1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category?

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1 DNA and Genetics 1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category? A. genome chromosome gene DNA molecule B. genome chromosome DNA molecule gene C. genome DNA molecule chromosome gene D. gene chromosome DNA molecule genome 2. During the process shown above, the two strands of one DNA molecule are unwound. Then, DNA polymerases add complementary nucleotides to each strand which results in the formation of two identical DNA molecules. This process is known as DNA. A. transcription B. cloning C. translation D. replication 3. Cells store genetic information in DNA. That genetic information is used to synthesize. A. proteins

2 B. carbohydrates C. polysaccharides D. genes 4. The process of DNA replication is biologically significant because it allows the cells of living organisms to A. convert solar energy into glucose. B. copy their DNA before cell division. C. break down glucose molecules for energy. D. synthesize proteins from mrna polymers.

3 5. Which of the following is true regarding the process shown above? The process shown above is known as replication and involves the production of DNA from RNA. A. B. The process shown above is known as cloning and involves the production of RNA from protein molecules. The process shown above is known as translation and involves the production of proteins from RNA. C. The process shown above is known as transcription and involves the production of proteins from DNA. D. 6. Which of the following is the term for one possible form of the gene for a particular trait? A. sex-linked trait B. autosomal trait C. codon D. allele

4 7. The picture below shows the process of transcription. During transcription, enzymes bind to a molecule of DNA. Then, the enzymes unwind and separate the DNA's double helical strands. As the molecule unwinds, complementary nucleotides pair with one of the DNA strands to form A. a protein molecule. B. an RNA molecule. C. a DNA polymerase. D. an identical strand of DNA. 8. The sequence of bases on one strand of a DNA molecule is ATTGCCCATG. What will be the sequence on the complementary strand? A. ATTGCCCATG B. GCCATTTGCA C. TAACGGGTAC D. CGGTAAACGT 9. After the process of occurs, each daughter cell receives an exact copy of the parent cell's DNA. A. DNA elongation B. DNA replication C. DNA transcription D. DNA translation 10. Which of the following cellular materials is solely composed of DNA and proteins? A. mitochondria B. Golgi complex C. ribosomes D. chromosomes

5 11. A diagram demonstrating the process of protein translation is shown below. The structure labeled with a question mark in the diagram represents A. a chloroplast. B. a ribosome. C. a vacuole. D. a mitochondrion.

6 12. During a stage of protein synthesis, codons in mrna molecules are used to specify the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chains. What is this process called? A. translation B. codification C. gene expression D. transcription 13. From the list below, select the items that are used during RNA translation. A. I, II, III, and IV B. III and IV only C. II, III, and IV only D. I, III, and IV only I. mrna II. trna III. ribosome IV. amino acid 14. DNA contains instructions for making the different molecules, such as proteins, that a cell needs to grow and function. To use these instructions, the DNA must first be into. A. transcribed; amino acids B. translated; amino acids C. translated; mrna D. transcribed, mrna

7 15. Integral membrane proteins, such as transport proteins, are permanently attached to cellular membranes. After integral membrane proteins are synthesized, which organelle would aid in transporting them to their final destination? A. endoplasmic reticulum B. mitochondrion C. plasma membrane D. chloroplast 16. The genetic information that is passed from a parent to its offspring is found in. A. DNA molecules B. hydrogen bonds C. carbon atoms D. amino acids

8 17. Proteins play a variety of roles within cells, but there are many steps that must be undertaken to make these proteins and deliver them to where they need to go. The above picture implies that organelles act independently when synthesizing and transporting proteins. A. no organelles are necessary for the synthesis and transportation of proteins. B. organelles must interact with each other to synthesize and transport proteins. C. only the organelles shown in the picture are important to cells. D. 18. The DNA sequences that make up the genetic code of an organism determine which traits the organism will exhibit. How are the instructions coded by DNA translated into an organism's physical traits? A. B. C. D. Instructions coded by DNA sequences are translated into nucleotides which express an organism's physical traits. DNA sequences that code for genetic instructions attach to phosphate groups that express an organism's physical traits. Instructions coded by DNA sequences are translated into proteins which express an organism's physical traits. DNA sequences both code genetic instructions within an organism and express an organism's physical traits. 19. The first step in the process of gene expression is transcription. What is the product of transcription during gene expression? A. a molecule of thymine B. a codon C. an RNA polymerase

9 D. a molecule of RNA 20. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in A. two double-stranded DNA molecules, each composed of one new and one old strand. B. one double-stranded DNA molecule composed only of entirely new strands. C. three double-stranded DNA molecules, each composed of sections of old and new strands. D. four double-stranded DNA molecules, each composed only of old strands of DNA. 21. What is a major difference between DNA replication and DNA transcription? A. DNA transcription only occurs in multicellular organisms, while DNA replication occurs in all organisms. B. C. RNA molecules produced by transcription are much shorter in length than DNA molecules produced by replication. DNA replication involves the nitrogenous base uracil, while DNA transcription involves the nitrogenous base thymine. D. DNA replication takes place in the nucleus, while DNA transcription takes place in the cytoplasm. 22. The DNA of a cell is organized into structures. What are these structures called? A. chromosomes B. vacuoles C. nuclei D. mitochondria

