibration and the potential energy of vibrations. A result from classical statistical mechanics

### Molecular vs. Continuum

Molecular vs. Continuum Classical fluid mechanics (i.e., A&AE 511) treats a gas as an infinitely divisible substance, a continuum. As a consequence of continuum assumption, each fluid property is assumed

### = 1.038 atm. 760 mm Hg. = 0.989 atm. d. 767 torr = 767 mm Hg. = 1.01 atm

Chapter 13 Gases 1. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. Gases have volumes that depend on their conditions, and can be compressed or expanded by

### Ideal Gas Behavior. NC State University

Chemistry 431 Lecture 1 Ideal Gas Behavior NC State University Macroscopic variables P, T Pressure is a force per unit area (P= F/A) The force arises from the change in momentum as particles hit an object

### CHEMISTRY 101 Hour Exam I. Adams/Le Section

CHEMISTRY 101 Hour Exam I September 25, 2006 Adams/Le Name KEY Signature Section Iron rusts from disuse; stagnant water loses its purity and in cold weather becomes frozen; even so does inaction sap the

### Temperature, Expansion, Ideal Gas Law

Temperature, Expansion, Ideal Gas Law Physics 1425 Lecture 30 Michael Fowler, UVa Everything s Made of Atoms This idea was only fully accepted about 100 years ago in part because of Einstein s analysis

### Force. Pressure = ; Area. Force = Mass times Acceleration;

Force Pressure = ; Area Force = Mass times Acceleration; If mass = kg, and acceleration = m/s 2, Force = kg.m/s 2 = Newton (N) If Area = m 2, Pressure = (kg.m/s 2 )/m 2 = N/m 2 = Pascal; (1 Pa = 1 N/m

### Substances that are liquids or solids under ordinary conditions may also exist as gases. These are often referred to as vapors. Properties of Gases

Common Student Misconceptions Students need to be told to always use Kelvin temperatures in gas problems. Students should always use units (and unit factor analysis) in gas-law problems to keep track of