Do Now: 1. Based on the picture on the board, list two features of the physical geography of Greece:

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1 Aim: How did Greek geography affect its development? Do Now: 1. Based on the picture on the board, list two features of the physical geography of Greece: I. Greece s Physical Geography: A. Greece is a peninsula surrounded by a chain of islands in the center of the Mediterranean Sea. B. archipelago a chain of islands C. Greece is extremely mountainous D. Greece lacks many natural resources Task: 1. Label Greece on your map 2. Label the Mediterranean Sea on your map 3. Imagine its 500 BCE and you are a Greek merchant. Where would you go in order to find a trading partner? Fact of Greek Geography How will it influence the Greeks? Greece lacks natural resources Greece is surrounded by seas Greece is difficult to travel because of mountains

2 E. Greece is a great place for growing olives and grapes. Therefore, the major products that the Greeks produced were olive oil and wine. F. Greek sailors traveled on the Mediterranean Sea to the Fertile Crescent and Egypt trading their goods. G. Greece was divided into separate city-states 1. City-state: when a city has full control of all the land surrounding the city and the city's government does not share power with anyone else. II. Major City-States of Ancient Greece A. Athens B. Sparta Question: based on the sculptures that archaeologists discovered, how would you compare the values of Athens vs. Sparta

3 Do Now: What does the following quote mean? The enemy of my enemy is my friend. _ Aim: How was Ancient Greece impacted by the Persian Wars? I. Persian Empire: ( BCE) A. Covered 3000 miles B. Very powerful for its time List one advantage of the Persians. List one advantage for the Greeks II. Persian Wars A. War between Persian Empire and Greek City States B. Persia is attempting to conquer Greece C. Battle at Marathon 1. Persia wants to crush Athens to make the rest of Greece back down. 2. Due to the mountains of Greece, Persia must bring their troops by ship. 3. Athens attacks the Persians while they are leaving their ships 4. Persians are defeated D. Thermopylae 1. After defeat at Marathon, the Persians return. 2. Their huge force is met by 300 Spartans in the Thermopylae pass. 3. Greek geography was used by the Spartans to force the larger Persian force to fight in a narrow space. 4. The Spartans are defeated but gave hope to all Greeks. E. Straits of Salamis 1. After Thermopylae, Athens lured the Persians into the narrow straits of Salamis. 2. Using rowers, instead of sails, Athens ships rammed the Persian ships and sunk the fleet. F. Result of Persian War 1. The Greek city-states had become allies called the Delian Alliance 2. Alliance: formal agreement between two or more states to cooperate and protect each other. 3. Athens is the leader of the Delian Alliance and becomes the most powerful city-state in Greece. Q. How is the Persian war with Greece an example of geography shaping the history of a region? Aim : How was Ancient Greece impacted by the Persian Wars?

4 Do Now: Complete Ven Diagram ATHENS SPARTA. Aftermath of Persian Wars. Athens. Pericles leads Athens. Pericles built The Parthenon and encouraged education. Athens formed the Delian league with other Greek city- states. Forming Delian League turned Athens into an Empire 5. This time period was considered the Golden Age of Athens ertain civilizations have a time period that is called a golden age. What do you think life is like uring a golden ge? ericles: thens power rested in the hands not of a minority but of the whole people hat form of government is Pericles referring to? I. Greek Golden Age:. What was the Greek Golden Age?. The Greek Golden Age was a time period in Greek history with abundant food and little arfare. As a result, the Greek s could spend their time creating achievements in literature, art, ath, philosophy, architecture, and government.. What factors led to the Greek Golden Age?. Mountains: a. protected city states from attack; allowing more people to spend their time creating chievements. Location in Mediterranean Sea: a. Created wealth through trade with Egypt and Fertile Crescent civilizations. b. Trade also led to cultural diffusion (learned alphabet from Phoenicians)

5 Aim: How did Ancient Greece influence our society? Do Now: Should a poor person (who would have no way of earning money that day) steal medicine to help improve the health of his child? I. Achievements of Ancient Greece A. Architecture: (the art and science behind the building of structures) 1. Greek Columns: Three separate types a. Doric: very simple in design b. Ionic: more slender with a scroll carved into the top c. Corinthian: most decorative with flowers carved into the top 2. Parthenon: (most famous building in Ancient Greece) a. Built as a temple to the Goddess Athena 3. Effect on our society a. Greek Columns are used in many government buildings B. Greek Sculptures 1. Depicted the human form in an idealized way (as if they were perfect) 2. Influence on our society a. Sculptors for the past 2,500 years have been copying the Greek style C. Greek Literature 1. Epics: long poem celebrating heroic deeds a. Homer: Iliad about Trojan War 2. Tragedies: a story where the good guy tries to do the right thing and as a result something bad happens t 3. Influence on our society: Greek tragedies and epics copied by many famous authors. (Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet) (Superhero movies) D. Historians: 1. Herodotus: first person in history to write down the events in his society (World's first historian) E. Math 1. Pythagoras: invented Pythagorean Theorem 2. Euclid: Father of Geometry 3. Influence on our society: used in the design of the satellites that orbit the earth (GPS Systems)

