# Energy Units and Conversion

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1 Unit Conversion: Energy Units and Conversion Cf = Cubic Feet Ccf = Hundred Cubic Feet Mcf = Thousand Cubic Feet MMcf = Million Cubic Feet Btu = British Thermal unit MMBtu = Million Btu GJ = gigajoule (metric measure of energy) Dth = decatherm KW = Kilowatt KWh = Kilowatt hour MW = Megawatt MWH = Megawatt hour 1 Cf = 1,015 Btu 1 Cf = Therm* 1 Ccf = 101,500 Btu 1 Ccf = Therm* 1 Therm = 100,000 Btu 1 Dth = 10 therms 10 therms = 1 MMBtu 1,000,000 Btu = 1 MMBtu 1 Dth = 1 MMBtu 1,000 Mcf = 1 MMcf 1,000 MMcf = 1 Bcf 1 MMcf = 1,015 MMBtu* 1 GJ = 0.95 MMBtu 1,000 KWh = 1 MWh 1,000 KW = 1 MW * This conversion varies with energy content of the gas 6

2 Aggregator (Supplier) Balancing Baseload Bcf British Thermal Unit Btu Capacity Release Cashout Ccf Citygate Citygate Critical Day Critical Period Curtailment Customer Account # Daily Balancing Daily Metered Customers DCQ 7 Any party (such as an ESCO) that is approved by the LDC to deliver gas supplies to an Aggregation Group. This term has the same meaning as Aggregation Pool Operator for Non-Daily Metered Customers and Pool Operator for Daily Metered Customers. A process that reconciles actual customer use with the amount of natural gas delivered to the LDC citygate. The difference between these two is called an imbalance. As applied to gas, the portion of a customer s or group of customers load that does not vary seasonally or in response to variation in temperature. BCF Billion cubic feet. The quantity of heat required to raise one pound of water (about one pint) one degree Fahrenheit at or near its point of maximum density. It is common in the natural gas industry to use the general/average value of 1034 BTUs = 1 Cubic Foot. British Thermal Unit (Energy) Space on the interstate pipeline allowing the Company or other shippers to move gas from the source (well head) to the city gate for further distribution on the Company s system. The Company will release capacity or assign capacity as required by tariff and as available and desired by Customers and/or suppliers. Capacity Release Releasing capacity to an ESCO in order for the ESCO to meet their operational requirements. Both the pipeline capacity and storage field capacity are released. Procedures by which CNGC and ESCOs resolve imbalances through cash payments. 100 Cubic Feet (Volumetric) or approximately 1.03 therms Point that natural gas enters CNGC system from other pipelines The point of interconnection between a pipeline and a local distribution company where gas is delivered to the LDC. CNGC has four main citygates. A critical day exists when the LDC declares an operational flow order (OFO). A period of operational stress or impending potential stress that may impact the integrity of the LDC s gas distribution system or a force majeure event. The reduction of gas deliveries to customers or Direct Customers initiated by the Company to maintain the integrity of the Company s distribution system and/or when there is a shortage of supply or a lack of capacity on an Upstream Pipeline and/or the Company s distribution system. The utility specific unique identifier associated with a utility customer. The process wherein CNGC accommodates the difference, on a daily basis, between the actual usage of the ESCO's SC7, & SC 11 retail customers and the quantity of gas delivered by the ESCO to CNGC s distribution system. Minimum usage must be equal to or greater than 25,000 dekatherms annually Daily Contract Quantity

