# This week s homework. 2 parts Quiz on Friday, Ch. 4 Today s class: Newton s third law Friction Pulleys tension. PHYS 2: Chap.

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1 This week s homework. 2 parts Quiz on Friday, Ch. 4 Today s class: Newton s third law Friction Pulleys tension PHYS 2: Chap. 19, Pg 2 1

2 New Topic Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 3 A 2.0 kg wood box slides down a vertical wood wall at a constant speed while you push upward on it at a 45 angle. For wood on wood, the coefficient of kinetic friction is µ k = What is F push? What magnitude of force should you apply to cause the box to slide down with a 0.1 g acceleration? Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 4 2

3 A 2.0 kg wood box slides down a vertical wood wall at a constant speed while you push upward on it at a 45 angle. For wood on wood, the coefficient of kinetic friction is µ k = What is F push? What magnitude of force should you apply to cause the box to slide down with a 0.1 g acceleration? Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 5 By Group Number: 1. of an eraser on a whiteboard? 2. of an upside-down eraser on a whiteboard? 3. of a book on a whiteboard? 4. of a calculator on a whiteboard? 5. of a pen (not rolling) on a whiteboard? Steps: 1. Brainstorm how to do this 2. Make calculations, estimate the value 3. Get your materials -- ask me or Qi for help here 4. Make measurements Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 6 3

4 Myosin motors move along actin fibers in living things as seen in these videos made by atomic force microscopy (AFM): Newton s Third Law at work to a) Contract muscles b) Carry cargo c) Move cilia 6.8 fps, Scan area, nm2 Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 7 Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 8 4

5 Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 9 New Topic Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 10 5

6 A B Is boxing glove A hitting glove B, or is glove B hitting glove A? The gloves hit each other For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. For the boxing gloves: Action: A pushes on B Reaction: B pushes on A F A on B = F B on A Action and Reaction forces: have the same magnitude are in opposite directions act on different objects Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 11 Action: force of the Earth on the apple (gravity) Reaction: NOT force of the table on the apple BUT force of the apple on the Earth How can a table exert a force on an apple? No apple, no force With the apple, the table bends ever so slightly so there is a force upward (like a diving board) Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 12 6

7 ice Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 13 This is why you need to use a Free Body Diagram and consider the net force on the block only F man on block Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 14 7

8 Two blocks of masses 2m and m are in contact on a horizontal frictionless surface. If a force F is applied to mass 2m, what is the force on mass m? Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 15 Two blocks of masses 2m and m are in contact on a horizontal frictionless surface. If a force F is applied to mass 2m, what is the force on mass m? Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 16 8

9 T mg Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 17 Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 18 9

10 Summary Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 19 You tie a rope to a tree and you pull on the rope with a force of 100 N. What is the tension in the rope? Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 20 10

11 You tie a rope to a tree and you pull on the rope with a force of 100 N. What is the tension in the rope? Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 21 Two tug-of-war opponents each pull with a force of 100 N on opposite ends of a rope. What is the tension in the rope? (1) 0 N (2) 50 N (3) 100 N (4) 150 N (5) 200 N Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 22 11

12 Two tug-of-war opponents each pull with a force of 100 N on opposite ends of a rope. What is the tension in the rope? (1) 0 N (2) 50 N (3) 100 N (4) 150 N (5) 200 N Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 23 A N sign is suspended from a horizontal strut of negligible weight. The force exerted on the strut by the wall is horizontal. Draw an FBD to show the forces acting on the strut. Find the tension T in the diagonal cable supporting the strut. Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 24 12

13 In an electricity experiment, an electrically charged plastic ball (mass = 100 g) is suspended on a 60 cm long string. When a charged rod is brought near the ball, the rod exerts a horizontal electrical force F elec on it, causing the ball to swing out to a 20 angle and remain at rest there. What is the magnitude of the electric force F elec? What is the tension in the string? Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 25 When two or more objects are connected by strings, pulleys, or are rigidly connected, then they no longer move independently. The constraints between their positions, velocities and accelerations can be used to ease the solving of their motion. For example in the picture below, all three types of constraints are in play: Ropes: Masses 1 and 2 move and accelerate at the same rate Pulleys: The velocity of the masses is equal to the radius times the angular velocity of the pulley (as are the linear and angular accelerations Rigid body: All points at a given distance from the pulley center have the same acceleration. Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 26 13

14 For each picture, write the acceleration constraint in terms of components. For example, write (a 1 ) x = (a 2 ) y, if that is the appropriate answer, rather than a 1 = a 2 Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 27 Often in physics and engineering problems the mass of the string or rope is much less than the masses of the objects that it connects. In such cases, we can adopt the following massless string approximation: Third law: T sona = T sonb Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 28 14

15 Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 29 A. Equal to B. Greater than C. Less than Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 30 15

16 A. Equal to B. Greater than C. Less than Each block feels an upward force of 490 N, which is provided by the tension. Therefore both ropes have the same tension. Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 31 A. Equal to B. Greater than C. Less than Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 32 16

17 A. Equal to B. Greater than C. Less than The blocks are accelerating, since there is no force to hinder block A. This means that the net force on B {mg T} is not zero and is downward. Thus mg > T Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 33 An Atwood s machine is shown in the figure. The 100 kg block on the right side takes 6.0 s to reach the floor after it is released from rest. What is the mass of the block on the left side? Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 34 17

18 A 1.0 kg block is tied to the wall with a rope. It sits on top of a 2.0 kg block. The lower block is pulled to the right with a tension force of 20 N. The coefficient of kinetic friction at both the lower and upper surfaces of the 2.0 kg block is µ k = 0.40 What is the tension in the rope attached to the 1.0 kg block? What is the acceleration of the 2.0 kg block? Phys 1021 Ch 7, p Take one rubber band and hang a 200 mg mass from it. How far does it stretch? Call this length l Combine two rubber bands in a chain (end to end) and hang a 200 mg mass from the combination. How far does it stretch? Why? For the questions below, answer only in integer numbers of rubber bands 3. About how many identical rubber bands must be combined ( and how ) to stretch by l 0 under the load of a 500 g mass? Try this. Calculate the force on each rubber band? Draw the fbd for the mass. Draw the fbd for each rubber band. 4. About how many identical rubber bands must be combined ( and how ) to stretch by l 0 under the load of a 100 g mass? Try this. Calculate the force on each rubber band? Draw the fbd for the mass. Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 36 18

19 New Topic Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 37 a moon g R where G = 6.67 x m 3 kg -1 s -2 Direction: attractive along the line between the centers of the two masses Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 38 19

20 Which is stronger, the Earth s pull on the Moon, or the Moon s pull on the Earth? Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 39 Which is stronger, the Earth s pull on the Moon, or the Moon s pull on the Earth? Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 40 20

21 d Earth m 2d 2m Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 41 2d 5 2m d m Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 42 21

22 Near the earth s surface... \$ = g Force of attraction between an object and an astronomical body (Earth, Moon, etc.) Weight = Force of gravity: W = m g Weight (like any force) is a vector. units: newtons (N) scalar units: kilogram (kg) Phys 1021 Ch 7, p 43 22

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