Note : In this research report, the Houthi/Shia insurgency shall be referred as the Houthi insurgency to avoid any confusion.

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1 FORUM: SECURITY COUNCIL ISSUE: THE QUESTION OF YEMEN NEIL PLUMMER Note : In this research report, the Houthi/Shia insurgency shall be referred as the Houthi insurgency to avoid any confusion. Introduction: The picture shown above is one of the most recent maps of Yemen, and it shows how the country has been torn apart by war and armed conflicts. Innocent people are being forced to flee their homes, their lives, because of fighting between the government, Houthi rebels, Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula and Islamic State in the Levent. They flee hoping to find somewhere better to live, sometimes even leaving the country to Djibouti or Sudan. However, the problem also exists the other way around.not only are the Yemeni people suffering due to this conflict but also

2 the refugees hoping to be safe from the warzone. The current situation in Yemen dates back to 1990, when the Yemen Arab Republic and the People's Republic of South Yemen joined to become the modern day Yemen. Since then there have been, two civil wars, one revolution, one eleven year insurgency, over 33,000 deaths (civilian, army and rebels ( excluding natural deaths )) and only two legal presidents. Definition of Key Terms: Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula ( AQAP ) : is primarily active in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. It is believed that it is the most dangerous and the most active of all the Al Qaeda branches. If was formed in January 2009 from the merge of the Yemen and Saudi Arabian branches. It has been declared a terrorist organisation by nine countries, the UN and the EU. The AQAP has led many attacks in Yemen such as the bombing of the USS Cole killing 17 U.S. sailors on the 12 of October 2000 and the suicide bombing at a rehearsal of the military parade for the Unification of Yemen on May 21 st 2012, killing around 120 people and injuring another 200. Islamic State in the Levant (ISIL/IS) : is the terrorist organisation causing chaos in many parts of the Middle East, mostly Iraq and Syria. They have been claiming responsibility for many attacks in Yemen since March On June the 30th, IS claimed that a bomb that had nearly killed two of the Houthi leaders was theirs. Civil war : is a war between citizens of the same country. In the case of Yemen, the civil war of 1994, was between the pro unionist from the north and the communist from the south. The outcome was the victory of the north and the reunification of Yemen.

3 Coup d état : is, for example, when a political party seizes power from another during the others period as ruling party. In Yemen, the most recent coup d état happened on the 6 of February 2015, when an official declared that the parliament had had been dissolved and that the Houthi Revolutionary Committee were taking control of the country. The previous president, al Hadi and his ministers, had resigned on the 22nd of January making it easier for the Houthi rebels. Human Rights : Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, language, [...] or any other status. We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. These rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible. The UN definition for Human Rights. Yemen does not comply with all of these conditions as there have been claims that people supporting the Houthi rebels without trial or charge and that refugees have been deported or not let in. Yemen is ranked last on the gender pay gap out of 135 countries. The Human rights watch reported discrimination and violence towards women. It is legal for a girl to get married at the age of 9. Homosexualtity is still a crime punished by death.

4 Background Information and Overview: The Middle East is an area that has a high Muslim population, however there are many forms of Islam which include Shia and Sunni. There are many conflicts between these two forms of Islam. In Yemen around 60 65% of the Muslim people are Sunni and 35 40% are Shias. The north of the country is mostly Sunni and the south has a high Shia population. Sunni people and Shia people do not always get along which sometimes leads to fights between them. The Houthi rebels in Yemen are of the minority Shia, and they perhaps wanted more recognition as well as a place in the government. Currently the country is going through its fourth civil war, which includes the time in which they were separate countries, after the Houthi soldiers took control of the capital city and the government. The Hadi government took back control of the government on February 26th 2015 on a televised broadcast. A month later, it was reported that he got on a boat to Saudi Arabia and is now helping the coalition of countries with the airstrikes on Houthi rebels. Major Countries and Organisations Involved : Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Sudan, Qatar, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Kuwait have all sent warplanes in support the Hadi Government. Saudi Arabia, Senegal and Sudan have also sent troops to Yemen to support Hadi. Egypt has sent four warships. In support but not fighting are Pakistan, with a naval blockade, Somalia and the Unites States of America, with intelligence, weapons and blockades. Saudi Arabia : is the leading country in the coalition of Arab countries, carrying out air strikes on Yemen. They began in 2009, after Houthi rebels entered and captured a small part of the country. The bombings began again on March 24 th 2015 with Operation Decisive Storm which then continued with Operation Restoring Hope on April 22 nd These have had much criticism due to around 1277 casualties, 473 of which were civilians. The Saudi airplanes have been bombing Sanaa International airport, intentionally or not, stopping air deliveries from humanitarian organisations.