10 23. DNA replication results in two identical DNA molecules. What role do DNA helicases have in DNA replication? A. DNA helicases hold the two strands of the old DNA apart and prevent them from reuniting. B. DNA helicases break the hydrogen bonds in the DNA molecule. C. DNA helicases check the new DNA molecule for errors. D. DNA helicases add nucleotides to the exposed nitrogen bases of the old DNA. 24. Technology Enhanced Questions are not available in Word format. 25. Hemoglobin is a protein containing iron, which is involved with oxygen transport in the blood. In which organelle would this protein be sorted? A. mitochondrion B. nucleus C. lysosome D. Golgi apparatus 26. Which of the following molecules is the subunit of DNA that links together to form strands of DNA? A. a codon B. a nucleotide C. a polymerase D. a phosphate base 27. How are complementary strands of DNA held together? A. with hydrogen bonds connecting complementary bases B. with hydrogen bonds connecting complementary sugars C. with phosphodiester bonds connecting sugars and phosphate groups D. with ionic bonds between sugars and phosphate groups 28. Which of the following is a true statement about codons? A. A codon is a sequence of three amino acids. B. In translation, an mrna codon is recognized by its complementary trna. C. A codon is a sequence of four nitrogenous bases. D. In translation, an mrna codon is recognized by its complementary amino acid. 29. What is a gene?

11 A. a sex cell that aids in organism reproduction B. any single amino acid in a multicellular organism C. a set of instructions in the DNA sequence of an organism D. a characteristic of any organism 30. How is the nucleus involved in the production of enzymes? The nucleus receives the messenger RNA and is the site where enzymes are synthesized. A. The nucleus transcribes and releases messenger RNA signaling for the enzymes to be synthesized. B. The nucleus translates the ribosomal RNA for the enzymes to be synthesized in mitochondria. C. The nucleus is involved in the packaging and transportation of enzymes outside of the cell. D. Answers 1. B 2. D 3. A 4. B 5. C 6. D 7. B 8. C 9. B 10. D 11. B 12. A 13. A 14. D 15. A 16. A 17. C 18. C 19. D 20. A 21. B 22. A 23. B D 26. B 27. A 28. B 29. C 30. B Explanations

12 1. From the broadest category to the most specific category, genetic information is organized as follows: genome chromosome DNA molecule gene The genome of an organism refers to its complete genetic makeup and includes the organism's entire set of chromosomes. Chromosomes are single pieces of DNA, along with the proteins that package and control their functions. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a type of nucleic acid that carries all the instructions for the characteristics of an organism. Genes are specific segments of DNA that influence a particular trait or group of traits. 2. The process of DNA replication begins with one double-stranded molecule of DNA. The two strands of this molecule separate during replication, and DNA polymerases add complementary nucleotides to each strand. The end results of DNA replication are two identical DNA molecules. 3. The genetic information stored in cells is used to synthesize proteins. During protein synthesis, DNA is first replicated to form other copies of DNA. Then, it is transcribed to form strands of RNA. Finally, the RNA is translated into proteins which help the body to perform numerous functions. 4. The process of DNA replication begins with one double-stranded molecule of DNA. The two strands of this molecule separate during replication, and DNA polymerases add complementary nucleotides to each strand. The end results of DNA replication are two identical DNA molecules. The process of DNA replication allows the cells of living organisms to copy their DNA before cell division. 5. The process shown in the diagram is known as translation, and it involves the production of proteins from RNA. A codon is a series of three nucleotides that correspond to a specific amino acid. During the process of translation, a codon on an mrna molecule attaches to a ribosome. Then, the matching trna molecule (anticodon) carries the appropriate amino acid to the ribosome where it is linked to other amino acids via peptide bonds. Once an amino acid is attached, the ribosome slides to the next codon on the mrna molecule and repeats the process. The chain of amino acids continues to grow until the ribosome reaches a stop codon on the mrna strand. The stop codon signals that no more amino acids should be added, and the protein is complete. 6. An allele is one possible form of the gene for a particular trait in a given population. Humans have two alleles for each trait. These alleles can be dominant or recessive. Dominant alleles are always expressed in the phenotype (traits) of organisms that have either one or two copies of the allele. Recessive alleles are expressed only in organisms that have two copies of the recessive allele. 7. During transcription, enzymes bind to a molecule of DNA. Then, the enzymes unwind and separate the DNA's double helical strands. As the molecule unwinds, complementary RNA nucleotides temporarily pair with the nucleotides on one of the DNA strands to form an RNA molecule. Once base pairing is complete, the new RNA molecule (mrna) breaks away from the DNA strands, and the DNA strands reattach to each other. RNA is very similar to DNA, except RNA contains the nitrogenous base uracil (U) rather than thymine (T), which is present in DNA.

