1 - FANUC MACROS BASIC PROGRAM CODES 11

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1 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 - FANUC MACROS 1 General Introduction Review of G-codes, M-codes and Subprograms System Parameters Data Setting Custom Macros Probing Applications Overall View Macro Programming Macro Option Check What is a Macro Programming? Typical Features Main Program with Macro Features Using Macros Groups of Similar Parts Offset Control Custom Fixed Cycles Nonstandard Tool Motions Special G-codes and M-codes Alarm and Message Generation Replacing Control Options Hiding and Protecting Macro Programs Probing and Gauging Various Shortcuts and Utilities Skills Requirements BASIC PROGRAM CODES 11 Preparatory Commands Default Settings Modal Values Programming Format Miscellaneous Functions Programming Format M-codes with a Motion Custom M-codes Reference Tables G-codes for Milling Three-Digit G-codes M-codes for Milling G-codes for Turning M-codes for Turning Standard Program Codes Optional Program Codes xi

2 xii Table of Contents 3 - REVIEW OF SUBPROGRAMS 21 Subprogram Example - Mill Rules of Subprograms Subprogram Repetition Subprogram Nesting Subprogram Documentation Subprograms vs. Macros Unique Features CNC Lathe Applications Subprogram Development SYSTEM PARAMETERS 33 What are Parameters? Saving Parameters Backing Up Parameters Parameter Identification Numbering of Parameters Parameter Classification Parameters Grouping Parameter Display Screen Parameter Data Types Bit-Type Data Type Relationship of Parameters Byte Data Type Word Data Type Word Data Type Axis Data Type Important Observations Binary Numbers Setting and Changing Parameters Protection of Parameters Battery Backup Changing Parameters System Defaults Default Values Settings DATA SETTING 49 Input of Offsets Data Setting Command Coordinate Mode Absolute Mode Incremental Mode Work Offsets Standard Work Offset Input Additional Work Offset Input External Work Offset Input

3 Table of Contents xiii Offset Memory Types - Milling Geometry Offset Wear Offset Which Offset to Update? Memory Type A Memory Type B Memory Type C Memory Type and Macros Offset Memory Types - Turning Adjusting Offset Values Absolute Mode Incremental Mode Tool Offset Program Entry L-Address G10 Offset Data Settings - Milling Examples Valid Input Range Lathe Offsets P-Offset Number Tip Number Q G10 Offset Data Settings - Turning Examples Data Setting Check in MDI Programmable Parameter Entry Modal G10 Command N-address in G10 L50 Mode P-address in G10 L50 Mode R-address in G10 L50 Mode Program Portability Setting Machine Axes to Zero Bit Type Parameter Example Differences Between Control Models Effect of Block Numbers Block Skip MACRO STRUCTURE 73 Basic Tools Variables Functions and Constants Logical Functions Defining and Calling Macros Macro Definition Macro Call Arguments Visual Representation Macro Program Numbers Macro Program Protection Setting Definitions Program Numbers - Range O0001 to O Program Numbers - Range O8000 to O Program Numbers - Range O9000 to O Program Numbers - Range O9000 to O Difference Between the O8000 and O9000 Program Numbers

4 xiv Table of Contents 7 - CONCEPT OF VARIABLES 83 Types of Macro Variables Variables in Macros Definition of Variables Calculator Analogy Variable Data Variable Declaration Real Numbers and Integers Variable as an Expression Usage of Variables Decimal Point Usage Metric and English Units Least Increment Positive and Negative Variables Syntax Errors Restrictions Custom Machine Features ASSIGNING VARIABLES 93 Local Variables Defining Variables Clearing Local Variables Assigning Local Variables Assignment List 1 - Method Assignment List 2 - Method Missing Addresses Disallowed Addresses Simple and Modal Macro Calls Selection of Variables Main Program and Local Variables Local Variables and Nesting Levels Common Variables Volatile and Nonvolatile Memory Groups Input Range of Variables Out-of-Range Values Calculator Analogy Set Variable Name Function SETVN Protection of Common Variables MACRO FUNCTIONS 109 Function Groups Definition of Variables Revisited Referencing Variables Vacant or Empty Variables Axis Motion Commands and Null Variables Terminology Arithmetic Functions Nesting Arithmetic Operations and Vacant Variables Division by Zero

5 Table of Contents xv Trigonometric Functions Conversion to Decimal Degrees Available Functions Rounding Functions Rounding to a Fixed Number of Decimal Places FUP and FIX Functions Miscellaneous Functions SQRT and ABS Functions LN, EXP and ADP Functions Logical Functions Boolean Functions Binary Numbers Functions Boolean and Binary Examples Conversion Functions Evaluation of Functions - Special Test Order of Function Evaluation Approach to Practical Applications Using Local Variables Using Common Variables Speeds and Feeds Calculation SYSTEM VARIABLES 137 Identifying System Variables System Variables Groups Read and Write Variables Displaying System Variables System Variables for Fanuc Series Fanuc Model 0 Compared to Other Models System Variables for Fanuc Series 10/11/ System Variables for Fanuc Series 16/18/ Organization of System Variables Resetting Program Zero TOOL OFFSET VARIABLES 147 System Variables and Tool Offsets Tool Offset Memory Groups Tool Offset Memory - Type A Tool Offset Memory - Type B Tool Offset Memory - Type C Tool Offset Variables - Fanuc 0 Controls Milling Control FS-0M Turning Control - FS-0T Tool Offset Variables - FS 10/11/15/16/18/21 for Milling Assignments for 200 Offsets or Less - Memory Type A Assignments for 200 Offsets or Less - Memory Type B Assignments for 200 Offsets or Less - Memory Type C Assignments for More than 200 Offsets - Memory Type A Assignments for More Than 200 Offsets - Memory Type B Assignments for More than 200 Offsets - Memory Type C

