# Direct versus Alternating Current Things We Can Measure

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1 Phil Sherrod W4PHS

2 Direct versus Alternating Current Things We Can Measure Direct Current (DC) Alternating Current (AC) Voltage Voltage (peak, RMS) Current Current (peak, effective) Power True power, Apparent power Resistance Resistance, Reactance, Impedance --- Frequency --- Phase

3 Resistance and Reactance Resistance (R) is simple it resists or holds back the flow of current. Resistance comes from resistors. There are two types of reactance (X): Capacitive reactance (X C ) Inductive reactance (X L ) Impedance (Z) is the combined effect of resistance and reactance. Admittance (Y) is the reciprocal of impedance.

4 Resistors A resistor resists electric flow. It makes it hard for electricity to move through it. Electrical symbol: Resistance is measured in Ohms. The greater the resistance (more Ohms), the harder it is for electricity to flow through it. A pure resistor does not change resistance value depending on frequency. However, most real resistors have some inductance and some capacitance.

5 Water Analogy for Resistor

6 Capacitors A capacitor stores electricity like a rechargeable battery. They can be recharged trillions of times. Capacitance is measured in Farads. Capacitors pass AC current and block DC. Capacitive reactance (X C ) decreases with frequency. The lower the frequency, the greater the reactance. Electrical symbol:

7 Water Analogy for Capacitor

8 Inductors An inductor is a coil of wire Inductors store energy in a magnetic field. Inductors impede the flow of AC but pass DC. Inductive reactance (X L ) increases with frequency As frequency increases, inductive reactance increases Inductance is measured in Henries All real inductors have some resistance Electrical symbol:

9 Water Analogy for Inductor

10 Powers of 10 Giga = 10 9 (1,000,000,000) Mega = 10 6 (1,000,000) Kilo = 10 3 (1,000) Milli = 10-3 (0.001) Micro = 10-6 ( ) Nano = 10-9 ( ) Pico = ( )

11 Entering Powers of 10 on Calculator Look for the EE key on the calculator. EE stands for Enter Exponent. Press EE then enter the power of 10. Press the +/- key after the value to negate it. Enter 2 megaohms: 2, EE, 6 = 2,000,000 Enter 500 MHZ: 500, EE, 6 = 500,000,000 Enter 23 millivolts: 23, EE, 3, +/- = Enter 19 picofarads: 19, EE, 12, +/- =

12 Inductive Reactance (X L ) X L = 2 π f L f = frequency in Hertz, L is inductance in Henrys. What is X L for a 10 microhenry (10-6 ) inductor at 500 MHz (10 6 )? X L = 2 π 500 EE 6 10 EE 6 X L = 31,416 Ω

13 Capacitive Reactance (X C ) X C = 1 2 π f C f = frequency in Hertz, C = Capacitance in Farads What is X C for 19 pf (10-12 ) capacitor at 21.2 MHz (10 6 )? X C = 1 2 π 19EE EE 6 = = 395 Ω

14 Impedance: Resistance & Reactance Impedance (Z) is the combination of resistance (R) and reactance (X). Resistance and Reactance are kept separate and not added together. Impedance is written Z = R ±j X Where R is resistance and X is reactance Resistance is always positive (or zero) Reactance can be positive or negative or zero If R = 100 Ω, and X = 200 Ω, Z = j200 Ω

15 Electric Phase = Time Along Wave Phase is the position of a sine wave in time Phase is measured from 0 to 360 degrees The sine wave has values of 0 at 0, 180 and 360 degrees The peak positive value is at 90 The peak negative value is at 270

16 Current/Voltage Waves In-phase If you put an AC current through a resistor, current and voltage are in phase. Amplitude is different, but peaks and zero crossings match.

17 Phase Shifted Waves In AC circuits with capacitors and inductors, the phase can be shifted. The amount of shift is the phase shift. Voltage can lead current or current can lead voltage.

18 Inductor: Voltage leads Current If you measure voltage across an inductor and current through it, the voltage leads the current by 90. The is the same as saying the current lags the voltage.

19 Capacitor: Current Leads Voltage If you put a voltage across a capacitor, the voltage leads the current by 90. This is the same as saying the current lags the voltage by 90.