5 International Committee of the Red Cross ( ICRC ) : The goal of the ICRC is to supply water, food supplies and medical kits to families around the country affected by the conflict. In 2014, the ICRC spent around 23.5 thousand euros in Yemen on protection, assistance The president of the organisation, Mr Maurer has stated The humanitarian situation is nothing short of catastrophic. Every family in Yemen has been affected by this conflict [...] The world needs to wake up to what is going on. The ICRC also helps families who have fled the country reunite with each. UNICEF : is working with its partners to help vaccinate children under 18 and pregnant women. It is also helping children get a proper education, fresh water and hygiene kits. Their goal by the end of 2015 is to help 7 million adults and 5 million children. Timeline of Events: 1918 : North Yemen gains independence from Ottoman Empire : North Yemen becomes the Yemen Arab Republic on the 26 th of September after a coup d'état by the Republican Party, overthrowing the Imam Muhammad al Badr. The Imam flees to Saudi Arabia and recruits an army to get his thrown back. This begins an 8 year civil war : The People s Republic of South Yemen is founded on November 30 th after the end of British rule : The civil war in the Yemen Arab Republic ended with Saudi Arabia s recognition of The Yemeni Republic : It is declared in the Arab League that their will be a united Yemen eventually : Civil war breaks out in South Yemen between the 13 th and the 26 th of January. It is believed the number of dead was between 4,000 and 10,000. The civil war was a failed coup d'état for the leadership of the Yemeni Socialist Party : On the 22 nd of May, North and South Yemen unite forming the Republic of Yemen. The president of North Yemen, Ali Abdullah Saleh, became the president of the new republic with Ali Salim al Beidh, the president of the Yemen Arab Republic, became the Vice President : Yemen becomes a member of the U.N. Security Council, however it abstained on many issue involving Kuwait and Iraq.

6 1993 : Vice President flees to Aden saying that the people from the North were attacking the Yemeni Socialist Party from the south : On the 27 th of April, a tank battle begins in Amran, near San a. Both the north and south are blamed for beginning the fight. On May the 4 th, civil war breaks out in the city of San a after it was bombed by Southern air forces killing dozen civilians. The north retaliates by bombing Aden. The president, Saleh declares a state of emergency lasting 30 and dismissing Vice President Ali al Badeih. All foreign nationals are removed from the country. On the 10 th the Prime Minister Haider Abu Bakr al Attas is also dismissed after appealing for international forces to help end the war. On the 21 st, the south declared its independence as the Democratic Republic of Yemen, however it had no recognition from other states. The UN Security Council adopted resolution 924 for a ceasefire and an end to the conflict. On June6 th a ceasefire is called but only lasts for hours. The northern forces capture the southern stronghold of Aden on the 7 th of July, thus most southern leaders flee into exile. The DRY became part of Yemen again : Sleh becomes the first president directly elected with around 96.2% of the votes : An attack on a U.S. naval vessel caused 17 deaths. The attacks are blamed on al Qaeda 2004 : The Houthi insurrection begins in June. Yemeni government troops fight followers of al Houthi in the north. Between June and August the number of dead is estimated between 500 and 1, : Fighting between the government and Houthi followers continues between March and April, it is reported that around 1,500 people are killed. In May, President Saleh offers to give pardon to followers as long as they surrendered but they refuse and fights continued. On the 21 st of the same month, the government released estimated damage of the insurgency which was 270 million U.S. dollars. In November, Houthis attempted to assassinate a Ministry of Justice official : Fighting broke out again in January where Houthi followers attacked many government installations. These attacks caused the deaths of six soldiers and injuring around twenty. Similar attacks on the 31st lead to the same number of deaths. The next day another 10 soldiers were killed in a roadblock attack. The month of February around 360 people, government and rebels, were killed including a french student. In July, the heads of the rebel group agreed to go into exile on Qatar after a ceasefire was agreed : The ceasefire was broken on the 29th of April after a rebel ambush causing the deaths of 10 Yemeni soldiers. The month of May proved to be deadly, with the deaths of around 1,000 government soldiers were killed and the injuring of another 30, : On the 11th of August the Yemeni military began Operation Scorched Earth, which included soldiers, tanks and fighter aircrafts, against a rebel stronghold in the north of the

