PID Controller Theory ,QWURGXFWLRQ 3URJUDPPLQJ $FWLYDWLQJWKH3,'&RQWUROOHU 3URJUDPPLQJLQ8QLWV. PID Instruction VLT 6000 HVAC

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1 PID Controller Theory,QWURGXFWLRQ A PID controller (Proportional, Integral and Differential) is used to control devices, such as drives to maintain control of a varying system. This is in most cases done through the examination of signals from sensors placed in the system, called feedback signals. When the feedback signal is received, it is compared with the desired value, or setpoint (i.e. 5 bar). Based on this comparison a calculation is made of what the necessary response is, in order to make the feedback signal match the setpoint. This calculation is performed by a P, a PI or a PID controller. The main difference between a P, a PI and a PID controller is the accuracy at which it is possible to control the feedback according to the setpoint. The controller is usually either a separate device, part of an OEM device such as an Air Handling Unit or Pump Controller or a piece of software internal to the Building Management System (BMS). Today s drives do however often comprise a PI or a PID controller. The VLT 6000 HVAC has a very sophisticated PID controller integrated in the software. The fact, that a PID controller is integrated in the software, is not what makes the VLT 6000 HVAC different from other drives. It is the way it has been integrated with HVAC dedicated features and the user friendly way in which it can be programmed. Making use of this built-in PID controller with it s dedicated HVAC features will in many cases, makes it possible to eliminate external controllers or outstations. This instruction is intended to be an introduction to the VLT 6000 HVAC PID controller as well as a guided tour of how to commission this unique controller to obtain the best performance in your system. 3URJUDPPLQJ $FWLYDWLQJWKH3,'&RQWUROOHU The PID controller is only active if parameter 100 CONFIGURATION has been set to closed loop. The controller will work correctly when the settings below have been made and the P, I and D values have been programmed properly. How this is done is described later in this instruction. 3URJUDPPLQJLQ8QLWV Often it can be difficult to find out how to program your setpoint, since most PID controllers require a percentage to be entered. It is then up to you to first of all find out what the range is, of which it is supposed to be a percentage and then do the calculation. With the new PID controller in the VLT 6000 HVAC, setpoints and feedback signals are programmed and displayed in units. This makes it very easy to program the PID controller. In order to be able to program the setpoint and display the feedback in the relevant process units, a feedback range must be programmed. Parameter 413 Minimum Feedback must be programmed to the process value, which equals the minimum scaling programmed in parameters 309, 312 or 315, and parameter 414 Maximum Feedback must be programmed to a process value, which equals the maximum scaling programmed in parameters 310, 313 and 316. The Process unit can be selected in parameter

2 )HHGEDFN+DQGOLQJ When applying two feedback signals to the VLT 6000 HVAC, it is necessary to determine how the drive should use these two signals. The calculation methods are programmed in parameter 417 Feedback Function. Two Independent Feedback s If the two feedback signals are independently giving feedback about the same process value i.e. in two different zones heated by the same heating coil, requiring the same setpoint, then 0LQLPXP should be programmed, because the VLT 6000 HVAC will control according to the lowest temperature. If the same two zones are also cooled by the same cooling coil, the 0D[LPXP should be programmed to control according to the highest temperature. Feedback Offset If 6XP is programmed, feedback 2 can be used to offset feedback 1. This can be used to calibrate the sensor using an external analogue signal. Feedback difference In many applications it is required to maintain a specific difference between two feedback signals. This is normally done with an expensive outstation monitoring two feedback signals and controlling two independent actuators. This kind of control is often used in Air Handling Units, where a fixed difference in flow is applied between supply air and return air. The VLT 6000 HVAC could be used to control the return air fan speed to maintain this difference. Another use of this function is when a differential value is to be maintained, i.e. p across a heat load in the heating system. This is normally done using an expensive differential pressure transmitter. With the VLT 6000 HVAC two standard transmitters can be applied and if 'LIIHUHQFH is programmed in parameter 417, the PID controller will react as if a differential pressure transmitter was installed. Averaging the Feedback In some systems the exact process output cannot be accomplished without expensive installations, due to large variations. It could for example be a large auditorium, with large window surfaces, many doors etc. In these cases the main concern is to maintain the best possible condition throughout the installation. This is usually done by placing sensors in the most critical points, i.e. in the top of the auditorium and at the podium. Programming parameter 417 to $YHUDJH, the VLT 6000 HVAC will compute an average of the two feedback signals and control according to this average feedback. 7KH7UDQVPLWWHU6HWWLQJV Connection and Range Three types of hardwired transmitters (voltage, current or pulse) can be connected to the VLT 6000 HVAC, as well as a serial communications busfeedback. The table below shows the terminal numbers and parameters to be programmed per type of transmitter. Type Terminal Parameter Voltage , 309, , 312, 313 Current , 315, 316 Pulses , 328 Bus Feedback Bus Feedback Compensation for long cables If voltage is used as feedback signal and the connecting cable is long, a 0-10 Volt signal might in fact only be 0-8,5 Volt at the input terminals. The VLT 6000 HVAC allows the user to scale the signal received to match the sensors range. The value of the signal received can be read in the display of the VLT 6000 HVAC. Live Zero Function In the event, that the feedback signal to the VLT 6000 HVAC is lost, it may be desirable to force the drive to a specific operation, such as to stop the motor, go to maximum/minimum speed or remain at current speed. This is possible with the VLT 6000 HVAC, if the minimum scaling of the feedback signal (as programmed in parameters 309, 312, 315) is larger than 1 volt or 2 ma. The desired action (programmed in parameter 318) is activated after the feedback signal has been below 50% of the minimum scaling for longer than the time programmed in parameter 317. If serial communication is used, a separate bus time-out must be programmed, see Design Guide for further details on serial communications. Feedback Conversion In the VLT 6000 HVAC, it is possible to program how the correlation between the voltage or current input and the feedback in units should be. 2

