Biology and Society, Exam II

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1 iology and Society, Exam II Name There are 50 multiple choice questions. Answer A for true, for false. Write your NAME on the scantron and above, and ID NUMER in the identification number blank on the scantron. Choose the best answer to each question. Make sure that you fill in one and only one scantron bubble for each question. If you feel a question or the answer options are ambiguous, please ask me to clarify during the exam. If you have objections following the exam, we can look at your reasoning. 1. Which of the following is a FALSE statement about mitosis? a. It is responsible for creating almost every cell in your body. b. It only occurs when cells form tumors. c. It occurs more frequently when your body is repairing a wound. d. Some types of cells in your body go through mitosis more often than others. 2. enign tumors are different than malignant in that benign tumors a. Are non-invasive b. Are metastatic c. Usually have many more genetic mutations d. Go through more mitotic divisions 3. Which of the following is the correct order of events in mitosis? a. prophase, anaphase, telophase, metaphase b. prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase c. prophase, metaphase, telophase, anaphase d. telophase, metaphase, anaphase, prophase 4. Which of the following happens during anaphase? Chromosomes a. Condense b. Uncondense and the nucleus reforms c. Line up in the middle of the cell d. Are pulled apart into 2 chromosomes 5. When is DNA polymerase active in the cell cycle? a. Anaphase b. Gap phase c. S-phase d. Prophase 6. Which of the following is an example of a negative feedback? a. A person eats a lot of food, causing them to feel full and eat less food. b. Many people start wearing a particular style of shirt. As a result, stores carry more of them, and more people buy and wear that shirt. c. A person becomes depressed, loses friends, and becomes more depressed. d. A population of rabbits is in an environment with no predators and plenty of food. They reproduce, and their offspring also reproduce, resulting in more rabbits. 7. Which of the following is a role of proteins in regulating the cell cycle? a. They act as receptors for growth factors. b. They repair damaged DNA. c. They can cause the cell to kill itself. d. All of the above are possible roles. 8. What is the most basic cause of cancer? a. genetic mutation b. tumors c. damage to cell membranes d. excessive blood loss 9. True/False: Proto-oncogenes produce proteins that help regulate the cell cycle. 10. True/False: The difference between benign and malignant tumors may be the number or type of genetic mutations. 11. True/False: Cancer incidence (occurrence) has decreased in the U.S. in the past fifty years. 12. True/False: Cigarette smoke can cause cancer because it increases the rate of genetic mutation.

2 13. What describes cancerous cells that spread through the body in lymph and blood vessels? a. Metastatic b. enign c. Proto-oncogenic d. Tumorous 14. Which of the following cells is NOT a direct product of mitosis? a. nerve cell b. sperm cell c. muscle cell d. skin cell 15. Suppose that a cell is unable to replicate its DNA. Which of the following would NOT be present in this cell? a. centromere b. sister chromatids c. DNA d. genes e. homologous chromosomes 16. If a normal diploid cell has 8 chromosomes, then a. there are 4 chromosomes per cell after meiosis I b. there are 8 homologous pairs of chromosomes per diploid cell c. there are 8 chromatids per diploid cell between S phase and the first division of meiosis d. sperm cells made from this diploid cell would have 8 chromosomes 17. The main difference between meiosis and mitosis is that a. DNA replicates during mitosis, but does not during meiosis. b. During mitosis, sister chromatids separate; they do not during meiosis. c. Mitosis increases chromosome number in each cell, while meiosis decreases it. d. Mitosis makes genetically identical copies; meiosis does not. e. None of the above. 18. True/False: The cell below is diploid. Q L D 19. Which of the following is a true statement about the human life cycle? a. Fertilization produces gametes. b. Meiosis produces zygotes. c. Zygotes go through meiosis. 20. True/False: A diploid parent cell is haploid after telophase I. 21. Which of these cells is shown during metaphase I of meiosis? a. b. c. d. None of these. 22. A cell has 40 chromosomes during G1 phase. How many sister chromatids does that cell have during prophase I of meiosis? a. 10 b. 20 c. 40 d. 80