7 country. The Houthi problem became an international problem in late September when Houthi rebels attacked Saudi Arabian border guards. At the end of October, Houthi rebels had captured two military headquarters after heavy clashes in the Razih region. During these clashes, a Yemeni general was killed. A few days later, another general was killed along with the regional security chief, in a Houthi ambush. On the 4th of September, Houthi soldiers shot dead a Saudi security officer in a cross border attack. They soldiers then gained control of a small mountainous area of the Jabal al Dukhan in Saudi Arabia, occupying two villages. The next day the Saudi government retaliated by bombing North Yemen. They reported that 40 rebels were killed and that they had recaptured the area. Two Houthi leaders were killed on November 16th with another killed on the 19th. There rebel claims that U.S. involvement began on the 14th of December when they launched 28 airstrikes in the regions of Amran, Hajjah and Sa'dah, killing around 120 rebels. The Houthis fought back with airstrikes which killed 63 people, 28 of which were children. On the 20th, a Houthi official claimed that Saudi airstrikes had killed 54 people in the town of Al Nadheer : On January 16th, another operation, Operation Blow to the Head, began to capture the city of Sa'adah. The outcome was the deaths of 34 rebels and the death of Al Qaeda in Yemen. On the 20th, the Houthis offered a truce and took their troops out of Saudi Arabia if the Saudi troops stopped fighting. On July 20th, clashes broke out in between the Houthis and a government backed tribe causing 49 deaths. The U.N. expressed their concern on what was happening in northern Yemen. Since the beginning of July to the end of November, around 215 people, including rebels, army and civilians, had been killed : A massive protest of 16,000 people begins on 27th of January shortly after the Tunisian government is toppled. They demand that the government bring changes to the constitution to help the economy grow and to get jobs. They also begin demanding that President Saleh resign after his 21 years as president ( 33 years in North Yemen ). The leader of the opposition, Tawakel Karman, led protests in February in a "Day of Rage". Over 20,000 people turn up to these protests. On the 27th, the leader of the Houthi rebels, Abdul Malik al Houthi, expressed his support for the protests which led to Houthi supporters going to the protests.in April a Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), wrote proposals to calm the problem. Saleh agreed at the beginning put on the 22nd of May, he refused to sign. Clashes broke out in the capital Sana'a. A few days later, the town of Zinjibar was captured by only 300 islamic fighters. A ceasefire was put in place on the 28th of March. The ceasefire broke two days later with attacks in the capital. On June the third, there was a murder attempt on President Saleh's life. It failed but left him injured, along with other political leaders. He fled to Saudi Arabia for surgery and only returned nearly four months later. On the 7th of September, it was announced that the leader of the protests would be

8 awarded the Nobel Peace Prize along with the Liberian President. On November 23rd, Saleh finally signed the GCC agreements. The terms were to give his Vice President, Abdu Rabbuh Mansur al Hadi, the power and to withdraw from power before the elections in : On the 23rd of January, the leader of the revolts Tawakel Karman was arrested and charged. This led to protests outside Sana'a university. She was released 30 hours later. In the presidential elections in February, 65% of people turned up to vote. The previous Vice President gained 99.8% of the votes. Part of the GCC agreements were to give him only two years of power, in which he had to draft a new constitution. Forty one of the ruling party's politicians resigned including many ambassadors. The revolution ended on the 27th of February : On the 28th of March, a GCC conference took place to draft a constitution for Yemen : Houthi rebels sign a peace accord from a U.N. envoy to give some power in the new government and so that they would stop fighting in the capital, Sana'a : On the 22nd of January, President Hadi resigns after his cabinet and his Prime Minister resign as well. He also resigns because the Houthi rebels have taken over the capital city where the government is. Two weeks later, a Houthi spokesman declares that there is a new Houthi government composed of 551 members has taken control of the country. This government only lasts 20 days as Hadi states that he is still the legitimate president of Yemen. On the 24th of March, the coalition of countries led by Saudi Arabia begin airstrikes with Operation Decisive Storm, followed by Operation Restoring Hope on the 22nd of April. Relevant UN Treaties and Events: U.N. Security Council Committee resolution 2140 (2014) : This resolution's goal is to impose a travel ban for people selected by the security council, who are thought to be disturbing the return of peace in Yemen. This is valid until the 25th of March It also asks for all parties to stop using the media for recruiting new rebels or soldiers and to stop recruiting children. It reminds the parties to comply with all of the international laws with no exception. U.N. Security Council Committee resolution 2201 (2015) : One of the goals of this resolution is to help the Yemeni government and the Houthis rebels to have peace talks and to ensure that they reach an agreement that is useful for both parties. Another goal is that all parties stop aiming

9 at harming civilians and to stop fighting in populated areas. This includes giving back all weapons seized by rebel groups from the army. Other U.N. resolutions include Resolution 2216 (2015), Resolution 2204 (2015), Resolution 2014 (2011) and Resolution 924 (1994) Previous Attempts to Solve the Issue: In 2011, the GCC's agreements to help Yemen become a stable state, which included President Saleh step down from power after nearly 22 years as president and the Vice President al Hadi getting power until the next elections in This originally failed as President Saleh refused to sign the agreements until November. He gave power to al Hadi on the 21st of January and then fled. In 2014, U.N. envoy called Jamal Benomar got the Houthi rebels to sign a peace treaty. The conditions were that they would get some power in the new government but they would have to withdraw their troops from Sana'a the capital. They did so but, on October 7th the designated Prime Minister is told to not accept by the rebels. Later that day, a bomb goes off near the Houthi rally in the capital, angering the rebels and they start fighting again. Al Qaeda claimed responsibility. Possible Solutions: A possible solution is that the U.N. or the GCC hold peace talks between the Houthi rebels and the previous government so that come to an agreement on how to rule the government. Another, more drastic solution is that the country splits again the pre 1990 so that the government has one and the rebels have the other.

10 Delegates are invited to look at both longer term solutions and at short term solutions for not only peace in the area but also the human rights issue in the country, the poverty and the treatment of women. Bibliography: we do/protecting civilians yemen 02 april isis yemen zimmerman july

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