Q1. The table shows the composition of blood entering and leaving the lungs. Concentration in arbitrary units. Oxygen Carbon dioxide 46 40

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1 Q. The table shows the composition of blood entering and leaving the lungs. Gas Concentration in arbitrary units Blood entering lungs Blood leaving lungs Oxygen Carbon dioxide (a) Describe, in as much detail as you can, the changes that take place in the composition of blood as it passes through the lungs. (3) Which part of the blood: (i) transports most carbon dioxide;... (ii) transports most oxygen?... (2) (Total 5 marks) Q2. The diagram shows four ways in which molecules may move into a cell and out of a cell. The dots show the concentration of molecules. Page of 6

2 The cell is respiring aerobically. Write the correct letter, A, B, C or D, next to each process. Process Arrow A, B, C or D The movement of oxygen molecules The movement of carbon dioxide molecules The active uptake of glucose molecules (Total 3 marks) Q3. Some students set up the following apparatus. The balances show the same mass at the start of the investigation. After 24 hours the mass of flask B was the same but the mass of flask A had changed. (i) Describe and explain the change to the mass of flask A. (3) Page 2 of 6

3 (ii) Why did the students need to set up flask B? () (Total 4 marks) Q4. (a) The diagram shows a cereal crop. Complete spaces (i) and (ii). (2) (iii) What sort of weather may cause the cereal crop to wilt? () Page 3 of 6

4 Describe the process of transpiration in plants. (3) (Total 6 marks) Q5. The diagram shows part of the breathing system in a human. (a) Use words from the list to label the parts on the drawing. alveoli bronchiole bronchus diaphragm trachea (windpipe) Where in the lungs does oxygen enter the blood? (4) () Page 4 of 6

5 (c) Which process in cells produces carbon dioxide? () (Total 6 marks) Q6. (a) Name the process by which water is lost from plant leaves. () Some students set up the apparatus shown in the diagram to measure the water loss from a potted plant. Page 5 of 6

6 The apparatus was placed in different environmental conditions: A B C D in still air at 20 C. in still air at 25 C. in a wind at 20 C. in a wind at 25 C. Readings from the balance were recorded by a datalogger at 0-minute intervals. The results are given in the table. Time in minutes Balance reading in grams A B C D (i) (ii) Under which conditions, A, B, C or D, was water lost most rapidly? Explain, as fully as you can, why water was lost most rapidly under these conditions. () (2) (Total 4 marks) Page 6 of 6

7 Q7. Some students set up this experiment to investigate osmosis. They filled two pieces of dialysis [visking] tubing with different liquids and left them both in a beaker of 5% sucrose solution for an hour. (a) Describe and explain the likely results after one hour. (6) Describe two examples where osmosis is used in living things. (2) (Total 8 marks) Page 7 of 6

8 Q8. Diagram shows two villi in the small intestine of a healthy person. (a) Describe two features of the villi which help the small intestine to function (2) Diagram 2 shows two villi in the small intestine of a person with coeliac disease. (i) How do the villi of the person with coeliac disease differ from those of a healthy person? () (ii) Suggest how this difference might affect how well the small intestine functions () (Total 4 marks) Page 8 of 6

9 Q9. Four leaves were removed from the same plant. Petroleum jelly (a waterproofing agent) was spread onto some of the leaves, as follows: Leaf A: on both surfaces Leaf B: on the lower surface only Leaf C: on the upper surface only Leaf D: none applied Each leaf was then placed in a separate beaker, as shown in diagram. Diagram Each beaker was weighed at intervals. The results are shown in the graph. (a) Give evidence from the graph in answering the following questions. (i) Which surface (upper or lower) loses water most rapidly?... Evidence... () Page 9 of 6

10 (ii) Is water lost from both surfaces of the leaf?... Evidence... () Diagram 2 shows the appearance of each surface of the leaf as seen through a microscope. Upper Surface of Leaf Lower Surface of Leaf Diagram 2 (i) Name space X and cell Y. X... Y... (2) (ii) Use information in diagram 2 to explain why the results are different for leaves B and C. (2) (Total 6 marks) Page 0 of 6