6 F. Greek philosophy 1. Philosophy: use human reason (a person's mind; thinking), to better understand the world around us; asks question that a scientific experiment cannot answer (What is the best form of government) 2. Famous Greek Philosophers (works studied in every college in U.S.) a. Socrates: "the unexamined life is not worth living" b. Plato: wrote The Republic ; argued that government should be run by philosophers c. Aristotle: helped develop field of logic G. Athen's Government: 1. Direct Democracy: citizens of the city vote directly on each law. 2. Pericles: advanced democracy in Athens (leader of Athens) 2. Influence on our society: citizens in our country vote for their representatives that then pass laws (Representative Democracy) H. Olympics: (held in city of Olympia) 1. Greeks valued fame and greatness 2. Olympics were a sporting event where the greatest wrestlers, runners, and discus throwers from all of the Greek city-states would compete. The winners would become famous. 3. First time that we know of that a civilization made athletes famous 4. Influence on our society: still have the Olympics; we still make athletes famous

7 I. Alexander the Great A. Who was Alexander the Great? 1. Alexander the Great was a Macedonian (directly North of Greece) but he loved Greek culture. 2. He would eventually become the King of Macedonia. B. What did he accomplish? 1. Alexander the Great conquered an empire that stretched from Greece and Egypt in the west to the Indus River valley in the east. C. How did he accomplish this? 1. Alexander the Great was one of greatest military geniuses the world has ever known D. What is his legacy? 1. Alexander the Great spread Greek culture to where ever he conquered. 2. In Alexander s empire, Greek culture mixed with Persian, Egyptian and Indian culture to create a new culture called Hellenism.

8 Do Now: Who benefits when an empire expands? The poor Plebeians or the rich Patricians Explain your answer Based on the map on the board shade the area of the Roman Empire I. Rome expands its empire A. The Roman city-state conquers land throughout the Italian peninsula.. Rome defeats all other empires in the region until it controls all of the land bordering the Mediterranean Sea. B. Problems with expanding an empire 1. Patricians become richer a. gained more land b. gained more slaves 2. Plebeians become poorer a. increase in slaves puts workers out of business 3. Civil war between the classes: civil war = war between a civilization 4. Military leaders take over and restore order II. Julius Caesar A. Julius Caesar was one of the military leaders that took over during the civil war. Question: What does the following quote say about the type of person Caesar was? I came, I saw, I conquered Julius Caesar B. Caesar s soldiers were more loyal to him than to the Roman Republic C. Caesar crosses the Rubicon River with his army and marches on Rome. He names himself Dictator for Life D. Caesar is murdered by several Roman Senators in 44 BCE E. Caesar s adopted son Octavian becomes Emperor and changes his name to Emperor Augustus

9 Aim: Why was the Pax Romana important to future societies? Do Now: Based on what we learned on Monday, why was control of the Mediterranean Sea so important to the Roman Empire? Direct Democracy Representative Democracy Question: When does a kingdom become an empire? Question: When will a Republic (representative democracy) also be an empire? I. Pax Romana A. The Pax Romana was a 200 year time period in Roman history with relative peace and prosperity throughout the empire. The Pax Roman literally translates as the Roman Peace. This was the Golden Age in Roman history. Question: Which of the following aspects of life during a Golden Age causes the other three? a) Wealthy society b) Cultural Achievements (advanced technologies, new ideas, artwork) c) Stable leadership d) Peace Explain your answer: B. The Pax Roman began when Julius Caesar s adopted son Augustus became emperor in 27 BCE. C. How did Augustus unify the Roman Empire during this time period? 1. Established Latin as the universal language of the Roman Empire 2. Established a universal currency (money) throughout the Roman Empire 3. Established a universal set of laws (the Twelve Tables) throughout the Empire 4. Established a network of concrete roads connecting the outer parts of the Empire with the city of Rome 5. Created a postal system to transport mail from anywhere in the Empire. Question: Which of the methods for unification listed above do you think was most helpful in unifying the large Roman Empire? (explain with an example in 5 sentences)

10 II. Important achievements during the Pax Romana A. The Romans are best known for the following achievements 1. Law a) Universal Law throughout the Empire (Twelve Tables) 2. Engineering: a) concrete roads to connect the whole Empire b Roman Arch: very stable structure still used today c) Aqueduct: a structure with a channel built in it that can transport water hundreds of miles using gravity d) The Coliseum: a large structure that allowed 50,000 Romans to gather in one arena and watch sporting events. The most common event was gladiator fights. The gladiators were often slaves that would fight each other to the death. III. Legacy of the Roman Empire A. Law: 1. Many aspects of their early government have been incorporated into our society a. Representative Democracy (Republic) b. Legislative group to create laws called a Senate c. Leaders can veto (strike down) laws d. Fair trials B. Language and Alphabet 1. Roman alphabet is used by Spanish, English, French, Italian and German speakers 2. Spanish, French, and Italian are based on the Roman language of Latin. C. Engineering: 1. The arch is still used today in building designs 2. Widespread use of concrete in building designs Question: What do you think was the most important contributions of the Ancient Romans on modern society? (explain in 4 sentences) Answer the following questions based on the handout on Roman Roads: 1. Why did the Roman Army build roads? 2. Why did merchants like to travel on the Roman Roads? 3. Why do you think the Roman Roads made the Roman Empire one of the richest empires for the world?

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