Internal Combustion Engines

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1 Lecture-28 Prepared under QIP-CD Cell Project Internal Combustion Engines Ujjwal K Saha, Ph.D. Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati 1

2 Introduction Shortage of liquid fuel and gaseous fuels being cheaper than liquid fuels gave birth to dual fuel engines. From recent air and water pollution concern it became necessary to utilize sewage gas. Gaseous fuels have high self-ignition temperature and burn efficiently. 2

3 Duel-fuel operation combines the possibility of operating a diesel engine on liquid fuels such as diesel oil or gas oil and on gaseous fuels such as natural gas, sewage gas and cook oven gas. 3

4 Working Principle Works on diesel cycle. Gaseous fuel (primary fuel) is added to air inducted into the engine or supplied by supercharger. The mixture of air and gaseous fuel gets compressed in the cylinder. Liquid fuel called pilot fuel injected near the TDC acts as a source of ignition. Gas-air mixture ignites establishing a number of flame-fronts. In a dual-fuel engine combustion starts similar to CI engine, but it is propagated by flame-fronts as in SI engine. 4

5 Working Principle 5

6 Gas mode High efficiency and low emissions Automatic and instant transfer to diesel operation in alarm situations Transfer to diesel operation at any load Diesel mode As an ordinary diesel engine Transfer to gas operation preferably at part load Pilot fuel injection in operation 6

7 Performance of Dual-Fuel engines Produce equal power when operating on liquid fuels as with gaseous fuel. Dual fuel engines are slightly more efficient to conventional diesel at full load. However, the maximum output is about the same. Efficiency of dual in part load is slightly poor. Typical diesel efficiency is 41%, and dual efficiency is

8 Advantages of Dual Fuel Engines Efficient utilization of cheap gas available from various sources. Gas burns without leaving any residue (no pollution). Clean combustion results in reduced wear of engine parts and reduced consumption of lubricating oil. 8

9 Advantages of Dual Fuel Engines Increased utility of the power plant as the versatility of change-over from gas to diesel and vice-versa. Only a small amount of liquid fuel needed to run engine. Suitable for total energy installation (sewage gas) 9

10 Advantages of Dual Fuel Engines Can be used to produce synthetic gas, which is a mixture of CO and H 2. Ideal for LPG tankers as they can utilize the gas which evaporates. 10

11 Factors affecting combustion in a dual fuel engine Pilot fuel quantity 11

12 12

13 Injection timing 13

14 Effect of Cetane number Effect of inlet temperature 14

15 15

16 Effect of type of gaseous fuels 16

17 Effect of throttling Effect of mixture strength 17

18 Main type of gaseous fuel & their requirement Natural gas Sewage gas LPG Town gas Hydrogen gas Clean Dry Minimum calorific value gas 4500 kcl/cm 3 light fuel oil 10,200 kcl/kg 18

19 Knock control in dual engine Excess supply of air Use of cold combustion air Increased cooling of piston Use of additives Reducing the pressure of the gaseous fuel 19

20 Multi-fuel Engines A multi-fuel engine is one which would operate satisfactorily with substantially unchanged performance and efficiency, on a wide verity of fuels ranging from diesel oil, crude oil to lighter fuels like gasoline and even normal lubrication oil. Mainly developed for military requirements. Has good idling and part load efficiency and low exhaust smoke. 20

21 Should have high compression ratios as gasoline have low cetane numbers. Must be capable of starting at subzero temperatures. Large stroke/bore ratio gives a compact combustion chamber so that it remains hot in all conditions of speed. An open combustion chamber is suited as in a pre-combustion chamber, additional heat losses due to throat occur (e.g., spherical or M-combustion chamber). 21

22 Difficulties Tendency of vapor lock while using lighter fuels. Tendency of increased wear due to lower lubricity of gasoline. Requirements for injecting different volumes of fuel depending on their heating values and compressibility. 22

23 References 1. Crouse WH, and Anglin DL, (1985), Automotive Engines, Tata McGraw Hill. 2. Fergusan CR, and Kirkpatrick AT, (2001), Internal Combustion Engines, John Wiley & Sons. 3. Gill PW, Smith JH, and Ziurys EJ, (1959), Fundamentals of I. C. Engines, Oxford and IBH Pub Ltd. 4. Heisler H, (1999), Vehicle and Engine Technology, Arnold Publishers. 5. Heywood JB, (1989), Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw Hill. 6. Heywood JB, and Sher E, (1999), The Two-Stroke Cycle Engine, Taylor & Francis. 7. Mathur ML, and Sharma RP, (1994), A Course in Internal Combustion Engines, Dhanpat Rai & Sons, New Delhi. 8. Pulkrabek WW, (1997), Engineering Fundamentals of the I. C. Engine, Prentice Hall. 9. Rogers GFC, and Mayhew YR, (1992), Engineering Thermodynamics, Addison Wisley. 10. Stone R, (1992), Internal Combustion Engines, The Macmillan Press Limited, London. 11. Taylor CF, (1985), The Internal-Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice, Vol. 1 & 2, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 23

24 Web Resources me429/lecture-air-cyc-web%5b1%5d.ppt ppt/ secondary/powerpoint/sge-parts.ppt

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