VCE HEALTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Semi-notes

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1 VCE HEALTH AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 2014 Semi-notes Unit 2: Individual human development and health issues Topic: Development from conception to birth Source: felicity-flutter.co.uk Name:

2 Topic: Development from conception to birth Overview: Development is much more long term. We start developing from the time we are conceived and we stop developing when we die. There are four types of development that are important to know. As human beings, we cannot easily separate out one type of development without looking at how it affects all other forms of development. We develop as a whole, not in separate categories. Learning Intentions: By the end of this topic you will be able to: Describe the process of fertilisation Describe the characteristics of physical development from conception to birth Work: Lesson 1- Development from conception to birth - presentation in conjunction with semi-note tasks Clickview movies to watch BBC June 2011 Inside the human body Episode 1 Creation 43 mins - BBC August 2007 Fight for life: Birth 49 mins Work tasks Learning Activities: these are submitted to demonstrate your understanding of the course content. Learning Activity 1: Presentation (such as a clamation) on fertilization 2 P age

3 Topic: Development from conception to birth 3 P age

4 Herald Sun, The Human Body From conception to the miracle of birth LIFE BEGINS, P age

5 Task 1: Fertilisation & Conception A new life begins at when a from a unites with an from a to form a. Task 2: The stages of prenatal development Name of stage Time On the next page is the diagram of the Germinal stage and the process that happens for you to label in conjunction with the presentation. When you have labeled that diagram, return to this table to complete you learning of this stage. Germinal stage Characteristics of physical development include: A zygote contain chromosomes. come from the ovum from the female and from the sperm from the male. At this stage is determined as is and. 5 P age

6 Figure 1: Germinal Stage B A C D E F H G 6 P age

7 Embryonic stage Characteristics of physical development include: Foetal stage Characteristics of physical development include: ( ) 7 P age

8 The Placenta The placenta is a large shaped organ that connects the developing to the uterine wall via the cord. It provides and hormones and antibodies to the developing foetus whilst removing and allowing gas exchange via the mother s blood supply. The placenta is made from and foetal blood tissue blood systems mix as they are are separated by a membrane. The placenta begins to develop upon implantation of the blastocyst into the maternal endometrium but it is not until weeks that the development of the maternal blood supply to the palcenta is completed. At birth, the period after the baby is born is called the third stage of labor and this is important as it is when the is expelled. This takes place between minutes. It is important that all the placenta is expelled as it can cause if it is not eliminated. (Source: Wikipedia- ) 8 P age

9 Task 3: Birth At birth, the neonate (new born) must make adaptations (or changes) in order to survive outside the uterus: 1. Temperature Control After birth the baby must its temperature at a constant 37 degrees rather than being kept in the mother s body. A baby finds it difficult to its own temperature due to a large surface area to volume which increases heat loss to the environment. The is an area where significant heat loss occurs. The baby must be wrapped well and kept warm. 2. Respiratory functions: Breathing Before birth oxygen comes from the. At birth the neonate must inhale and exhale. During the last few weeks of the prenatal stage, the lungs produce, a substance that prevents the of the lungs in between breaths. The of the umbilical cord cuts off the oxygen supply and the neonate must take its breath. The lungs and any liquid in the lungs is squeezed out and absorbed into the blood stream. At first breathing may be irregular and if necessary the baby will be given to help them. 3. Excretion Through normal growth and metabolism, the body produces a variety of products such as carbon dioxide, urea, and salts as well as the waste products of digestion. At birth, the organs the kidneys, liver and bowel become functional and are able to eliminate waste products such as urea, water and salts. The first waste excreted from the bowel is a 9 P age

10 thick tar substance called. This substance has lined the intestine before birth. The lungs excrete. 1. Circulation Before birth, the blood does not have to pass through to pick up oxygen. The chambers of the heart are and blood passes easily from right to left. At birth the chamber over and the blood flows in a circulatory pattern from the to the chamber of the heart and to body cells, returning to the side of the heart and to the lungs to be replenished with. 5. Feeding (nutrition) Once the is cut the baby must receive from the food through the digestive process. The baby must have developed their sucking and swallowing reflex. is the source of food for the infant for the first 5-6 months. While formulae milk can be used, the source of food for the baby is milk. 10 P age

11 The first substance produced by the breast is called which is a sticky, yellow fluid rich in to protect the neonate from and prepares the digestive system to receive and digest milk. Apgar Test How well the neonate is coping with the physical changes outside of the uterus is determined by checking them against an Apgar Scale. The infant receives a score of 0, 1 or 2 on each of five physical signs for a maximum score of 10. These signs include heart rate, respiration, muscle tone, reflex responses and colour. The infants are scored 1 minute after birth, 5 minutes after birth and if necessary, 15 minutes after birth. The majority of infants score 7 or better indicating they are adapting well. A score below 7 generally means the baby needs help with breathing and a score below 4 means the baby needs immediate life saving treatment. A low apgar score may reflect the use of sedation or pain killing medication by the mother during delivery and premature infants may score poorly due to physical immaturity. The Apgar Test Sign Activity muscle tone Limp Some flexion of muscle Active motion Pulse heart rate No heart beat Fewer than 100 beats/min More than 100 beats/min Grimace reflex No response to airways being suctioned Grimace during suctioning Grimace or pull away, cough, sneeze during suction Appearance color Whole body is bluish-grey Good color with bluishgrey Good color - pink hands and feet Respiration - breathing No breathing Irregular breathing Strong breathing and crying Source: The baby centre, Activity: If three babies were born and they scored 3, 6 and 9 on the Apgar scale, what conclusions could you draw about their ability to adapt to life outside the uterus? Describe the adaptations that occurred for the baby to have scored 9. (*Hint: refer to the web link to help you answer this question) 11 P age

