Basic PVT (Fluid behaviour as a function of Pressure, Volume and Temperature)

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1 Basic PVT (Fluid behaviour as a function of Pressure, Volume and Temperature) Statoil module Field development Magnus Nordsveen

2 Content Phase envelops Hydrates Characterisations of fluids Equation of states (EOS) Gas field Comp Mole% N CO2 0.6 H C1 95 C C ic nc ic5 0.1 nc C C7 0.1 C C C

3 Phase diagram for a single component P Dense phase Critical point Solid Liquid Gas Trippel point T

4 Phase envelope of an oil reservoir 2 phase mixture

5 Phase envelope of a gas condensate reservoir T res, P res Liquid Gas 2 phase mixture

6 Pressure Phase envelops for 3 reservoir types C Gas Condensate C Oil Heavy oil C C = Critical point Temperature

7 Water-hydrocarbon phase behaviour Liquid water and hydrocarbons are essentially immiscible in each other Water vapour in the gas will be governed by gas composition and the vapour pressure of the liquid phase With water, oil and gas present, there will be two liquid fields and one gas field A gas reservoir is often saturated with water vapour When gas is produced through a well and flowline, temperature drops and water condenses Condensed water amounts to some m3 per MSm3 produced gas

8 Pressure (bara) Right pressure Hydrate formation Hydrate domain Access to small molecules Right temperature Access to free water No hydrates can exist in this region Temperature ( C)

9 Pressure Trykk (bar) (bara) Effect of thermodynamic hydrate inhibitors: Methanol, Ethanol, MEG, salt Chemicals move the hydrate curve Hydrate domain No hydrates Normal operational domain Temperature ( C)

10 Characterisation of fluids Based on fluid properties (old) Based on composition Definitions: Standard conditions [STP] for temperature and pressure: 15 o C, 1 atm GOR = Volume of gas/ Volume of oil [Sm3/Sm3] WC = Volume rate of water/ Volume rate of liquid [-] o = o / w at STP (oil density / water density) - specific gravity of oil g = g / a at STP (gas density / air density) - specific gravity of gas API = 141.5/ o (American Petroleum Institute measure of oil density)

11 Old type characterization Useful when no composition exists The fluid is characterized by: API gravity / o g GOR Fluid properties as: Bubble point Pressure (Pb), gas-oil ratio (RSGO), densities, viscosities, etc are functions (correlations) of the above parameters

12 Reservoir fluid types (GOR) Fluid type Physical behaviour Typical GOR [Sm3/Sm3] Dry gas No hydrocarbon liquid condensation during production > (at least)) Wet gas Hydrocarbon liquid condensation in reservoir is negligible during production. Condensation in wells, > Gas Condensate flowlines and separators. Condensation of hydrocarbons in reservoir is significant during production. Condensation in wells, flowlines and separators. 500 < > Oil Gas bubbles is formed in reservoir during production < 500

13 Reservoir fluid types (API) Oil type Typical API [-] Light oil > 30 Oil 22 < > 30 Heavy oil 10 < > 22 Extra heavy oil < 10 Comment: Arguably the most important fluid property for production of heavy oils is viscosity which is very dependent on pressure and temperature. Viscosity could thus be used as classification of reservoir types. However, during production the temperature and pressure (and thus viscosity) can change considerably along the well/flowline to the processing facility. Viscosity typically increases with decreasing API

14 Characterisation of fluids based on composition Thousands of components from methane to large polycyclic compounds Carbon numbers from 1 to at least 100 (for heavy oils probably about 200) Molecular weights range from 16 g/mole to several thousands g/mole Comp Mole% N CO2 0.6 H C1 95 C C ic nc ic5 0.1 nc C C7 0.1 C C C

15 Gas chromatography Fingerprint analysis Normal, paraffinic oil Waxy oil Biodegraded oil

16 Characterization challenge Low carbon number components: Possible to measure with reasonable accuracy Known properties Higher carbon number components: consists of many variations with different properties cannot measure individual components Characterization: Lump C10 and higher into C10+ Comp Mole% N CO2 0.6 H C1 95 C C ic nc ic5 0.1 nc C C7 0.1 C C C

17 Fluid properties based on composition mix x i i

18 Equations of state (EOS) Any equation correlating P (pressure), V (volume) and T (temperature) is called an equation of state P Ideal gas law: PV = nrt <=> (good approx. for P < 4 bar) n: moles, R: gas constant, : molar volume RT v Van der Waals cubic EOS: P RT v b a 2 v a: is a measure for the attraction between the particles b: is the volume excluded from by the particles

19 Equations of state (EOS) & Phase envelope Family of PV isotherms for a pure component Family of PV isotherms for a cubic EOS

20 PVTSim In the oil industry we typically use software packages to characterize the fluid based on a measured composition In Statoil we use PVTSim from Calsep Ref: Phase Behavior of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids (Book), Karen Schou Pedersen and Peter L. Christensen, 2006.

21 Thank you

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