13 8. According to the base-pairings rules, adenine (A) always forms bonds with thymine (T), and cytosine (C) always forms bonds with guanine (G). 9. After the process of DNA replication occurs, each daughter cell receives an exact copy of the parent cell's DNA. During DNA replication, the parent cell's double-stranded DNA molecule separates into two single strands. Then, a new strand of DNA is made that corresponds to each old strand. This leaves two double-stranded DNA molecules, each with half of the original molecule. 10. While mitochondria contain genetic material, chromosomes are the only objects in a cell that are composed solely of DNA and proteins. Genetic information is stored in genes on the chromosomes, which, in turn, are located in a cell's nucleus. 11. Ribosomes are RNA and protein complexes that are found in all cells. These complexes help cells during protein translation by joining amino acids together to form polypeptides. 12. Cells use two different types of RNA to read the instructions on another RNA molecule and put together the amino acids that make up a protein. This process is known as translation. Translation takes place in the cytoplasm. 13. The key items involved in RNA translation are: mrna - a transcript of DNA which serves as instructions for polypeptide formation. amino acid - a single building block of a protein. trna - a molecule that carries a specific amino acid and recognizes its complementary base sequence on an mrna strand. ribosome - an organelle which serves as the "factory" where amino acids are added to a growing polypeptide chain. 14. DNA contains instructions for making the different molecules, such as proteins, that a cell needs to grow and function. To use these instructions, the DNA must first be transcribed into mrna. Then the mrna is translated into proteins.

14 15. The endoplasmic reticulum aids in the transportation of proteins, including integral membrane proteins. The Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum work closely together in the total process of modifying, packaging, and transporting proteins. 16. The genetic information that is passed from a parent to its offspring is found in DNA molecules. DNA contains genes, which, in turn, contain information such as hair color, eye color, and health factors. Genes code for the production of proteins that allow different traits to be expressed. 17. Organelles must interact with each other chemically and physically when carrying out an organism's life processes. For example, during protein synthesis: DNA is transcribed in the nucleus into mrna. The mrna travels into the cytoplasm, attaches to ribosomes, and is translated into a protein. The protein is pushed into the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) where it is stored for later use or packaged into vesicles. These vesicles can then be transported to the cell membrane and exported or to the Golgi apparatus where a more complex molecule may be formed. These complex molecules can then be repackaged into vesicles and transported to the cell membrane for export. 18. DNA is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions, or blueprint, of an organism's development and functioning. DNA sequences are copied into RNA during transcription, and then the RNA is copied into proteins during translation. Instructions coded by DNA sequences are translated into proteins which express an organism's physical traits. That is, the proteins determine the phenotype of an organism. 19. Transcription is the process of forming a nucleic acid by using another molecule as a template. The first step of gene expression is the transcription of a gene to form a molecule of RNA. 20. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in two double-stranded DNA molecules, each composed of one new and one old strand. This is known as semi-conservative replication, and the process is shown below. 21. In DNA transcription, only a segment of DNA is copied, or "transcribed," to a complementary strand of messenger RNA. In DNA replication, the entire length of the DNA molecule is copied so that it can be passed to a new cell.

15 22. In simple cells like bacteria, DNA exists as a long molecule. But in more complex cells, the DNA exists in numerous different segments. These segments of DNA, along with their associated proteins, form compact structures called chromosomes. Genetic information is stored in genes on the chromosomes, which, in turn, are located in a cell's nucleus. 23. In DNA replication, first DNA helicases break down the hydrogen bonds that link the complementary nitrogen bases between the old DNA molecules two strands. Proteins hold the two strands of the old DNA apart and prevent them from reuniting while DNA polymerases add nucleotides to the exposed nitrogen bases of the old DNA and check the new DNA molecule for errors The Golgi apparatus is involved in the sorting of proteins. The Golgi apparatus also plays a significant role in modifying and packaging other macromolecules in the cell. 26. The subunits of DNA are called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is made of a phosphate group, deoxyribose, and a nitrogen base. The only portion of the nucleotide that can vary is the nitrogen base. 27. Complementary DNA strands are held together with hydrogen bonds connecting complementary nitrogenous bases. Adenine binds with thymine, and cytosine binds with guanine. 28. Transfer RNA (trna) is a molecule that carries a specific amino acid and recognizes its complementary base sequence on an mrna strand. 29. A gene is a set of instructions in the DNA sequence of an organism. Genes are located in the chromosomes of each cell and specify the sequence of amino acids in an organism's polypeptides. Most organisms have two genes for each trait, one on each of the homologous chromosomes in a cell's nucleus. 30. The nucleus serves as the control center for the cell. It houses the DNA, which contains the directions for making all of the proteins needed for life functions. The nucleus transcribes messenger RNA from DNA and releases it, signaling for the enzymes to be synthesized.

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