20 Phase Shift May Not Be 90 If you have a resistor in the circuit with a capacitor or inductor, the phase shift will be less than 90.

21 Here s How To Remember ELI the ICE man ELI ICE E = Voltage I = Current L = Inductor C = Capacitor I = Current E = voltage Voltage (E) leads Current (I) Current (I) leads Voltage (E) Current (I) lags Voltage (E) Voltage (E) lags Current (I) ELI is hot, temperature is + ICE is cold, temperature is - Inductive reactance X L is +j Capacitive reactance X C is -j Pure inductor, phase shift 90 Pure capacitor, phase shift 90

22 Exam Questions E5B09, E5B10 E5B09: What is the relationship between the current through a capacitor and the voltage across a capacitor? Answer D: Current leads voltage by 90. ( ICE ) E5B10: What is the relationship between the current through an inductor and the voltage across an inductor? Answer A: Voltage leads current by 90. ( ELI )

23 Practicing Impedance If R = 100 Ω and X L = 200 Ω, what is Z? Ans.: Z = 100 +j200 (Note, X L is positive) If R = 1000 Ω and X C = 500 Ω, what is Z? Ans.: Z = 1000 j500 (Note, X C is negative)

24 Series Impedance If two or more components are in series, the total impedance (Z) is the sum of the resistance and reactance. X L is +, X C is R = 250 X L = j245 X C = -j1768 Z = 250 j1523

25 Resonance In a circuit with an inductor and a capacitor, resonance occurs when X L equals X C, because they cancel each other out. Remember, X L is positive and X C is negative Example, R=50, X L = +j100, X C = -j100, Z = 50

26 Calculating Resonant Frequency Resonance occurs when X L = X C X L = 2 π f L X C = 1/(2 π f C) Resonance when X L = X C Resonance when 2 π f L = 1/(2 π f C) FR = 1 2 π L C

27 Rectangular Coordinates Position is specified as a pair of numbers (x,y) X is the horizontal axis. Y is the vertical axis. X and Y coordinates can be negative. Here is a point at (12,5) [x=12, y=5]

28 Plotting Impedance Values Impedance (Z) has two components: Resistance (R) which is always positive or zero Reactance (X) which can be positive or negative Inductance is +j Capacitance is j Remember, ELI the ICE man (ELI is hot, ICE is cold) Written Z = R ±jx Examples: 100 +j j75 Impedance can be plotted using rectangular coordinates for resistance and reactance. Later we will learn how to write impedance using polar coordinates magnitude and angle.

29 Resistance, Reactance Plane The vertical j axis is reactance (+ inductive, - capacitive) ELI the ICE man The horizontal axis is resistance (can t be negative) Figure E5-2 pg

30 Impedance Chart Exercise Write down impedance for each point Z = R ±jx Which points are impossible? Which points are inductive and which are capacitive? Figure E5-2 pg

31 Exam Question E5C19 (pg ) E5C19: Which point on Figure E5-2 best represents that impedance of a series circuit consisting of a 400 ohm resistor and a 38 picofarad (38 EE -12) capacitor at 15 MHz (15 EE 6)? X C = 1 2 π f C Xc = 1/(2 π 38 EE EE 6) X C = Ω Z = 400 j279 Answer: Point 4

32 Exam Question E5C20 (pg ) E5C20: Which point in Figure E5-2 best represents the impedance of a series circuit consisting of a 300 ohm resistor and an 18 microhenry (18 EE -6) inductor at MHz (3.505 EE 6)? X L = 2 π f L X L = 2 π EE 6 18 EE -6 X L = Ω Z = 300 +j395 Answer: Point 3

33 Exam Question E5C22 (pg ) E5C22: In rectangular coordinates, what is the impedance of a network consisting of a 10 microhenry inductor in series with a 40 ohm resistor at 500 MHz? X L = 10 microhenry inductor at 500 MHz X L = 2 π f L X L = 2 π 500 EE 6 10 EE -6 = Z = 40 + j31416 Ans. A 40 + j31,400

34 Polar Coordinates A point is specified by a distance from the origin and a rotation angle. Written: magnitude angle An angle of 0 is on the +X axis. Rotation is in a counterclockwise direction. Impedance can be in rectangular or polar coordinates

35 Quick Tips Solve Without Math! Rectangular: Z = R ±jx Polar: Z = Z ± Z is magnitude of impedance, is angle Z is always greater than R or X Z is always less than R + X If R = X then = ±45 + if +X, - if -X If R (resistance) X (reactance) then 45 If X (reactance) > R (resistance) then 45 If reactance is inductive (+), angle is positive If reactance is capacitive (-), angle is negative If resistance and reactance are 300 and 400, Z = 500 If 14 is a possible answer choice, it is always right.

