# 2 Number Systems 2.1. Foundations of Computer Science Cengage Learning

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1 2 Number Systems 2.1 Foundations of Computer Science Cengage Learning

2 2.2 Objectives After studying this chapter, the student should be able to: Understand the concept of number systems. Distinguish between non-positional and positional number systems. Describe the decimal, binary, hexadecimal and octal system. Convert a number in binary, octal or hexadecimal to a number in the decimal system. Convert a number in the decimal system to a number in binary, octal and hexadecimal. Convert a number in binary to octal and vice versa. Convert a number in binary to hexadecimal and vice versa. Find the number of digits needed in each system to represent a particular value.

3 2-1 INTRODUCTION A number system defines how a number can be represented using distinct symbols. A number can be represented differently in different systems. For example, the two numbers (2A) 16 and (52) 8 both refer to the same quantity, (42) 10, but their representations are different. Several number systems have been used in the past and can be categorized into two groups: positional and nonpositional systems. Our main goal is to discuss the positional number systems, but we also give examples of non-positional systems. 2.3

4 2-2 POSITIONAL NUMBER SYSTEMS In a positional number system, the position a symbol occupies in the number determines the value it represents. In this system, a number represented as: has the value of: in which S is the set of symbols, b is the base (or radix). 2.4

5 The decimal system (base 10) The word decimal is derived from the Latin root decem (ten). In this system the base b = 10 and we use ten symbols S = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} The symbols in this system are often referred to as decimal digits or just digits. 2.5

6 Integers Figure 2.1 Place values for an integer in the decimal system 2.6

7 Example 2.1 The following shows the place values for the integer +224 in the decimal system. Note that the digit 2 in position 1 has the value 20, but the same digit in position 2 has the value 200. Also note that we normally drop the plus sign, but it is implicit. 2.7

8 Example 2.2 The following shows the place values for the decimal number We have used 1, 10, 100, and 1000 instead of powers of 10. ( ) Values 2.8

9 Reals Example 2.3 The following shows the place values for the real number

10 The binary system (base 2) The word binary is derived from the Latin root bini (or two by two). In this system the base b = 2 and we use only two symbols, S = {0, 1} The symbols in this system are often referred to as binary digits or bits (binary digit). 2.10

11 Integers Figure 2.2 Place values for an integer in the binary system 2.11

12 Example 2.4 The following shows that the number (11001) 2 in binary is the same as 25 in decimal. The subscript 2 shows that the base is 2. The equivalent decimal number is N = =

13 Reals Example 2.5 The following shows that the number (101.11) 2 in binary is equal to the number 5.75 in decimal. 2.13

14 The hexadecimal system (base 16) The word hexadecimal is derived from the Greek root hex (six) and the Latin root decem (ten). In this system the base b = 16 and we use sixteen symbols to represent a number. The set of symbols is S = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F} Note that the symbols A, B, C, D, E, F are equivalent to 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15 respectively. The symbols in this system are often referred to as hexadecimal digits. 2.14

15 Integers Figure 2.3 Place values for an integer in the hexadecimal system 2.15

16 Example 2.6 The following shows that the number (2AE)16 in hexadecimal is equivalent to 686 in decimal. The equivalent decimal number is N = =

17 The octal system (base 8) The word octal is derived from the Latin root octo (eight). In this system the base b = 8 and we use eight symbols to represent a number. The set of symbols is S = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} 2.17

18 Integers Figure 2.3 Place values for an integer in the octal system 2.18

19 Example 2.7 The following shows that the number (1256) 8 in octal is the same as 686 in decimal. Note that the decimal number is N = =

20 Summary Table 2.1 shows a summary of the four positional number systems discussed in this chapter. 2.20

21 Table 2.2 shows how the number 0 to 15 is represented in different systems. 2.21

22 Conversion We need to know how to convert a number in one system to the equivalent number in another system. Since the decimal system is more familiar than the other systems, we first show how to covert from any base to decimal. Then we show how to convert from decimal to any base. Finally, we show how we can easily convert from binary to hexadecimal or octal and vice versa. 2.22

