November 7, 1837 Elijah P. Lovejoy September 9, Compromise of 1850 signed by Millard Fillmore March 20, 1852 Uncle Tom s Cabin published

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1 A RISING TIDE OF PROTEST AND VIOLENCE

2 THE CONTINUED DESCENT TO WAR November 7, 1837 Elijah P. Lovejoy September 9, Compromise of 1850 signed by Millard Fillmore March 20, 1852 Uncle Tom s Cabin published October 15, 1854 Ostend Manifesto

3 ELECTION OF 1852 Democratic Nomination Democrats, unable to agree (Lewis Cass, James Buchanan, Stephen Douglas) No 2/3 majority 49 th ballot--nominate dark horse Franklin Pierce sympathetic to Southern views Fugitive Slave Act acceptable to the slavery wing of the party Platform In favor of the Compromise of 1850 Opposed any further "agitation" over the issue of slavery We Polked em in 44; we ll Pierce them in 52

4 ELECTION OF 1852 Whig Nomination Old Fuss and Feathers Winfield Scott Party fatally split Platform In favor of the Compromise of eventually Protective tariff, national bank Internal improvements Strict interpretation of Constitution Pierce is the hero of many a wellfought bottle

5 ELECTION OF 1852 Free-Soil Nomination John P. Hale Slavery issue settled by the Compromise of 1850 George Washington Julian Platform Opposed the Compromise of 1850 Abolition of slavery Homestead Act Strict interpretation of Constitution and limited government Federally funded internal improvements

6

7 Democratic Franklin Pierce (NH) William King (AL) PV=1,609,038 EV=254 Whig Winfield Scott (NJ) William A. Graham (NC) PV=1,386,629 EV=42 Free Soil John Hale (NH) George W. Julian (IN) PV=156,297 EV=0

8 THE TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD Stephen Douglas Chicago not New Orleans Connect East and West and tie nation together

9 KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT

10 THE KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT Douglas Proposed repealing the Missouri Compromise and making Nebraska Free and Kansas a slave state. Douglas first proposed that the Nebraska territory would be allowed to exercise popular sovereignty on slavery. Southern leaders didn t bite. Next, Douglas proposed that the region should be divided into two territories. Nebraska would be on the north, next to the free state of Iowa, and Kansas would be on the south, west of the slave state of Missouri Popular Sovereignty

11 THE KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT The act passed in 1854 and caused civil war in Kansas threfore Bleeding Kansas Thousands of border ruffians from Missouri crossed into Kansas and voted illegally for slavery. Later, the ruffians attacked the town of Lawrence, a stronghold of antislavery settlers By the middle of May 1856, Kansas would have two governments. By the end of 1856 there were over 200 people dead Kansas became the first battle ground between those favoring the extension of slavery and those opposing it.

12 REACTIONS Northerners shocked: saw Compromise of 1820 as a sacred pact Northern reaction Refused to honor Fugitive Slave Law The antislavery movement grew significantly North unwilling to compromise on future issues Southern reaction Angry that northern free-soilers tried to control Kansas (which the South presumed would eventually be a slave state) Democratic party was shattered

13 THE CONTINUED DESCENT TO WAR November 7, 1837 Elijah P. Lovejoy September 9, Compromise of 1850 signed by Millard Fillmore March 20, 1852 Uncle Tom s Cabin published May 30, 1854 the Kansas-Nebraska Act passed and signed by Franklin Pierce October 15, 1854 Ostend Manifesto

14 THE CANING OF CHARLES SUMNER Preston Brooks Charles Sumner

15 New York, Tribune, 23 May 1856 [Republican] The particulars show that Mr. Sumner was struck unawares over the head by a loaded cane and stunned, and then the ruffianly attack was continued with many blows, the Hon. Mr. Keitt of South Carolina keeping any of those around, who might be so disposed, from attempting a rescue. No meaner exhibition of Southern cowardice -- generally miscalled Southern chivalry -- was ever witnessed. We are either to have Liberty or Slavery. Failing to silence the North by threats, notwithstanding the doughfaced creatures who so long misrepresented the spirit of the Republic and of the age, the South now resorts to actual violence. It is reduced to a question whether there is to be any more liberty of speech south of Mason and Dixon's line, even in the ten miles square of the District of Columbia. South of that, liberty has long since departed; but whether the common ground where the national representatives meet is to be turned into a slave plantation where Northern members act under the lash, the bowie-knife and the pistol, is a question to be settled.

16 Columbia, South Carolina, South Carolinian, 27 May 1856 [Democratic] "Public Approval of Mr. Brooks" We were not mistaken in asserting, on Saturday last, that the Hon. Preston S. Brooks had not only the approval, but the hearty congratulations of the people of South Carolina for his summary chastisement of the abolitionist Sumner. Immediately upon the reception of the news on Saturday last, a most enthusiastic meeting was convened in the town of Newberry, at which Gen. Williams, the Intendant, presided. Complimentary resolutions were introduced by Gen. A. C. Garlington, and ardent speeches made by him, Col. S. Fair, Maj. Henry Sumner, and others. The meeting voted him a handsome gold-headed cane, which we saw yesterday, on its way to Washington, entrusted to the care of Hon. B. Simpson. At Anderson, the same evening, a meeting was called, and complimentary resolutions adopted. We heard one of Carolina's truest and most honored matrons from Mr. Brooks' district send a message to him by Maj. Simpson, saying "that the ladies of the South would send him hickory sticks, with which to chastise Abolitionists and Red Republicans whenever he wanted them."