6 xvi Table of Contents Tool Offset Variables - FS 10/11/15/16/18/21 for Turning Tool Setting Assignments for 64 Offsets or Less - Memory Type A Assignments for 64 Offsets or Less - Memory Type B Assignments for More than 64 Offsets - Memory Type A Assignments for More than 64 Offsets - Memory Type B MODAL DATA 163 System Variables for Modal Commands Fanuc 0/16/18/21 Modal Information Fanuc 10/11/15 Modal Information Preceding and Executing Blocks Modal G-codes Fanuc 0/16/18/ Fanuc 10/11/ Saving and Restoring Data Saving Modal Data Restoring Modal Data Other Modal Functions Fanuc 0/16/18/ Fanuc 10/11/ BRANCHES AND LOOPS 171 Decision Making in Macros IF Function Conditional Branching Unconditional Branching IF-THEN Option Single Conditional Expressions Combined Conditional Expressions Concept of Loops Single Process Multiple Process WHILE Loop Structure Single Level Nesting Loop Double Level Loop Triple Level Loop General Considerations Restrictions of the WHILE Loop Conditional Expressions and Null Variables Formula Based Macro - Sine Curve Clearing Common Variables ALARMS AND TIMERS 187 Alarms in Macros Alarm Number Alarm Message Alarm Format Embedding Alarm in a Macro Resetting an Alarm Message Variable - Warning, Not an Alarm

7 Table of Contents xvii Timers in Macros Time Information Timing an Event Dwell as a Macro AXIS POSITION DATA 193 Axis Position Terms Position Information AUTO MODE OPERATIONS 195 Controlling Automatic Operations Single Block Control M-S-T Functions Control Feedhold, Feedrate, and Exact Check Control Example of Special Tapping Operation Systems Settings Mirror Image Status Check Interpreting System Variable # Controlling the Number of Machined Parts EDITING MACROS 203 Editing Units Program Comments Abbreviations of Macro Functions PARAMETRIC PROGRAMMING 205 What is a Parametric Programming? Variable Data Benefits of Parametric Programming When to Program Parametrically Planned Approach to Macro Development FAMILY OF SIMILAR PARTS 209 Macro Development in Depth - Location Pin Drawing Evaluation Objective of the Macro Part Setup, Tooling and Machining Method Drawing Sketch Standard Program Identify Variable Data Creating Arguments Using Variables Writing the Macro Final Version Macro Improvements MACROS FOR MACHINING 221 Angular Hole Pattern - Version Variable Data for Angular Hole Pattern Angular Hole Pattern - Version

8 xviii Table of Contents Frame Hole Pattern Variable Data for Frame Hole Pattern Bolt Hole Circle Pattern Variable Data for Bolt Hole Circle Pattern Arc Hole Pattern Variable Data for Arc Hole Pattern Circular Pocket Roughing Variable Data for Circular Pocket Roughing Amount of Stock Left Circular Pocket Finishing Variable Data for Circular Pocket Finishing Slot Machining Macro Variable Data for Slot Machining Circular Groove with Multiple Depth From Subprograms to Macros Macro Version Development Rectangular Pocket Finishing CUSTOM CYCLES 255 Special Cycles Options Available G-code Macro Call M-functions Macro Call G13 Circle Cutting Cycle Macro Call - Normal Macro Call - as a Special Cycle Detailed Evaluation of Offset Value Counterboring Application EXTERNAL OUTPUT 267 Port Open and Port Close Commands Data Output Functions BPRNT Function Description DPRNT Function Description Parameter Settings - Fanuc 10/11/12/ Metric vs. Inch Format Parameter Settings - Fanuc 16/18/ Structure of External Output Functions Output Examples Blank Output Line Columns Formatting DPRNT Practical Examples Date Time Work Offset

9 Table of Contents xix 23 - PROBING WITH MACROS 275 What is Probing? Touch Probes Probing Technology Today Probe Calibration Feedrate and Probing Accuracy Probing Devices on CNC Machines In-Process Gauging Benefits Types of Probes Probe Size Probe Selection Criteria Machined Part Control System Capabilities Expected Tolerances Additional and Optional Features Associated Costs CNC Machine Probe Technology Optical Signal Transmission Inductive Signal Transmission Radio Signal Transmission In-Process Gauging Features to be Measured Center Location Measurement Measuring External or Internal Width Measuring Depth Measuring External Diameter Measuring Internal Diameter Measuring Angles Changing of Set Values Calibration Devices Calibrating device - Type Calibrating device - Type Checking the Calibration Device Centering Macro Example Probe Length Calibration Skip Command G ADDITIONAL RESOURCES 295 Limitations During Macro Execution Single Block Setting Block Number Search Block Skip Function MDI Operation Edit Mode Control Reset Feedhold Switch

10 xx Table of Contents Knowledge for Macro Programming General Skills Manual Programming Experience Math Applications Setup Practices Machining Practices Control and Machine Operation Complementary Resources Industrial Press, Inc Internet Practical Programming Approach Macro Programming Tips MACRO COURSE OUTLINE 301 Macro Course Outline Closing Comments Index WHAT'S ON THE CD-ROM? 313

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