23 Any base to decimal conversion Figure 2.5 Converting other bases to decimal 2.23

24 Example 2.8 The following shows how to convert the binary number (110.11) 2 to decimal: (110.11) 2 =

25 Example 2.9 The following shows how to convert the hexadecimal number (1A.23) 16 to decimal. Note that the result in the decimal notation is not exact, because = We have rounded this value to three digits (0.012). 2.25

26 Example 2.10 The following shows how to convert (23.17) 8 to decimal. This means that (23.17) in decimal. Again, we have rounded up =

27 Decimal to any base 2.27 Figure 2.6 Converting other bases to decimal (integral part)

28 Figure 2.7 Converting the integral part of a number in decimal to other bases 2.28

29 Example 2.11 The following shows how to convert 35 in decimal to binary. We start with the number in decimal, we move to the left while continuously finding the quotients and the remainder of division by 2. The result is 35 = (100011)

30 Example 2.12 The following shows how to convert 126 in decimal to its equivalent in the octal system. We move to the right while continuously finding the quotients and the remainder of division by 8. The result is 126 = (176)

31 Example 2.13 The following shows how we convert 126 in decimal to its equivalent in the hexadecimal system. We move to the right while continuously finding the quotients and the remainder of division by 16. The result is 126 = (7E)

32 Figure 2.8 Converting the fractional part of a number in decimal to other bases 2.32

33 Figure 2.9 Converting the fractional part of a number in decimal to other bases 2.33

34 Example 2.14 Convert the decimal number to binary. Since the number = (0.101) 2 has no integral part, the example shows how the fractional part is calculated. 2.34

35 Example 2.15 The following shows how to convert to octal using a maximum of four digits. The result is = (0.5044) 8. Note that we multiple by 8 (base octal). 2.35

36 Example 2.16 The following shows how to convert in decimal to hexadecimal using only one digit to the right of the decimal point. The result is = (B2.9) 16 Note that we divide or multiple by 16 (base hexadecimal). 2.36

37 Example 2.17 An alternative method for converting a small decimal integer (usually less than 256) to binary is to break the number as the sum of numbers that are equivalent to the binary place values shown: 2.37

38 Example 2.18 A similar method can be used to convert a decimal fraction to binary when the denominator is a power of two: The answer is then ( )

40 Example 2.19 Show the hexadecimal equivalent of the binary number ( ) 2. Solution We first arrange the binary number in 4-bit patterns: Note that the leftmost pattern can have one to four bits. We then use the equivalent of each pattern shown in Table 2.2 on page 25 to change the number to hexadecimal: (4E2)

41 Example 2.20 What is the binary equivalent of (24C) 16? Solution Each hexadecimal digit is converted to 4-bit patterns: , , and C 1100 The result is ( )

42 Binary-octal conversion Figure 2.10 Binary to octal and octal to binary conversion 2.42

43 Example 2.21 Show the octal equivalent of the binary number ( ) 2. Solution Each group of three bits is translated into one octal digit. The equivalent of each 3-bit group is shown in Table 2.2 on page The result is (562)

44 Example 2.22 What is the binary equivalent of for (24) 8? Solution Write each octal digit as its equivalent bit pattern to get and The result is (010100)

46 Example 2.23 Find the minimum number of binary digits required to store decimal integers with a maximum of six digits. Solution k = 6, b 1 = 10, and b 2 = 2. Then x = k (logb 1 / logb 2 ) = 6 (1 / ) = 20. The largest six-digit decimal number is 999,999 and the largest 20-bit binary number is 1,048,575. Note that the largest number that can be represented by a 19-bit number is 524,287, which is smaller than 999,999. We definitely need twenty bits. 2.46

47 2-3 NONPOSITIONAL NUMBER SYSTEMS Although non-positional number systems are not used in computers, we give a short review here for comparison with positional number systems. A non-positional number system still uses a limited number of symbols in which each symbol has a value. 2.47

48 In this system, a number is represented as: and has the value of: There are some exceptions to the addition rule we just mentioned, as shown in Example

49 Example 2.24 Roman numerals are a good example of a non-positional number system. This number system has a set of symbols S = {I, V, X, L, C, D, M}. The values of each symbol are shown in Table 2.3 To find the value of a number, we need to add the value of symbols subject to specific rules (See the textbook). 2.49

50 Example 2.24 (Continued) The following shows some Roman numbers and their values. 2.50

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