3 23. A cell has these chromosomes: b b L L l l If crossing-over occurs between one chromatid of each chromosome, what gametes would be produced? a. L, bl b. LL, bbll c. L, l, bl, bl d. bll 24. True/False: Random alignment results in chromosomes that have different combinations of alleles than they had before. 25. A human sperm cell joins with an egg to produce a child with trisomy 21. If the egg cell had a normal chromosome number, how many chromosomes were in the sperm cell? a. 46 b. 47 c. 23 d True/False: Interspecies hybrids are often sterile, because they cannot make proper gametes. 27. True/False: A nerve cell is different than a muscle cell, because the cells contain different genes. 28. A heterozygous genotype is different than homozygous in that it contains a. 2 different genes b. 2 different alleles c. 2 homologous chromosomes d. 2 sister chromatids 29. Albinism is a recessive trait. If a carrier for albinism has kids with someone who is homozygous dominant, what are their chances of having an albino child? a. 0 b. ¼ c. ½ d. ¾ 30. What are the chances that 2 people who are carriers of the sickle cell allele will have a child with no anemia? a. 0 b. ¼ c. ¾ d.100% 31. True/False: A man who has A blood type has a child who is type A. The mother could be any blood type (A,, O, or A). 32. What is the relationship between the I A and I alleles in blood type inheritance? a. One is dominant over the other. b. They are codominant. c. They are both recessive to the i allele. 33. Two parents have a child that has sickle-cell anemia, a disease caused by a recessive mutation. Which of the following is true? a. oth parents must be homozygous for the sickle-cell allele. b. One parent must be homozygous for the sickle-cell allele, but the other can be homozygous for the normal allele. c. oth parents must have at least one copy of the sickle-cell allele. d. One parent must be homozygous for the sickle-cell allele, but the other can be heterozygous. 34. True/False: Individuals who are carriers of genetic diseases usually have homozygous genotypes for the trait. 35. Which of the following is an example of a qualitative (non-quantitative) trait? a. irth weight b. Musical ability c. Rh factor (+/- on blood type) d. Skin color 36. True/False: etween identical twins, any measurable differences in IQ are due to environmental as opposed to genetic factors.

4 37. Traits that are highly heritable a. Can be passed on from parents to offspring. b. Are not strongly influenced by environmental factors. c. Are likely to be quantitative. d. Are entirely the result of genetics. 38. A study shows a high correlation in intelligence between adoptive parents and their adopted children. This supports the idea that intelligence a. is highly heritable. b. is not highly heritable. c. has a strong environmental component. d. has little environmental component. 39. True/False: Viruses can reproduce without a host cell. 40. Which does NOT occur in an HIV infection? a. DNA is transcribed to RNA b. RNA is incorporated into the host chromosome. c. Proteins are translated. d. RNA is reverse transcribed into DNA. 41. In an immune response, which happens first? a. Lymphocytes produce antibodies b. Antibodies bind to lymphocyte receptors c. Antigens bind to lymphocyte receptors d. Viruses are destroyed by immune system. 42. How does HIV maintain itself in the body during the asymptomatic phase? a. It replicates very slowly. b. It mutates every time it replicates, becoming unrecognizable to the immune system. c. Antibodies quickly recognize the HIV antigens. d. It attacks and disables antibodies. 43. True/False: Natural selection is impossible without mutation. 44. True/False: Organisms can be perfectly adapted to their environments. 45. Which of the following is a Darwinian explanation for why roses have thorns? a. Roses needed thorns to protect themselves from predators. b. Roses acquired thorns in response to predation and passed them on to their children. c. Roses that had mutations for thorns survived and produced more offspring than those that did not. d. Roses mutated rapidly in response to predation. 46. Which of the following is NOT a central part of the logic of natural selection? a. Resources are limited. b. Survival is random. c. Variation is heritable. d. There is variation in traits within a population. 47. A bird with too small of a bill cannot crack open large nuts, but a bird with too large of a bill also has limited access to food in that it cannot pick small seeds out of their pods. Selection of bill size in birds based upon food accessibility is most likely a. Directional b. Stabilizing c. Diversifying d. Electrifying 48. True/False: A large bill on a bird is not an adaptation in an environment with very small seeds. 49. Which of the following best describes HIV response to single drug therapy? a. HIV mutates in order to acquire drug resistance. b. Resistant HIV mutants already present in the system survive and leave more offspring than non-resistant forms. c. The drug increases HIV mutation rates. 50. True/False: Taking multiple HIV medications one-at-a-time is just as effective as taking them simultaneously.

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