12 Movie review: ADAPTATIONS OF THE NEONATE: Fight for Life On Clickview, watch the movie Fight for Life birth. This movie shows how 4 newborns adapt to life outside of the womb. (49 minutes long) WARNING: this documentary is not for the faint hearted! It does show 4 women giving birth both naturally and via caesarean section. ACTIVITIES a. Using information from the movie fill in the table below. You are to give an estimated score for each of the 5 physical signs measured in an Apgar test. Identify your estimated total Apgar score for each of the babies. Refer back to the previous work completed on the Apgar Scale. Baby Lily (born naturally with no problems) Activity -muscle tone /2 Pulse -heart rate /2 Grimace - reflex /2 Appearance -color /2 Respiration -breathing /2 Total Apgar Score /10 Gabriel (boy who inhaled the meconium) Ana (boy with the umbilical cord wrapped around his neck) Elijah (boy with growth on his spine) b. Choose one of the babies and discuss how well the neonate (newborn) adapted to life outside of the womb. Justify your decision by discussing the specific adaptations a neonate (newborn) must make to survive outside the womb. Baby Name: c. Briefly describe the medical interventions that were used to save the lives of some of the babies. 12 P age

13 Task 4: Movie review Watch the movie Inside the human body Episode 1 Creation. It is a BBC documentary from June 2011 that with the help of technology takes us inside the human body during prenatal development. (43 mins) Complete the three tasks below. 1. Recapping fertilization. Why do millions of sperm need to be ejaculated if it takes only ONE sperm to fertilise the egg? 2. Twins Explain how identical twins are formed? Ronnie and Donnie are Siamese or conjoined twins. Explain how this happened. They are joined from the chest to the groin. What determined where they are joined? 3. The last chapter shows the birth of some babies. How are the triplets delivered? Discuss how well they adapt to the outside world? Do they need any medical intervention? 13 P age

14 Task 5: Quiz on Prenatal Development THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS RELATE TO THE GERMINAL STAGE OF PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT 1. The head and neck make up half the baby s length. T/F 2. Rapid brain development. T/F 3. Rapid cell division as zygote (fertilized ovum) moves down fallopian tube to uterus. T/F 4. Germinal stage ends when the zygote embeds itself into the uterine lining (endometrium) and has become implanted. T/F 5. A zygote is the name for the cell after the egg has been fertilised by sperm but before cell division has taken place. T/F 6. The germinal stage last from fertilization up until the end of week 3. T/F THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS RELATE TO THE EMBRYONIC STAGE OF PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT 1. The head and neck make up half the baby s length. T/F 2. All major organs are formed in the embryonic stage and they are fully mature by the end of this stage. T/F 3. Stomach and kidneys function; lungs and organs of the digestive system form. T/F 4. The embryonic state of development starts at implantation and ends at week 8. T/F 5. Most major internal and external organs are developed. T/F 6. The mother and embryo exchange blood at this stage. T/F 7. Most critical / sensitive period of human development. T/F THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS RELATE TO THE FOETAL STAGE OF PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT 1. Limbs grow, fingers and toes appear. T/F 2. When the blastocyst has become fully implanted at 2 weeks it is referred to as a foetus. T/F 3. Placenta is fully developed and a functioning endocrine gland at weeks. T/F 4. Significant/rapid growth occurs. T/F 5. Fat is deposited under the skin. T/F 6. Internal sex organs form. T/F 7. The foetus measures 20cm at the beginning of this stage and at birth it measures 50cm. T/F 8. The foetus is not very active during this stage. T/F 14 P age

15 THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS RELATE TO THE NEONATE 1. A neonate refers to a newborn baby up to 10 days old. T/F 2. A baby finds it easy to regulate its own temperature due to a large surface area to volume which increases heat loss to the environment. T/F 3. During the last few weeks of the prenatal stage, the lungs produce meconium, a substance that prevents the collapse of the lungs in between breaths after birth. T/F 4. Before birth, the blood does not have to pass through the lungs to pick up oxygen. T/F 5. The first waste excreted from the bowel is a thick black tar substance called surfactant. This substance has lined the intestine before birth. T/F 6. The first substance produced by the breast is called colostrum which is a sticky, yellow fluid rich in antibodies to protect the neonate from infection and prepares the digestive system to receive and digest milk. T/F 7. A neonate is assessed using the Apgar scale. A score of 3 means the new born is in good condition. T/F 15 P age

16 Learning Activity1: Fertilisation Presentation Produce and publish a presentation such as a Claymation on the fertilization process in the human body to demonstrate your understanding of the reproductive organs and structures and process. A Claymation is a series of still photos ( taken on a phone, webcam or camera ) that are then dropped into a movie making program such as Windows Live Movie Maker to produce a short video clip. The images are made in clay or plasticine which enables them to be manipulated easily for the next scene. For this task it is easiest to make the whole reproductive system, photograph it and then take parts away, photographing each step. When you drop the images into the software you just reverse the order. You can add labels or whatever you wish to make it your own. In producing the Claymation, don t forget to add music and publish it as Human fertilisation. You clip should be no longer than seconds. Have fun!! Rubric for achievement TO ACHIEVE HIGH TO ACHIEVE SATISFACTORY TO ACHIEVE LOW Clear and concise knowledge of reproductive organs and fertilisation process. Music included and appropriate. Length is appropriate. Presentation is of a high standard. Good knowledge of the reproductive organs and fertilisation. Music is included. Length is a little short or a little long. Presentation is of a satisfactory standard. Basic knowledge of the reproductive organs and fertilisation. Music is not included. Length is too long or too short. Presentation is missing some components. 16 P age

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