3 Degree Days Design Day Direct Customer Distribution Line Dth Dual-Fuel EBB EDI ESCO FERC Firm Service Force Majeure FT Fuel Loss See Gas Day Gross Receipts Tax 8 GRT A measure of deviation in temperature used to indicate the need for gas to serve heating loads. The number of degree days on a day is calculated by subtracting the average daily temperature (average of the daily high and low temperatures) from 65 degrees Fahrenheit. A 24-hour period of demand which is used as a basis for planning gas capacity requirements. A transportation customer who acts on its own behalf to purchase and arrange to bring natural gas to the Company s city gate for its own consumption and not for resale. A Direct Customer may aggregate and schedule load for itself and other Direct Customers, but each Direct Customer continues to be responsible individually for meeting balancing and other requirements placed on Direct Customers. Company owned pipelines, which deliver gas directly to a Customer s facility. Dekatherm. A unit of heating (or thermal) value equal to 10 Therms or one million BTUs (Energy). 1 MMBtu = 1 Dth (or dt). Capability The ability of a commercial or industrial end-user to burn fuels other than natural gas, usually coal or fuel oil, at its option. Electronic Bulletin Board Electronic Data Interchange Energy Service Company. A gas ESCO is any party that is responsible for arranging gas deliveries to the LDC city gate. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. An independent federal agency created in 1977 which regulates, among other things, interstate wholesale sales and transportation of natural gas at just and reasonable rates. The highest quality sales or transmission service offered to customers under a rate schedule that anticipates no interruption in that service. CNGC provides firm service to all gas customers. An Act of God or other unexpected and disruptive event beyond the control of buyer or seller which interferes with or precludes a party s ability to perform under a contract. A force majeure clause in a contract is intended to excuse a party from performing a contract obligation of the event asserted is of the type specifically included within the language of the clause. Courts strictly construe a force majeure. Firm Transportation. Lost And Unaccounted For (LAUF) Gas in CNGC s Tariff A period of twenty-four consecutive hours beginning at 10:00 a.m. and ending at 10:00 a.m. Eastern Clock Time, the next calendar day. Comprised of New York State imposed taxes including Gross Income Tax, Gross Earnings Tax, Surcharge on Gross Revenue, Excess Dividends Taxes - plus where applicable, Metropolitan Transportation Business Tax Surcharge and Municipal Tax. (Also referred to as Tax Surcharge Factor). Gross Receipts Tax

4 HEFPA Human Needs Customer Imbalance Import Tax IT LAUF LDC Local Gas Mandatory Release Capacity Customer(s) MAOP MDQ NAESB Negative Imbalance Nomination Home Energy Fair Practices Act The Home Energy Fair Practices Act (HEFPA) is New York's utility consumer ``bill of rights". Adopted in 1981 to establish and consolidate in Article 2 of the Public Service Law, HEFPA outlines the basic rights and remedies of New York's residential utility energy consumers. It is one of the strongest consumer protection statutes for electric and gas customers in the nation, and is the linchpin of our State's universal service policy. High priority customers such as residences, hospitals and nursing homes, for which failure to get gas could be life threatening (also known as Critical Care Customer ). The difference, on a daily basis, between the actual usage of the Distribution Customer s Retail Customer service points, grossed up for losses, and the quantity of gas delivered by the Distribution Customer to the Distribution Provider s system for such service points. A positive imbalance occurs when the quantity received exceeds the quantity delivered. A negative imbalance occurs when the quantity delivered exceeds the quantity received. New York State tax imposed on volumes of gas owned by the Customer and transported into New York State via interstate gas pipelines. The tax is state mandated and remitted to New York State by the Company. Interruptible transportation. Lost And Unaccounted For Gas Local Distribution Company. The company whose primary function is to distribute gas supply procured by it or by ESCOs or Direct Customers, to retail gas users. LDCs also provide transportation service to retail end users as well as other services. Gas produced and delivered within New York State. Not subject to Federal agency (FERC) regulations or New York State import tax. A Non Daily Metered Aggregation Customer or any Daily Metered Critical Care Customer without an alternate fuel. Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure. The maximum pressure at which a gas system may be operated. The maximum daily quantity of firm sales that the Company is obligated to provide to the Customer or Pool Operator. North American Energy Standards Board A nonprofit North American industry association whose mission is to develop and promote standards to simplify and expand electronic communications, and to simplify and streamline business practices that will lead to a seamless marketplace for natural gas. Quantity of gas delivered (consumption) in excess of the quantity of gas received by the Company. A shipper s request to move a certain volume of gas on a pipeline during a given period. Most nominations are made on a daily basis, although intraday nominations are required by NAESB standards and hourly nominations are possible on some pipeline systems. 9

5 Transmission Line UBP Unbundled Pipelines which are used to transport gas to a local distribution Company Uniform Business Practices (UBP Addendum) The characteristic of having been separated, i.e. the Company s various services have been "unbundled" by various tariff revisions to allow the Company's transportation Customers to choose only the services which they require, and pay only for these services. 10

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