36 Exam Question E5C01 (pg ) E5C01: In polar coordinates, what is the impedance of a network consisting of a 100 ohm reactance inductor in series with a 100 ohm resistor. Z = 100 +j100 Since resistance = reactance, the angle must be 45 Z is > 100 and < 200 Answer is B: 141 ohms at an angle of 45 degrees

37 Exam Question E5C02 (pg ) E5C02: in polar coordinates, what is the impedance of a network consisting of a 100 ohm reactance inductor, a 100 ohm reactance capacitor, and a 100 ohm resistor all connected in series? X L = +j100 X C = -j100 X TOTAL = +j100 j100 = 0 Z = 100 Ω pure resistance Point is on the horizontal (resistance) axis Answer D: 100 ohms at an angle of 0 degrees

38 Exam Question EC503 (pg ) EC503: In polar coordinates, what is the impedance of a network consisting of a 300 ohm reactance capacitor, a 600 ohm reactance inductor, and a 400 ohm resistor, all connected in series? X L = +j600 X C = -j300 X TOTAL = +j600 j300 = +j300 (inductive, positive ) Z = 400 +j300 Since R X, angle < 45 Z (magnitude) > 400 and < 700 (3, 4 = 5) Answer A: 500 ohms at 37 degrees

39 Exam Question E5C04 (pg ) E5C04: In polar coordinates, what is the impedance of a network consisting of a 400 ohm reactance capacitor in series with a 300 ohm resistor? R = 300 X C = -j400 (capacitor = negative, so angle is negative) Z = 300 j400 Z (magnitude) > 400 and < 700 (3, 4 = 5) Angle is > -45 (because reactance > resistance) Answer D: 500 ohms at an angle of degrees

40 Exam Questions E5C06, E5C08 E5C06: In polar coordinates, what is the impedance of a network consisting of a 100 ohm reactance capacitor in series with a 100 ohm resistor? Answer D: 141 ohms at -45 degrees E5C08: In polar coordinates, what is the impedance of a network comprised of a 300 ohm reactance inductor in series with a 400 ohm resistor? Answer B: 500 ohms at an angle of 37 degrees

41 Exam Question E5B11, E5B12 E5B11: What is the phase angle between the voltage across and the current through a series RLC circuit if X C is 25 ohms, R is 100 ohms, and X L is 50 ohms? Z = 100 +j25 (R > X so angle < 45 ) Answer B: 14 with voltage leading current (ELI) E5B12: What is the phase angle between the voltage across and the current through a series RLC circuit if X C is 75 ohms, R is 100 ohms, and X L is 50 ohms? Z = 100 j25 (R > X so angle < 45 ) Answer C: 14 with voltage lagging current (ICE)

42 Exam Question E5C18 (pg. 3-54) E5C18: In polar coordinates, what is the impedance of a series circuit consisting of a resistance of 4 ohms, an inductive reactance of 4 ohms, and a capacitive reactance of 1 ohm? X L = +j4 X C = -j1 Reactance adds: X = +j4 j1 = +j3 Z = 4 +j3 (positive reactance, so inductive) Z = 5 because 3, 4 5 Z = = 5 Since R > X, angle < 45 Answer: B 5 ohms at 37 degrees

43 Rectangular to Polar Conversion r = x 2 + y 2 = tan 1 (y x) Rectangular: x = 12 y = 5 Polar: Z Resistance (R) on X axis = 12 Inductance (X) on Y axis = 5 Z = = 13 ( Z is hypotenuse: r) = tan 1 (5 12) = (5, 12)