3 Default the feedback signal in units will be displayed as a /LQHDU scaling of the voltage or current input between the minimum and maximum feedback. If it is requested, that a specific flow is maintained, an approximation of the flow in the system based on a pressure feedback this correlation can be changed to a 6TXDUH 5RRW correlation by programming parameter 416 Feedback Conversion to Square Root in stead of Linear. This way a simple pressure transmitter can be used to generate a flow feedback to reduce the installation cost. For this function to work properly, it is necessary that the flow/pressure correlation in the system does not change, i.e. through opening and closing VAV boxes or two way valves. Low Pass Filtering Hardwired analogue signals (such as feedback signals) sometimes contain noise created by other devices. This noise is in form of an undesirable frequency or ripple. These ripples will, if not filtered out cause inaccurate control. The controller will attempt to regulate according to the unstable signal. The VLT 6000 HVAC has a low pass filter to eliminate the ripples from the feedback signal. This function is programmed in parameter 427 PID Low Pass Filter Time. A time constant (t) is programmed and the controller will then only react to a signal which has a ripple frequency less than 1 2 π τ 6HWSRLQWV Single Feedback Control If a single feedback signal is applied, the setpoint for this process value can be programmed in units in parameter 418. One Setpoint/Two Feedback s In many applications it is desirable to monitor the feedback in two places at the same time, to secure, that the correct process value is present in the whole system. A single setpoint can be applied to two feedback signals, thereby controlling to one setpoint as would normally be done, but according to the process values in two locations. If two feedback signals are applied parameter 417 Feedback Function should also be programmed to define how the selection between these two feedback signals should be made. Possible selections are Sum, Difference, Average, Minimum and Maximum. Please refer to the above description under Feedback Handling for details. Two Setpoint Control The VLT 6000 HVAC can also be programmed with independent setpoints to each feedback signal. This can be very useful, where the process value to maintain in two different locations in the system are different. This could for example be where the presidents office is ventilated by the same system as the conference room. The temperature to maintain is most likely the not same. Programming independent setpoints it will now be possible to control the two rooms to satisfy the different temperature requirements. The second setpoint is programmed in parameter 419 and is always programmed in the same units as Setpoint 1. When two setpoints are applied, it is necessary to program the VLT 6000 HVAC to select, which feedback to use as the basis for the control. This is done in parameter 417. If an offset is applied through programming a fixed internal reference or an external reference is applied, as described under Single Setpoint Control, this offset is applied equally to Setpoints 1 and 2, since the offset is applied after the drive has determined the setpoint to be used. Setpoint offset In many applications there is also a need to make a fixed selectable change to the setpoint, i.e. for night time/day time savings. With the VLT 6000 HVAC, this can be accomplished through switching between fixed references, which will offset the setpoint either up or down. These fixed references are programmed in parameters 211 through 214. The selection between these fixed references can be programmed on terminals 16, 17, 29, 32 or 33. For more detailed description of the selection, please refer to the parameter text in the back of this instruction. Another situation where an offset is required, is where a local adjustment of the setpoint is required, i.e. to fine-tune the temperature to the kind of work being done in a room. For this and other purposes an analogue signal can be connected to terminals 53, 54 or 60. Programming the input for 5HIHUHQFH is done in the same manner as programming inputs for IHHGEDFN. To be able to adjust the setpoint down with an external signal, it is also necessary to program at least one negative fixed reference. It is also possible to use pulses as references. This should only be used together with pulse 3