17

18 I do not see how a barbarous community and a civilized community can constitute one state. I think we must get rid of slavery, or we must get rid of freedom. Ralph Waldo Emerson

19 "Come on, then, gentlemen of the slave states. Since there is no escaping your challenge, we accept it in the name of freedom. We will engage in competition for the virgin soil of Kansas, and God give the victory to the side which is stronger in numbers, as it is in right. Senator William Seward, on the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, May 1854

20 THE CONTINUED DESCENT TO WAR November 7, 1837 Elijah P. Lovejoy September 9, Compromise of 1850 signed by Millard Fillmore March 20, 1852 Uncle Tom s Cabin published May 30, 1854 the Kansas-Nebraska Act passed and signed by Franklin Pierce October 15, 1854 Ostend Manifesto May 22, 1856 The Caning of Charles Sumner

21 NORTH AND SOUTH VIE FOR KANSAS New England Emigrant Aid Company ("Beecher s Bibles") Just under 400 emigrants left for Kansas under the auspices of the Society in March of 1855 Southerners furious the North betrayed spirit of the Kansas-Nebraska Act

22 John Greenleaf Whittier, "Song of the Kansas Emigrant" We cross the prairie as of old The fathers crossed the sea, To make the West, as they the East, The homestead of the free. We go to rear a wall of men On Freedom's southern line, And plant beside the Cotton tree The rugged northern pine. We're flowing from our native hills As our free rivers flow, The blessing of our mother land Is on us as we go. We go to plant the common school On distant prairie swells, And give the Sabbaths of the wilds The music of her bells. Upbearing, like the ark of God. The Bible in our van. We go to test the truth of God Against the fraud of man.

23 PIERCE ADMINISTRATION BLEEDING KANSAS 1855 election held in Kansas for first territorial legislature Proslavery "border ruffians" from Missouri poured into Kansas: "vote early and vote often! Southerners won the election and created puppet government Free-soilers ignored the bogus election and created own government in Topeka 1856, a proslavery gang attacked and burned part of free-soil Lawrence, Kansas

24 PIERCE ADMINISTRATION BLEEDING KANSAS John Brown Pottawatomie Massacre, May 25, 1856 Brown an extreme abolitionist; saw himself as doing God's work A mini-civil war began in Kansas 1856 that continued through the Civil War

25 BUCHANAN ADMINISTRATION LECOMPTON CONSTITUTION Kansas applied for statehood based on popular sovereignty Southerners in control drafted a pro-slavery constitution People voted for the constitution with or without slavery If people voted no on slavery, rights of slaveholders currently in Kansas would be protected

26 BUCHANAN ADMINISTRATION LECOMPTON CONSTITUTION Free-soilers again refused to vote for a southerndominated constitution Slave supporters approved the constitution with slavery late in 1857 President Buchanan supported the Lecompton Constitution Senator Douglas led the opposition to Kansas' constitution Compromise: Lecompton Constitution sent back to Kansas for another vote but pro-slavery Kansas rejected the proposal Result: Free-soilers victorious but Kansas denied statehood until 1861 after the South seceded.

27 DRED-SCOTT DECISION Attempt by the Supreme Court to end the controversy over slave or free states

28 From Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Dred Scott and his wife sued for their freedom because they had lived for 9 years in free territory. The decision had more to do with property rights than whether they deserved their freedom.

29 DRED-SCOTT Was a slave whose master had taken him into free territory With the help of Northern abolitionists, Scott sued his master for his freedom claiming once free, always free.

30 THREE MAIN QUESTIONS BEFORE THE COURT As a black man, was Scott a citizen with a right to sue in federal court? Had prolonged residence (two years in each place) in a free state and a free territory made Scott free? Was Fort Snelling actually free territory that is, did Congress in 1820 have the right to ban slavery in the Louisiana Purchase north of 36º 30?

31 DRED-SCOTT DECISION The Supreme Court decided that African Americans Were not citizens of the United States Had no right to sue the US Had no rights at all Were property and property could not be taken away from the government

32 DRED-SCOTT DECISION The court also said that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional because you could not limit where owners took their property. This did not end the controversy of slavery. It also worried Northerners because they feared the court would outlaw slavery in their states and would end popular sovereignty limiting democracy

33 WHAT DID CHIEF JUSTICE ROGER B. TANEY RULE IN 1857 ON THE DRED SCOTT CASE? Scott was not a citizen and could not sue in U.S. courts Scott was bound by Missouri s slave code because he lived in Missouri and his time in free territory did not matter He said Congress could not ban slaves in any territory since they were property and protected under rights of property owners in Constitution

34 THE CONTINUED DESCENT TO WAR November 7, 1837 Elijah P. Lovejoy September 9, Compromise of 1850 signed by Millard Fillmore March 20, 1852 Uncle Tom s Cabin published May 30, 1854 the Kansas-Nebraska Act passed and signed by Franklin Pierce October 15, 1854 Ostend Manifesto May 22, 1856 The Caning of Charles Sumner March 6, Supreme Court Rules in Dred Scott case

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