44 Exam Question E5C15 (pg ) E5C15: In polar coordinates, what is the impedance of a circuit of 100 j100 ohms impedance? Resistance (R) = 100 Reactance (X) = -j100 Z = 100 j100 Z = ( 100) 2 = Ω = tan 1 ( ) = -45 Z = Answer: A 141 ohms at an angle of -45 degrees

45 Exam Question E5C18 E5C18: In polar coordinates, what is the impedance of a series circuit consisting of a resistance of 4 ohms, an inductive reactance of 4 ohms, and a capacitive reactance of 1 ohm? Z = 4 + j4 j1 = 4 + j3 Z = = 5 Ω = tan 1 (3 4) = Z = 5 37 Answer: B 5 ohms at an angle of 37 degrees

46 Admittance in Polar Coordinates Admittance is the opposite of impedance. The larger the value, the easier it is for current to flow. Polar form: Y = Y ± Units = Siemens How to convert polar admittance to polar impedance: Compute inverse of magnitude Y Negate the angle, Z = 1 Y -

47 Exam Question E5C16 (pg ) E5C16: In polar coordinates, what is the impedance of a circuit that has an admittance of 7.09 millisiemens at 45 degrees? Y = 7.09 EE Z = EE 3-45 Z = Ans. B: 141 ohms at an angle of -45 degrees

48 Polar to Rectangular Conversion R = Z cos( ) X = Z sin( ) Polar: Z = 13 = R = 13 cos(22.6) = 12 X = 13 sin(22.6) = 5 (since is +, X is +) (12, 5)

49 Exam Question E5C17 (pg ) E5C17: In rectangular coordinates, what is the impedance of a circuit that has an admittance of 5 millisiemens at -30 degrees? Polar Admittance (Y) = 5 EE Reciprocal of magnitude = 1/5 EE -3 = 200 Ω Polar: R = 200 cos(30) = Ω (note, we reversed sign of angle) X = 200 sin(30) = 100 Ω (X is + because is +) Z = j100 Ans. C: j100

50 Power Factor In DC circuits, power calculation is easy: Power (watts) = E (volts) I (amps) If there is a 12 volt drop (E) across a resistor carrying 10 amps (I), then Power = = 120 watts Power calculation in AC circuits is more complex: Voltage (E) is changing with time Current (I) is changing with time Voltage and current may be out of phase

51 Power in AC Circuits Root Mean Square (RMS) voltage: RMS voltage is the equivalent AC voltage that causes the same heating in a resistor as a constant DC voltage. For a sine wave: E RMS = E peak = E peak to peak E peak = 1.41 E RMS E peak to peak = E RMS If E peak is 170 volts, E RMS = = 120 volts If E RMS is 120, E peak to peak is = 339 volts

52 RMS Voltage for Sine Wave

53 Power Factor with E and I In Phase Simple case: voltage and current are in phase Instantaneous Power = E I (just like DC)

54 Power Factor, E and I Out of Phase Instantaneous Power = E I Power factor Power factor depends on amount of phase shift

55 Different Types of Power Real Power (W) = Power that actually does work. Apparent Power (VA) is simply E I. This is also called Total Power. Reactive Power (VAR) is power through inductor or capacitor. It is stored in the inductor or capacitor but does not do any actual work in the circuit load. Real power is measured in watts Apparent power is measured in volt-amps Reactive power is measured in volt-amps-reactive Only resistors use real power

56 Calculating Power Factor

57 Calculating Power Factor Power Factor (PF) = Real Power Apparant Power Real power = PF Apparant power Power factor = cos( ) Note: cos(90 ) = 0.0 No real power dissipated if phase shift = 90 Note: cos(0 ) = 1.0 (PF = 1.0 if no phase shift) If voltage and current are in phase, power factor = 1.0 and real power = apparent power (pure resistance)

58 Exam Question E5D12 (pg ) E5D12: How many watts are consumed in a circuit having a power factor of 0.2 if the input is 100 volts at 4 amps? Apparent power (VA) = = 400 VA W = PF VA W = = 80 watts Ans. B: 80 watts

59 Exam Question E5D11 (pg ) E5D11: What is the power factor of an R-L circuit having a 60 degree phase angle between the voltage and the current: PF = cos(60) = 0.5 Ans. C: 0.5

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