11 M. (a) any three from (concentration of) oxygen increases by 60 (units) allow oxygen more than doubles for 2 marks (concentration of) carbon dioxide decreases from 46 to 40 by 6 units allow by a small amount N.B. usually the first 2 marks will be for the change in oxygen and carbon dioxide. The third mark will be for a quantitative comment on one of these changes 3 plasma red (blood) cell / haemoglobin / oxyhaemoglobin [5] M2. D A C [3] M3. (i) the mass got less accept it got lighter award mark for water was lost from the plant water was taken into the plant or roots absorbed water do not accept soaked into plant and lost through transpiration or the leaves or evaporated from the leaves or stomata Page of 6

12 (ii) to check the effect of the plant or to act as a control or to show that it was not due to evaporation from water do not accept to keep it fair or to check that it was fair do not accept fair test [4] M4. (a) (i) photosynthesis (ii) respiration do not credit combustion do not credit decay (iii) dry accept hot or windy or drought any three from * evaporation (of water) or loss of water vapour * (mostly) from the leaf / leaves do not credit incorrect reference to leaves * through the stomata accept through each stoma accept through the stomas(sic) * causing a pull or causing an increase in osmotic potential (at the top of the plant) or causing an increase in water potential (at the top of the plant) or causing a decrease in osmotic pressure (at the top of the plant) * (so that) water moves up (through the plant) do not credit water vapour moves up through the plant * as the transpiration stream * water enters through roots (and goes up plants) 3 [6] Page 2 of 6

13 M5. (a) trachea / windpipe bronchus alveoli diaphragm for mark each 4 alveoli / air sacs (reject capillaries) for one mark (c) respiration for one mark [6] M6. (a) transpiration / evaporation / diffusion (i) D ignore osmosis (ii) any two from: more / faster diffusion or evaporation or transpiration molecules move faster maintains concentration gradient or keeps water concentration low in the air or brings in more dry air or removes damp air / water 2 [4] M7. (a) award 3 marks per tube for each key idea for tube : expands or gets firmer or bigger or inflates it gains water because the concentration of water is less than its surroundings make sure answer is about water movement and not sucrose solution 3 Page 3 of 6

14 for tube 2 gets floppy or flaccid or contracts it loses water because the concentration of water is greater than its surroundings 3 any 2 from: uptake of water by root (hair) or movement from cell to cell within plant do not credit references to diffusion unless it is clear that the candidate is referring to the diffusion of water guard cell function maintain turgor water absorption in the large intestine reabsorption of water from the nephron or collecting duct or in kidney or osmoregulation in kidney allow osmosis in other animals if some use is shown 2 [8] M8. (a) any two from: large surface / area or many villi or have microvilli accept big surface / area thin surface or thin wall or surface -cell thick or capillaries near surface or permeable or partially permeable accept they are thin do not allow thin cell wall many blood vessels or many capillaries or capillary network or good blood supply ignore constant blood flow owtte ignore extras eg moist or reference to gases have enzymes ignore release enzymes accept reference to lacteal as 5 th point allow reference to having mitochondria 2 Page 4 of 6

15 (i) small(er) (surface area) / flat(ter) / short(er) or not as folded or fewer capillaries owtte allow small(er) lacteal ignore references to wide / thick / spread out etc (ii) less absorption (of digested food) / less digestion / diffusion accept slower for less accept description of less digestion accept less food can get in do not allow zero absorption do not allow collection of nutrients [4] M9. (a) (i) lower B loses less (water / mass) than C or described in terms of petroleum jelly accept converse re Leaf C (ii) yes - B and C lose less than D or B and C lose more than A or D loses the most or A loses the least do not accept just all leaves lose some weight (i) X = stoma accept stomata / stomatal pore do not accept air space Y = guard cell (ii) petroleum jelly blocks stomata / pores or petroleum jelly prevents water loss or petroleum jelly waterproofs allow pores are blocked in B water (mainly) lost via stomata / pores / X or stomata on lower surface only [6] Page 5 of 6

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