4 feedback. The maximum reference is programmed in parameter 327. The pulse signal can be connected to either terminal 17 or 29 and parameter 301 or 305 must be programmed for pulse reference. A reference can also be applied via serial communication to offset the setpoint. This is very useful, especially in large BMS systems, where a central scheduler is used to change setpoints for summer/winter compensation and night time/day time savings because it does not require special wiring if serial communication is already applied. The sum of the analogue, pulse and serial communication references can be readout in the display as ([WHUQDO5HIHUHQFH. Reference Handling In parameter 203 it can be programmed how the external and internal references should be handled. The VLT 6000 HVAC is default programmed to add the internal references to the sum of the external references. It is possible to add the sum of the internal references relatively to the external references or to switch between the sum of the external and the internal references. The reference sum will always be added to or subtracted from the setpoint. The resulting Reference can be readout in the display. For further detail on the options, please refer to the parameter description in the back of this instruction. A diagram showing the setpoint/ reference handling can be found in the back of this instruction. Reference Range The resulting reference is limited by the reference range, which is programmed in parameter 204 and 205 in the same unit as the feedback unit. Furthermore all references and setpoints are individually limited by the reference range. Preset references can however be plus/minus the reference range. 1RUPDORULQYHUVHFRQWURO The PID controller is intended to maintain a constant process value. This will usually be either a temperature, a pressure or a flow. If the feedback from the system does not match the setpoint the PID controller need to calculate a response to the difference. It therefore must be determined whether the speed of the pump or fan should be increased or decreased when the feedback is too high or too low. The default definition, as implemented in the VLT 6000 HVAC is, that the response to a high feedback signal is to decrease the speed. This is referred to as normal control (i.e. a pressure booster pump is required to decrease the speed, if the pressure is too high). If the application requires an increase in speed on a high feedback signal, the application require inverse control (i.e. if the temperature of the cooling tower is too high, the fan is required to increase the speed). In the VLT 6000 HVAC Inverse control can be programmed in parameter 420. $QWL:LQGXS In the VLT 6000 HVAC an Anti Windup function has been integrated. This function ensures that the Integrator does not continue integrating if it is not possible to increase or decrease the output frequency. It is activated whenever the current limit, voltage limit or minimum/maximum frequency limits are reached. If the speed is being ramped up or down too quickly, the drive will go into autoramp mode so that the drive does not trip. This would normally cause the integrator to try to produce a too high output. This output is now initialised to match the current output frequency. If the fan or pump cannot satisfy the system requirements, the drive will reach maximum frequency as programmed in parameter 202. Since the output of the drive cannot increase, the integrator would still try to increase or windup it s output. If this happens the drive would take a long time to decrease it s output frequency, when the process no longer needs the high frequency. With the anti windup the integrator output is initialised to the maximum frequency, when the maximum frequency has been reached and a higher output frequency has been calculated by the controller. When a pump is controlled down to the minimum frequency, as programmed in parameter 201, which can be tolerated by the design of the pump, without damaging the seals and bearings, the anti windup function initialises the integrator output to the minimum frequency programmed. 6WDUWLQJ)UHTXHQF\ In some applications the normal control is fairly slow, because of long time constants in the system. For these applications it will also take a long time before the control will make an impact on the system when it is started up. In order to make it possible to get a faster response on start-up, a starting frequency has been implemented to operate with the PID controller. The VLT 6000 HVAC will then ramp the speed up to this programmed starting frequency and then turn control over to the PID controller to satisfy the programmed setpoint. 4

5 W F PID Instruction 2SWLPLVLQJ3,DQG' How well the PID controller operates is dependant on how well the Proportional Gain, the Integral Time and the Differential Time have been programmed. A very crude way of doing the optimisation, which does not require any specific knowledge about the time constants in the system is shown below. 1. Start the frequency converter 2. Set parameter 424 Integration Time to zero 3. Start with a proportional gain of i.e. 0,3 in parameter 423 and increase the value, until the feedback signal oscillates constantly. 4. Reduce the value until the oscillation stops. 5. Carry out further reduction to approximately 50%. 6. Set the Integration time to 20 sec. In parameter 424 and reduce the value, until the feedback signal again oscillates constantly. 7. Increase the Integration Time by 25%. 8. If the Differentiation Time needs to be adjusted, parameter 425 can be set to 4 times the Integration time. In most HVAC applications a better control is achieved be disabling the differentiator. The above settings will in many HVAC applications give a reasonable control. If more accurate control is required, it is necessary to find the time constants and P, I and D can then be programmed in accordance with the laws of Ziegler-Nichols. The Unit-step response of the system needs to be determined. A change of setpoint is applied and the step response of the system is logged. The curve below show an example of a step response curve. 1 0,9 0,8 Tangent at inflection point K 1. The tangent to the midpoint of the S-slope is drawn. 2. It is then determined what the time is, where this tangent equals the full step response (K). 3. It is also determined where the tangent cross the time axis. The time from zero to where the tangent cross zero is referred to as the delay time L. The time from the delay time to where the tangent equals the full step response is referred to as the time constant T. In the above figure L and T are shown a long with the tangent. Although it is a PID controller, which is implemented in the VLT 6000 HVAC, it is possible to program it to operate as a pure P controller, a PI controller, which is what is found in most HVAC applications, and a full PID controller. Dependant on what kind of controller is selected, different programming need to be made. The table below shows how to program the parameters dependant on the kind of controller selected. Step response of the system has to be an S-shaped curve, for the following to apply. Control Type Proportiona l gain Par.423 P 7 / PI 09, 7 / PID 12, 7 / Integration time Par. 424 OFF Differentiation time Par. 425 OFF / OFF 03, 2 / 0,5 / In some applications improvements can still be achieved through some manual fine-tuning. This is however mainly done after the commissioning has been done, as experience is gained with the settings made. 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 7LPH 0 0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1 L T 5

6 3,'SURJUDPPLQJRYHUYLHZ The table below will give you a brief overview of the VLT 6000 HVAC parameters mentioned in this instruction and how they are applied. Inputs, which are %ROG and Underlined and,wdolf are different from the factory setting. 7%' means 7o %e 'etermined according to the application. The description of the parameter can be found on the following pages. Parameter 1 Setpoint 1 Setpoint 2 Setpoint Pulse Feedback 1 Feedback 2 Feedback 2 Feedback 100 Configuration &ORVHG/RRS &ORVHG/RRS &ORVHG/RRS &ORVHG/RRS 201 Output frequency low limit 202 Output frequency high limit 210 Reference Handling Sum Sum Sum Sum 204 Minimum Reference = Minimum = Minimum = Minimum = Minimum Feedback Feedback Feedback Feedback 205 Maximum Reference = Maximum = Maximum = Maximum = Maximum Feedback Feedback Feedback Feedback 211 Preset Reference Preset Reference Preset Reference Preset Reference Terminal 17 Digital Input Freeze Output Freeze Output Freeze Output 3XOVH5HIHUHQFH 305 Terminal 29 Digital Input Jog Jog Jog 3XOVH5HIHUHQFH 307 Terminal 33 Digital Input Reset Reset Reset 3XOVH)HHGEDFN 308 Terminal 53, Ana. Volt. In Reference )HHGEDFN )HHGEDFN Reference 309 Terminal 53, Min. Scaling Terminal 53, Max. Scaling Terminal 54, Ana. Volt. In No Operation )HHGEDFN )HHGEDFN No Operation 312 Terminal 54, Min. Scaling Terminal 54, Max. Scaling Terminal 60, Ana. Cur. In )HHGEDFN Reference Reference Reference 315 Terminal 60, Min. Scaling Terminal 60, Max. Scaling Live Zero Time Out Function after Time Out )UHH]H OFF OFF OFF 327 Pulse Reference, Max. Freq Pulse Feedback, Max. Freq Minimum Feedback 7%' 7%' 7%' Maximum Feedback 7%' 7%' 7%' Process Units No Unit No Unit No Unit Pulse/s 416 Feedback Conversion Linear Linear Linear Linear 417 Feedback Function Minimum Minimum ]RQH Minimum 0LQLPXP 418 Setpoint 1 7%' 7%' 7%' 7%' 419 Setpoint 2 0 7%' 7%' PID Normal/Inverse Control Normal Normal Normal Normal 421 PID Anti Windup ON ON ON ON 422 PID Start Frequency OFF OFF OFF OFF 423 PID Proportional Gain 7%' 7%' 7%' 7%' 424 PID Integration Time 7%' 7%' 7%' 7%' 425 PID Differentiation Time OFF OFF OFF [3 426 PID Differentiator Gain Lim PID Lowpass Filter Time 0,01 0,01 0,01 0, Busfeedback 1 Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only 538 Busfeedback 2 Read Only Read Only Read Only Read Only 6

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